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1.
iScience ; : 105717, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2131226

ABSTRACT

To investigate Long COVID Syndrome (LCS) pathophysiology, we performed an exploratory study with blood plasma derived from three groups: 1) healthy vaccinated individuals without SARS-CoV-2 exposure;2) asymptomatic recovered patients at least three months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and;3) symptomatic patients at least 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection with chronic fatigue syndrome or similar symptoms, here designated as Long COVID Syndrome (LCS) patients. Multiplex cytokine profiling indicated slightly elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in recovered individuals in contrast to LCS patients. Plasma proteomics demonstrated low levels of acute phase proteins and macrophage-derived secreted proteins in LCS. High levels of anti-inflammatory oxylipins including omega-3 fatty acids in LCS were detected by eicosadomics, whereas targeted metabolic profiling indicated high levels of anti-inflammatory osmolytes taurine and hypaphorine, but low amino acid and triglyceride levels and deregulated acylcarnithines. A model considering alternatively polarized macrophages as a major contributor for these molecular alterations is presented.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0140221, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702414

ABSTRACT

Various commercial anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests are used for studies and in clinical settings after vaccination. An international standard for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies has been established to achieve comparability of such tests, allowing conversions to BAU/mL. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of antibody tests regarding the timing of blood collection after vaccination. For this prospective observational study, antibody levels of 50 participants with homologous AZD1222 vaccination were evaluated at 3 and 11 weeks after the first dose and 3 weeks after the second dose using two commercial anti-Spike binding antibody assays (Roche and Abbott) and a surrogate neutralization assay. The correlation between Roche and Abbott changed significantly depending on the time point studied. Although Abbott provided values three times higher than Roche 3 weeks after the first dose, the values for Roche were twice as high as for Abbott 11 weeks after the first dose and 5 to 6 times higher at 3 weeks after the second dose. The comparability of quantitative anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests was highly dependent on the timing of blood collection after vaccination. Therefore, standardization of the timing of blood collection might be necessary for the comparability of different quantitative SARS-COV-2 antibody assays. IMPORTANCE This work showed that the comparability of apparently standardized SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays (Roche, Abbott; both given in BAU/mL) after vaccination depends on the time of blood withdrawal. Initially (3 weeks after the first dose AZD1222), there were 3 times higher values in the Abbott assay, but this relationship inversed before boosting (11 weeks after the first dose) with Roche 2 times greater than Abbott. After the booster, Roche quantified ca. 5 times higher levels than Abbott. This must be considered by clinicians when interpreting SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/trends , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Vaccination/standards
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 651484, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430688

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the specific cytokine profile in peripheral blood during the early onset of COVID-19 infection. This was a cross-sectional exploratory, single center study. A total of 55 plasma samples were studied. Serum samples of adults showing symptoms of COVID-19 infection who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (CoV+, n=18) at the COVID-19 outpatient clinic of the Medical University of Vienna were screened for immune activation markers by Luminex technology. Additionally, age and gender-matched serum samples of patients displaying COVID-19 associated symptoms, but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-, n=16) as well as healthy controls (HC, n=21) were analyzed. COVID-19 positive (CoV+) patients showed a specific upregulation of BLC (141; 74-189 pg/mL), SCD30 (273; 207-576 pg/mL), MCP-2 (18; 12-30 pg/mL) and IP-10 (37; 23-96 pg/mL), compared to patients with COVID19-like symptoms but negative PCR test (CoV-), BLC (61; 22-100 pg/mL), sCD30L (161; 120-210 pg/mL), MCP-2 (8; 5-12 pg/mL) and IP-10 (9; 6-12 pg/mL) and healthy controls (HC) (BLC 22; 11-36 pg/mL, sCD30 74; 39-108 pg/mL, MCP-2 6; 3-9. pg/mL, IP-10 = 8; 5-13). The markers APRIL, sIL-2R, IL7, MIF, MIP-1b, SCF, SDF-1a, sTNF-RII were elevated in both CoV+ and CoV- patient groups compared to healthy controls. HGF, MDC and VEGF-A were elevated in CoV- but not CoV+ compared to healthy controls. BLC, sCD30, MCP-2 and IP-10 are specifically induced during early stages of COVID-19 infection and might constitute attractive targets for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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