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1.
Circulation ; 145(15):1123-1139, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1781768

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19–associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. Methods: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19–associated AM. Results: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19–associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47;P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). Conclusions: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.

2.
Circulation ; 145(15): 1123-1139, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. RESULTS: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47; P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309702

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a heavy burden in terms of health care resources. Future decision-making policies require consistent data on the management and prognosis of the older patients (>70 years old) with COVID-19 admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU).Methods: Characteristics, management, and prognosis of critically-ill old patients (>70 years) were extracted from the international prospective COVID-ICU database. A propensity score weighted-comparison evaluated the impact of intubation upon admission on Day-90 mortality.Findings: The analysis included 1,199 (28% of the COVID-ICU cohort) patients (median [interquartile] age 74 [72 – 78] years). Fifty-three percent, 31%, and 16% were 70-74, 75-79, and over 80 years old, respectively. The most frequent comorbidities were chronic hypertension (62%), diabetes (30%), and chronic respiratory disease (25%). Median Clinical Frailty Scale was 3 (2-3). Upon admission, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 154 (105 – 222). 740 (62%) patients were intubated on Day-1 and eventually 938 (78%) during their ICU stay. Overall Day-90 mortality was 46% and reached 67% among the 193 patients over 80 years old. Mortality was higher in older patients, diabetics, and those with a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio upon admission, cardiovascular dysfunction, and a shorter time between first symptoms and ICU admission. In propensity analysis, early intubation at ICU admission was associated with a significantly higher Day-90 mortality (42% vs 28%;Hazard Ratio 1·68;95% CI, 1·24 – 2·27;p<0·001).Interpretation: Patients over 70 years old represented more than a quarter of the COVID-19 population admitted in the participating ICUs during the first wave. Day-90 mortality was 46%, with dismal outcomes reported for patients older than 80 years or those intubated upon ICU admission.Funding Statement: This study was funded by the Fondation AP-HP and the Direction de la Recherche Clinique et du Developpement and the French Ministry of Health. The REVA network received a 75 000 € research grant from Air Liquide Healthcare.Declaration of Interests: Dr Schmidt reported personal fees from Getinge, Drager, and Xenios, outside the submitted work. Dr Demoule reports personal fees from Medtronic, grants, personal fees and nonfinancial support from Philips, personal fees from Baxter, personal fees from Hamilton, personal fees and non-financial support from Fisher & Paykel, grants from French Ministry of Health, personal fees from Getinge, grants and personal fees from Respinor, grants and nonfinancial support from Lungpacer, outside the submitted work. Dr Dres reported personal fees from Lungpacer. No other disclosures were reported.Ethics Approval Statement: COVID-ICU received approval from the ethical committee of the French Intensive Care Society (CE-SRLF 20-23) following our local regulations.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315970

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on incidence, clinical presentation and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) are limited. Methods: . Case series of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to a single ICU in France. All consecutive patients requiring MV with RT-PCR–confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 12th and April 24 th , 2020 were included. Frequency, clinical characteristics, responsible pathogens and outcomes of VAP were assessed, and compared to an historical cohort of patients with severe influenza-associated pneumonia requiring MV admitted to the same ICU during the preceding three winter seasons. Results: : Among 54 consecutive patients with Covid-19–associated acute respiratory failure requiring MV included (median (IQR) age 48 (42-58) years;74% male;93% requiring venovenous-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), 46 (85%) developed VAP (median (IQR) MV duration before the first episode, 11 (8-16) days). VAP-causative pathogens were predominantly Enterobacteriaceae (72%), particularly inducible AmpC-cephalosporinase producers (41%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35%). VAP recurred in 46 (85%) patients and 17 (31%) died. Most recurrences were relapses (ie, infection with the same pathogen), with a high percentage occurring on adequate antimicrobial treatment. Despite a high P. aeruginosa -VAP rate in patients with influenza-associated ARDS, the pulmonary infection recurrence rate was significantly lower than in Covid-19 patients. Overall mortality was similar for the two groups. Conclusions: : Patients with severe Covid-19–associated acute respiratory failure requiring MV had a very high late-onset VAP rate. Inducible AmpC-cephalosporinase–producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently caused VAP, with multiple recurrences and difficulties eradicating the pathogen from the lung.

