Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 42
Filter
1.
Journal of Long-Term Care ; 2021:33-42, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876491

ABSTRACT

Context: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights limitations of long-term care (LTC) systems in Europe, which continue to be divided between health and social care, and between formal and informal care. Objective: This article focuses on Austria’s LTC sector and its critical features that became visible during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The analysis was carried out via desk-research, which covered literature, on-going qualitative analysis of media coverage, and statements and reports by interest organisations and governmental agencies between March and August 2020. Where necessary, useful and feasible, update information on ensuing developments until the end of 2020 was added during a final revision. Findings: In Austria, the number of cases as well as the number and share of deaths in care homes were lower than in other countries until August 2020. Yet, the crisis brought several idiosyncrasies to the fore, most prominently a lack of support for informal caregivers and lack of acknowledgements of the rights of live-in personal (migrant) carers. We find that the COVID-19 crisis has shed light on the fact that existing inequalities are being aggravated by gender and migration issues. Implications: (i) The crisis highlights the need for better communication, integrated care and health information flows between health and social care;(ii) Clear guidelines are required to balance older peo-ple’s right to self-determination versus (public) health concerns;(iii) Increasing reliance on migrant carers from Eastern Europe has led to a dualisation of the LTC labour market in the past decades, which needs to be countered by increased quality standards and endeavours to fundamentally change the employment situation of live-in carers;(iv) Informal carers are vulnerable groups that deserve special attention and call for expansion of community services in long-term care. © 2021 The Author(s).

2.
5.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816924

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with thoracic malignancies are susceptible to severe outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the disruption to care of patients with thoracic malignancies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The COVID-19 and Cancer Outcomes Study (CCOS) is a multicenter prospective cohort study comprised of adult patients with a current or past history of hematological malignancy or invasive solid tumor who had an outpatient medical oncology visit on the index week between March 2 and March 6, 2020 at the Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, NY (MSSM) or the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, MA (DFCI). An electronic data capture platform was used to collect patient-, cancer-, and treatment-related variables during the three months prior to the index week (the baseline period) and the following three months (the pandemic period). Two-by-three contingency tables with Fisher's exact tests were computed. All tests were two-tailed and considered statistically significant for p<0.05. All analyses were done in the R statistical environment (v3.6.1). Results: The overall cohort included 2365 patients, of which 313 had thoracic malignancies, 1578 had other solid tumors, and 474 had hematological malignancies. At a median follow-up of 84 days (95% confidence interval, 82-84), 13 patients with thoracic malignancies (4.1%) had developed COVID-19 (vs. other solid: 63 [4.0%] and hematological: 52 [11.0%];p<0.001). When comparing data from the pandemic period to the baseline period, patients with thoracic malignancies had a decrease in the number of in-person outpatient visits (thoracic: 209 [66.8%] vs. other solid: 749 [47.5%] vs. hematological: 260 [54.9%];p<0.001) and an increase in the number of telehealth visits (thoracic: 126 [40.3%] vs. other solid: 465 [29.5%] vs. hematological: 168 [35.4%];p<0.001). During the pandemic period, 33 (10.5%) patients with thoracic malignancies experienced treatment delays due to the pandemic (vs. other solid: 127 [8.0%] and hematological: 79 [16.7%];p<0.001), and 26 (8.3%) patients with thoracic malignancies experienced delays in cancer imaging or diagnostic procedures (vs. other solid: 63 [4.0%] and hematological: 26 [5.5%];p=0.003). Discussion: In this prospective cohort study, patients with thoracic malignancies were not at increased risk of developing COVID-19 compared to patients with other cancers, but experienced significant cancer care disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic with a higher likelihood of decreased in-person visits and increased telehealth visits compared to patients with other malignancies. Focused efforts to ensure continuity of care for this vulnerable patient population are warranted.