5.
Trials ; 23(1): 4, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by circulatory insufficiency caused by an acute dysfunction of the heart pump. The pathophysiological approach to CS has recently been enriched by the tissue consequences of low flow, including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the impact of early low-dose corticosteroid therapy on shock reversal in adults with CS. METHOD/DESIGN: This is a multicentered randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel arms in adult patients with CS recruited from medical, cardiac, and polyvalent intensive care units (ICU) in France. Patients will be randomly allocated into the treatment or control group (1:1 ratio), and we will recruit 380 patients (190 per group). For the treatment group, hydrocortisone (50 mg intravenous bolus every 6 h) and fludrocortisone (50 µg once a day enterally) will be administered for 7 days or until discharge from the ICU. The primary endpoint is catecholamine-free days at day 7. Secondary endpoints include morbidity and all-cause mortality at 28 and 90 days post-randomization. Pre-defined subgroups analyses are planned, including: postcardiotomy, myocardial infarction, etomidate use, vasopressor use, and adrenal profiles according the short corticotropin stimulation test. Each patient will be followed for 90 days. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide valuable evidence about the effectiveness of low dose of corticosteroid therapy for CS. If effective, this therapy might improve outcome and become a therapeutic adjunct for patients with CS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03773822 . Registered on 12 December 2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Shock, Cardiogenic , Adult , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 8, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) reduces mortality of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The potential benefit of prone positioning maneuvers during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of prone positioning during extracorporeal support and ICU mortality in a pooled population of patients from previous European cohort studies. METHODS: We performed a pooled individual patient data analysis of European cohort studies which compared patients treated with prone positioning during ECMO (Prone group) to "conventional" ECMO management (Supine group) in patients with severe ARDS. RESULTS: 889 patients from five studies were included. Unadjusted ICU mortality was 52.8% in the Supine Group and 40.8% in the Prone group. At a Cox multiple regression analysis PP during ECMO was not significantly associated with a reduction of ICU mortality (HR 0.67 95% CI: 0.42-1.06). Propensity score matching identified 227 patients in each group. ICU mortality of the matched samples was 48.0% and 39.6% for patients in the Supine and Prone group, respectively (p = 0.072). CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of ARDS patients receiving venovenous extracorporeal support, the use of prone positioning during ECMO was not significantly associated with reduced ICU mortality. The impact of this procedure will have to be definitively assessed by prospective randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Data Analysis , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 170, 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Predicting outcomes of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) is a major challenge to avoid futile, and prolonged ICU stays. METHODS: The objective was to develop predictive survival models for patients with COVID-19 after 1-to-2 weeks in ICU. Based on the COVID-ICU cohort, which prospectively collected characteristics, management, and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Machine learning was used to develop dynamic, clinically useful models able to predict 90-day mortality using ICU data collected on day (D) 1, D7 or D14. RESULTS: Survival of Severely Ill COVID (SOSIC)-1, SOSIC-7, and SOSIC-14 scores were constructed with 4244, 2877, and 1349 patients, respectively, randomly assigned to development or test datasets. The three models selected 15 ICU-entry variables recorded on D1, D7, or D14. Cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary functions on prediction D7 or D14 were among the most heavily weighted inputs for both models. For the test dataset, SOSIC-7's area under the ROC curve was slightly higher (0.80 [0.74-0.86]) than those for SOSIC-1 (0.76 [0.71-0.81]) and SOSIC-14 (0.76 [0.68-0.83]). Similarly, SOSIC-1 and SOSIC-7 had excellent calibration curves, with similar Brier scores for the three models. CONCLUSION: The SOSIC scores showed that entering 15 to 27 baseline and dynamic clinical parameters into an automatable XGBoost algorithm can potentially accurately predict the likely 90-day mortality post-ICU admission (sosic.shinyapps.io/shiny). Although external SOSIC-score validation is still needed, it is an additional tool to strengthen decisions about life-sustaining treatments and informing family members of likely prognosis.