6.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333803

ABSTRACT

Global deployment of vaccines that can provide protection across several age groups is still urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic especially for low- and middle-income countries. While vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 based on mRNA and adenoviral-vector technologies have been rapidly developed, additional practical and scalable SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are needed to meet global demand. In this context, protein subunit vaccines formulated with appropriate adjuvants represent a promising approach to address this urgent need. Receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a key target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) but is poorly immunogenic. We therefore compared pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists, including those activating STING, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9, alone or formulated with aluminum hydroxide (AH), and benchmarked them to AS01B and AS03-like emulsion-based adjuvants for their potential to enhance RBD immunogenicity in young and aged mice. We found that the AH and CpG adjuvant formulation (AH:CpG) demonstrated the highest enhancement of anti-RBD neutralizing Ab titers in both age groups (~80-fold over AH), and protected aged mice from the SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, AH:CpG-adjuvanted RBD vaccine elicited neutralizing Abs against both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.351 variant at serum concentrations comparable to those induced by the authorized mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. AH:CpG induced similar cytokine and chemokine gene enrichment patterns in the draining lymph nodes of both young adult and aged mice and synergistically enhanced cytokine and chemokine production in human young adult and elderly mononuclear cells. These data support further development of AH:CpG-adjuvanted RBD as an affordable vaccine that may be effective across multiple age groups. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Alum and CpG enhance SARS-CoV-2 RBD protective immunity, variant neutralization in aged mice and Th1-polarizing cytokine production by human elder leukocytes.

7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(6 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779696

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a significant disruption in healthcare services including cancer screening and diagnosis. Delays in cancer screening and treatment may lead to increased mortality. We aimed to analyze changes in screening, diagnosis and surgical treatment of common GU malignancies in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We evaluated screening, novel diagnoses, and surgical management modalities of prostate cancer (PCa), urothelial carcinoma (UC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) within Massachusetts General Brigham, the largest healthcare system in the Northeastern United States, over four 3-month time periods during the pandemic (March 2020- March 2021). The percentage change in screening, diagnoses and management modalities during pandemic periods as compared to the immediate pre-pandemic period (December 2019-March 2020) was calculated as (Nperiod - Ncontrol)/Ncontrol. The difference in "predicted" versus "observed" diagnoses in each pandemic period was compared to the average of the four preceding 3-month periods (March 2019-March 2020) to account for seasonal variation. Results: The first pandemic peak (March-June 2020) was associated with a significant decline across screening, diagnosis and treatment, ranging from -15.7 to -64.8%, followed by a progressive recovery, ranging from -5.9 to +25.1% in the latest period (December 2020-March 2021) (Table). Although 725 diagnoses were "missed" between March and June 2020 as compared to the previous 12 months, 971 diagnoses were "recovered" between June 2020 and March 2021. Conclusions: A substantial disruption in the screening, diagnosis and treatment of GU malignancies was observed early in the pandemic, followed by a progressive rebound and recovery. The highest declines were observed for PSA screening, and the lowest for cystectomy procedures, reflecting triaging of care based on severity during the pandemic.

8.
Non-conventional in English | NTIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-753749

ABSTRACT

In Year Three of the funded grant, we have substantial progress in the following critical areas: 1). As noted in the project narrative, we generated four different lines of mice to directly test the hypothesis that RAGE and DIAPH1 contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated nephropathy in the podocytes and/or in myeloid cells/macrophages. All of the mouse lines are now generated and largely completed (mice sacrificed) and samples being evaluation by Dr DAgati. There are no new pending mice to generate all are generated and on time course. 2). We have determined that the small molecule RAGE/DIAPH1 antagonist is best administered orally and that the RAGE antagonist survives the medicated chow pelleting, heating and irradiation. Our first data on treated vs. untreated male and female diabetic mice illustrates reduction in mesangial sclerosis, reduced thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and reduction in podocyte effacement in diabetic mice receiving RAGE229 medicated chow (vs vehicle). Additional mice are on study and time course at this time to complete the indicated enrollment.3). For transcriptomics and metabolomics/lipidomics assay, Dr. Ramasamy will be testing the macrophages from the mice through the time course and he has verified all of his experimental systems for the performance of the outlined studies. Dr. Ramasamy identifies substantial progress in the development and validation of metabolomics and lipidomics assays here at NYU and in transcriptomic data (all on macrophages) in order to understand detailed mechanisms of the role of these molecules in the diabetic kidney. Taken together, despite the >3 month shutdown due to COVID19 our work in Year 3 has been productive and we await tissue and other analyses, as above, to render final conclusions.

9.
Degenhardt, F.; Ellinghaus, D.; Juzenas, S.; Lerga-Jaso, J.; Wendorff, M.; Maya-Miles, D.; Uellendahl-Werth, F.; ElAbd, H.; Rühlemann, M. C.; Arora, J.; Özer, O.; Lenning, O. B.; Myhre, R.; Vadla, M. S.; Wacker, E. M.; Wienbrandt, L.; Ortiz, A. B.; de Salazar, A.; Chercoles, A. G.; Palom, A.; Ruiz, A.; Garcia-Fernandez, A. E.; Blanco-Grau, A.; Mantovani, A.; Zanella, A.; Holten, A. R.; Mayer, A.; Bandera, A.; Cherubini, A.; Protti, A.; Aghemo, A.; Gerussi, A.; Ramirez, A.; Braun, A.; Nebel, A.; Barreira, A.; Lleo, A.; Teles, A.; Kildal, A. B.; Biondi, A.; Caballero-Garralda, A.; Ganna, A.; Gori, A.; Glück, A.; Lind, A.; Tanck, A.; Hinney, A.; Nolla, A. C.; Fracanzani, A. L.; Peschuck, A.; Cavallero, A.; Dyrhol-Riise, A. M.; Ruello, A.; Julià, A.; Muscatello, A.; Pesenti, A.; Voza, A.; Rando-Segura, A.; Solier, A.; Schmidt, A.; Cortes, B.; Mateos, B.; Nafria-Jimenez, B.; Schaefer, B.; Jensen, B.; Bellinghausen, C.; Maj, C.; Ferrando, C.; de la Horra, C.; Quereda, C.; Skurk, C.; Thibeault, C.; Scollo, C.; Herr, C.; Spinner, C. D.; Gassner, C.; Lange, C.; Hu, C.; Paccapelo, C.; Lehmann, C.; Angelini, C.; Cappadona, C.; Azuure, C.; Bianco, C.; Cea, C.; Sancho, C.; Hoff, D. A. L.; Galimberti, D.; Prati, D.; Haschka, D.; Jiménez, D.; Pestaña, D.; Toapanta, D.; Muñiz-Diaz, E.; Azzolini, E.; Sandoval, E.; Binatti, E.; Scarpini, E.; Helbig, E. T.; Casalone, E.; Urrechaga, E.; Paraboschi, E. M.; Pontali, E.; Reverter, E.; Calderón, E. J.; Navas, E.; Solligård, E.; Contro, E.; Arana-Arri, E.; Aziz, F.; Garcia, F.; Sánchez, F. G.; Ceriotti, F.; Martinelli-Boneschi, F.; Peyvandi, F.; Kurth, F.; Blasi, F.; Malvestiti, F.; Medrano, F. J.; Mesonero, F.; Rodriguez-Frias, F.; Hanses, F.; Müller, F.; Hemmrich-Stanisak, G.; Bellani, G.; Grasselli, G.; Pezzoli, G.; Costantino, G.; Albano, G.; Cardamone, G.; Bellelli, G.; Citerio, G.; Foti, G.; Lamorte, G.; Matullo, G.; Baselli, G.; Kurihara, H.; Neb, H.; My, I.; Kurth, I.; Hernández, I.; Pink, I.; de Rojas, I.; Galván-Femenia, I.; Holter, J. C.; Afset, J. E.; Heyckendorf, J.; Kässens, J.; Damås, J. K.; Rybniker, J.; Altmüller, J.; Ampuero, J.; Martín, J.; Erdmann, J.; Banales, J. M.; Badia, J. R.; Dopazo, J.; Schneider, J.; Bergan, J.; Barretina, J.; Walter, J.; Quero, J. H.; Goikoetxea, J.; Delgado, J.; Guerrero, J. M.; Fazaal, J.; Kraft, J.; Schröder, J.; Risnes, K.; Banasik, K.; Müller, K. E.; Gaede, K. I.; Garcia-Etxebarria, K.; Tonby, K.; Heggelund, L.; Izquierdo-Sanchez, L.; Bettini, L. R.; Sumoy, L.; Sander, L. E.; Lippert, L. J.; Terranova, L.; Nkambule, L.; Knopp, L.; Gustad, L. T.; Garbarino, L.; Santoro, L.; Téllez, L.; Roade, L.; Ostadreza, M.; Intxausti, M.; Kogevinas, M.; Riveiro-Barciela, M.; Berger, M. M.; Schaefer, M.; Niemi, M. E. K.; Gutiérrez-Stampa, M. A.; Carrabba, M.; Figuera Basso, M. E.; Valsecchi, M. G.; Hernandez-Tejero, M.; Vehreschild, M. J. G. T.; Manunta, M.; Acosta-Herrera, M.; D'Angiò, M.; Baldini, M.; Cazzaniga, M.; Grimsrud, M. M.; Cornberg, M.; Nöthen, M. M.; Marquié, M.; Castoldi, M.; Cordioli, M.; Cecconi, M.; D'Amato, M.; Augustin, M.; Tomasi, M.; Boada, M.; Dreher, M.; Seilmaier, M. J.; Joannidis, M.; Wittig, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Ciccarelli, M.; Rodríguez-Gandía, M.; Bocciolone, M.; Miozzo, M.; Ayo, N. I.; Blay, N.; Chueca, N.; Montano, N.; Braun, N.; Ludwig, N.; Marx, N.; Martínez, N.; Cornely, O. A.; Witzke, O.; Palmieri, O.; Faverio, P.; Preatoni, P.; Bonfanti, P.; Omodei, P.; Tentorio, P.; Castro, P.; Rodrigues, P. M.; España, P. P.; Hoffmann, P.; Rosenstiel, P.; Schommers, P.; Suwalski, P.; de Pablo, R.; Ferrer, R.; Bals, R.; Gualtierotti, R.; Gallego-Durán, R.; Nieto, R.; Carpani, R.; Morilla, R.; Badalamenti, S.; Haider, S.; Ciesek, S.; May, S.; Bombace, S.; Marsal, S.; Pigazzini, S.; Klein, S.; Pelusi, S.; Wilfling, S.; Bosari, S.; Volland, S.; Brunak, S.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Schreiber, S.; Heilmann-Heimbach, S.; Aliberti, S.; Ripke, S.; Dudman, S.; Wesse, T.; Zheng, T.; Bahmer, T.; Eggermann, T.; Illig, T.; Brenner, T.; Pumarola, T.; Feldt, T.; Folseraas, T.; Cejudo, T. G.; Landmesser, U.; Protzer, U.; Hehr, U.; Rimoldi, V.; Monzani, V.; Skogen, V.; Keitel, V.; Kopfnagel, V.; Friaza, V.; Andrade, V.; Moreno, V.; Albrecht, W.; Peter, W.; Poller, W.; Farre, X.; Yi, X.; Wang, X.; Khodamoradi, Y.; Karadeniz, Z.; Latiano, A.; Goerg, S.; Bacher, P.; Koehler, P.; Tran, F.; Zoller, H.; Schulte, E. C.; Heidecker, B.; Ludwig, K. U.; Fernández, J.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Albillos, A.; Invernizzi, P.; Buti, M.; Duga, S.; Bujanda, L.; Hov, J. R.; Lenz, T. L.; Asselta, R.; de Cid, R.; Valenti, L.; Karlsen, T. H.; Cáceres, M.; Franke, A..
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330452