9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 292, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics and is associated with lower mortality in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite this, some patients develop refractory hypoxemia and hypercapnia requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) support and are usually cared for in supine position. The physiologic and outcome benefits of routine PP of patients during VV ECMO remains unclear. Hence, we conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the outcome benefits of PP for patients with ARDS being treated with VV ECMO. METHODS: After registration with PROSPERO (CRD42020199723), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant studies that reported PP in more than 10 adult patients supported with VV ECMO from origin to 1 March 2021. Studies were reviewed for quality using appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists, and certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. The random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird) was used. The primary outcome of interest was cumulative survival. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) and ECMO duration. Changes in arterial blood gas (ABG) values, ventilator mechanics and complication rates were also studied. RESULTS: Of 812 potentially relevant publications, 12 studies (640 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Due to overlapping study populations, 11 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Cumulative survival in patients that underwent PP was 57% (95% CI 41.9-71.4, high certainty). Patients that underwent PP had longer ICU LOS (+ 14.5 days, 95% CI 3.4-25.7, p = 0.01) and ECMO duration (+ 9.6 days, 95% CI 5.5-13.7, p < 0.0001). After PP, patients had significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lower PaCO2 and reduced ventilator driving pressure, and no major complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: PP during VV ECMO appears safe with a cumulative survival of 57% and may result in longer ECMO runs and ICU LOS. However, evidence from appropriately designed randomized trials is needed prior to widespread adoption of PP on VV ECMO.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Retrospective Studies
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 851-862, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the Île-de-France region (henceforth termed Greater Paris), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was considered early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We report ECMO network organisation and outcomes during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: In this multicentre cohort study, we present an analysis of all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe ARDS requiring ECMO who were admitted to 17 Greater Paris intensive care units between March 8 and June 3, 2020. Central regulation for ECMO indications and pooling of resources were organised for the Greater Paris intensive care units, with six mobile ECMO teams available for the region. Details of complications (including ECMO-related complications, renal replacement therapy, and pulmonary embolism), clinical outcomes, survival status at 90 days after ECMO initiation, and causes of death are reported. Multivariable analysis was used to identify pre-ECMO variables independently associated with 90-day survival after ECMO. FINDINGS: The 302 patients included who underwent ECMO had a median age of 52 years (IQR 45-58) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II of 40 (31-56), and 235 (78%) of whom were men. 165 (55%) were transferred after cannulation by a mobile ECMO team. Before ECMO, 285 (94%) patients were prone positioned, median driving pressure was 18 cm H2O (14-21), and median ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen was 61 mm Hg (IQR 54-70). During ECMO, 115 (43%) of 270 patients had a major bleeding event, 27 of whom had intracranial haemorrhage; 130 (43%) of 301 patients received renal replacement therapy; and 53 (18%) of 294 had a pulmonary embolism. 138 (46%) patients were alive 90 days after ECMO. The most common causes of death were multiorgan failure (53 [18%] patients) and septic shock (47 [16%] patients). Shorter time between intubation and ECMO (odds ratio 0·91 [95% CI 0·84-0·99] per day decrease), younger age (2·89 [1·41-5·93] for ≤48 years and 2·01 [1·01-3·99] for 49-56 years vs ≥57 years), lower pre-ECMO renal component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0·67, 0·55-0·83 per point increase), and treatment in centres managing at least 30 venovenous ECMO cases annually (2·98 [1·46-6·04]) were independently associated with improved 90-day survival. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who had mobile and on-site ECMO initiation. INTERPRETATION: Beyond associations with similar factors to those reported on ECMO for non-COVID-19 ARDS, 90-day survival among ECMO-assisted patients with COVID-19 was strongly associated with a centre's experience in venovenous ECMO during the previous year. Early ECMO management in centres with a high venovenous ECMO case volume should be advocated, by applying centralisation and regulation of ECMO indications, which should also help to prevent a shortage of resources. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Embolism , Renal Insufficiency , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
12.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1031-1042, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324458

ABSTRACT

Hemostatic changes induced by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support have been yet poorly documented in coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) patients who have a baseline complex hypercoagulable state. In this prospective monocentric study of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) rescued by ECMO, we performed longitudinal measurements of coagulation and fibrinolysis markers throughout the course of ECMO support in 20 COVID-19 and 10 non-COVID-19 patients. Blood was sampled before and then 24 hours, 7, and 14 days after ECMO implantation. Clinical outcomes were prospectively assessed until discharge from the intensive care unit or death. The median age of participants was 47 