ABSTRACT

Given the highly variable clinical phenotype of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deeper analysis of the host genetic contribution to severe COVID-19 is important to improve our understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we describe an extended GWAS meta-analysis of a well-characterized cohort of 3,260 COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure and 12,483 population controls from Italy, Spain, Norway and Germany/Austria, including stratified analyses based on age, sex and disease severity, as well as targeted analyses of chromosome Y haplotypes, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and the SARS-CoV-2 peptidome. By inversion imputation, we traced a reported association at 17q21.31 to a highly pleiotropic ~0.9-Mb inversion polymorphism and characterized the potential effects of the inversion in detail. Our data, together with the 5th release of summary statistics from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative, also identified a new locus at 19q13.33, including NAPSA, a gene which is expressed primarily in alveolar cells responsible for gas exchange in the lung.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320913

ABSTRACT

Background: The Sars-CoV-2 pandemic exacerbates existing inequalities across health care systems globally, both within countries and between countries. It also highlights, like no other crisis before, existing weaknesses in health information systems (HIS). This article summarizes these key challenges for HIS in times of a pandemic and beyond, with a focus on European countries. It builds on the experiences of a large consortium representing HIS experts in key positions in national public health or similar institutes across Europe. Methods: Data were collected in bi-weekly conference calls organized by the InfAct project between February and June 2020. Emerging themes were clustered and analysed around a WHO framework for health information systems (HIS). We analyse strengths of HIS at two levels: (i) dealing with health information directly, and (ii) dealing with other parts of information systems that allow for a holistic assessment of the pandemic (including health-related aspects). Results: The analysis highlights the need for capacity-building in HIS before a pandemic hits, the relevance of going beyond health information only related to health care but taking a broader perspective (e.g. on vulnerable groups), the need for strong reporting systems on staffing numbers and in primary care. Further, data linkage emerges as a crucial precondition to identify unmet needs for essential health care services in a timely manner. Finally, room for innovation and digitalisation is key to be able to react flexibly in times of crisis. Trust for health information stakeholders is another important factor to create strong HIS. Conclusions: The strengths and shortcomings of European HIS that have been observed during the COVID-19 crisis highlight the need for strong HIS beyond the crisis. The experiences reported leave as a central message that successful reactions to the pandemic are (also) grounded in strong HIS that ultimately not only benefit the health of the population but also create a number of economic and psycho-social benefits. Strong data reporting schemes may also support fine-tuning of containment measures during a pandemic as well as transition phases.

11.
Urban Book Series ; : 249-265, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1627247

ABSTRACT

The response capacity to the pandemic in cities relates to pre-existing spatialized and socioeconomic inequalities. This is the case for vulnerable areas in major cities in Latin America, where access to water and sanitation services is often precarious;while China’s densely populated coastal cities achieved lower contagion rates thanks to strict lockdown measures. The role of better sanitation systems cannot be understated. The analysis in this chapter employs a regression model with key elements that contribute to urban inequalities: investment in sanitary infrastructure and access to water;differentials in socioeconomic indicators such as literacy rate and income inequality;and policies to prevent contagion. We argue that not only are fast containment strategies important, but long-term investment in access to sanitation also helps build resilient cities and puts them in a better position to fight new pandemics. This study points out the importance of considering a multilevel approach in designing public policies to prepare for pandemics and build urban resilience, considering inequalities, education, healthcare, access to water and sanitation, and urban and regional mobility. First, we give an overview of localized aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic in China and Brazil, followed by a description of the methodology and an analysis of our findings and results. The last section discusses policy implications for each country. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1610430
14.
Ann Oncol ; 33(3): 340-346, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an important preventive health measure to protect against symptomatic and severe COVID-19. Impaired immunity secondary to an underlying malignancy or recent receipt of antineoplastic systemic therapies can result in less robust antibody titers following vaccination and possible risk of breakthrough infection. As clinical trials evaluating COVID-19 vaccines largely excluded patients with a history of cancer and those on active immunosuppression (including chemotherapy), limited evidence is available to inform the clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination across the spectrum of patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe the clinical features of patients with cancer who developed symptomatic COVID-19 following vaccination and compare weighted outcomes with those of contemporary unvaccinated patients, after adjustment for confounders, using data from the multi-institutional COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19). RESULTS: Patients with cancer who develop COVID-19 following vaccination have substantial comorbidities and can present with severe and even lethal infection. Patients harboring hematologic malignancies are over-represented among vaccinated patients with cancer who develop symptomatic COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination against COVID-19 remains an essential strategy in protecting vulnerable populations, including patients with cancer. Patients with cancer who develop breakthrough infection despite full vaccination, however, remain at risk of severe outcomes. A multilayered public health mitigation approach that includes vaccination of close contacts, boosters, social distancing, and mask-wearing should be continued for the foreseeable future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Bmj Leader ; : 3, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1583028

ABSTRACT

Background This brief paper provides an overview of the analysis in support of mandating COVID-19 vaccinations for all workers in health and aged care settings in Australia. Leaders of health and aged care organisations have a duty of care under work health and safety legislation to eliminate and/or control the risk of transmission of vaccine-preventable disease in their facilities, including COVID-19. Methods Key issues that should be considered by healthcare leaders when mandating that all health and aged care workers be vaccinated against COVID-19 were analysed by executives from a large Australian national health and aged care provider and discussed in this paper. Results This paper summarises the medical/scientific, ethical, legal, work health and safety, workers' compensation and industrial relations considerations when mandating COVID-19 vaccination for healthcare workers. Conclusion Leaders of health and aged care organisations must provide a safe environment and workplace for all those who work for them, as well as for those who receive care or treatment at one of their facilities. It is hoped that this paper will assist leaders of healthcare organisations in making their own decisions during this time.

16.
Blood ; 138:3887, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582301

ABSTRACT

Introduction: World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) promotes global collaboration for the benefit of stem cell donors and transplant patients. WMDA activities include recording the number of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donations globally. Because the COVID-19 pandemic also has an impact on the treatment of patients with other diseases, we hypothesise that it also impacted the practice of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We used the 2020 WMDA data to examine the trends in unrelated HSC donations during the COVID-19 pandemic globally, per continent and per country/region. Methods: Donor registries (DRs) and cord blood banks (CBBs) from 61 countries participated in the 2020 survey, compared to 59 countries in the 2019. Slight differences in participation between the data sets of 2019 and 2020 do not explain the trends we observe in HSC donations. Country/region-specific COVID-19 data on cases and deaths were obtained from the data repository operated by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering(https://github.com/CSSEGISandData/COVID-19, accessed July 12, 2021);and population data were retrieved from the Worldometer website(https://www.worldometers.info/, accessed July 12, 2021). Results: HSC donations from unrelated donors (peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and bone marrow (BM)) decreased from 20,330 in 2019 to 19,623 in 2020 (-3.5%), compared to an average annual growth rate of 3.9% from 2015 to 2019 (figure 1). The 3.5% decrease is composed of a 29.0% decrease for BM and a 2.6% increase for PBSC, resulting in a drop in the BM share of unrelated HSC donations from 19.3% in 2019 to 14.2% in 2020. The number of cord blood unit (CBU) shipments globally decreased with 3.5% from 2,851 to 2,750. The percentage of national use of HSC products (PBSC and BM) increased from 51.2% to 53.5%. When considering the continent on which the patient is transplanted (table 1), the change rate of use of HSC donated products in 2020 vs. 2019 ranged from -28.0% in South America to +18.2% in Africa. In absolute numbers, the largest decrease of HSC donations occurred for patients in Asia (n=-485) followed by Europe (n=-205), and the largest increase occurred in North America (n=+88) followed by Oceania (n=+25). The share of HSC donations requiring intercontinental transport decreased from 24.6% in 2019 to 21.9% in 2020. In terms of the country/region of transplant (table 2), the largest percentage decrease occurred in Colombia (-90,5%) followed by Russia (-55,5%). In absolute numbers, the largest decrease occurred in Turkey (-147), with Japan following (-128, although Japan saw an increase of CBU use of +106). The highest growth rate was observed in Iran (+28,7%), followed by South Africa (+28,2%). In absolute figures, the greatest increase occurred in Italy (+67). The two countries receiving the largest HSC donation numbers showed no major changes versus the previous year: USA: +0.6% (although a decrease for CBU of -21,0% was observed) and Germany: -2.4%. We did not find any significant correlation between the numbers of COVID-19 cases or COVID-19-related deaths per 1 million inhabitants with the HSC donation numbers (Spearman's r=0.05 for cases and =0.08 for deaths). Discussion: The decline in the number of unrelated HSC donations in 2020 suggests an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HSC donation and unrelated HSCT. The significant decrease in BM collections and intercontinental/cross-border shipments can be explained by logistically complex processes, as well the increased risk to the donor of being exposed to an operative procedure. CBU as a stem cell source potentially circumvents these logistical complications. However, on a global scale our data does not show increased use of CBU suggesting that decisions to use CBU as a stem cell source did not change in the pandemic. We were unable to demonstrate a correlation between country/region-specific severity of the pandemic and HSC donation numbers. We suspect this is due to the data quality of reported number of COVID-1 cases and COVID-19-related deaths. Also, we did not gather monthly data and therefore could not specify pandemic waves. In conclusion, we would like to point out the fact that global exchanges of HSC products continued and only decreased slightly is an extraordinary achievement of DRs, CBBs and their donors and is a testament to the importance of international collaborations in the WMDA. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Devine: Orca Bio: Consultancy, Research Funding;Johnsonand Johnson: Consultancy, Research Funding;Sanofi: Consultancy, Research Funding;Magenta Therapeutics: Current Employment, Research Funding;Tmunity: Current Employment, Research Funding;Vor Bio: Research Funding;Kiadis: Consultancy, Research Funding;Be the Match: Current Employment. Shaw: Orca bio: Consultancy;mallinkrodt: Other: payments. Forman: Mustang Bio: Consultancy, Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Lixte Biotechnology: Consultancy, Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Allogene: Consultancy.

17.
Science Immunology ; 6(64):12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1535511

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across 0-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common I3-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.

18.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293140

ABSTRACT

Memory B cell reserves can generate protective antibodies against repeated SARS-CoV-2 infections, but with an unknown reach from original infection to antigenically drifted variants. We charted memory B cell receptor-encoded monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 19 COVID-19 convalescent subjects against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and found 7 major mAb competition groups against epitopes recurrently targeted across individuals. Inclusion of published and newly determined structures of mAb-S complexes identified corresponding epitopic regions. Group assignment correlated with cross-CoV-reactivity breadth, neutralization potency, and convergent antibody signatures. mAbs that competed for binding the original S isolate bound differentially to S variants, suggesting the protective importance of otherwise-redundant recognition. The results furnish a global atlas of the S-specific memory B cell repertoire and illustrate properties conferring robustness against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL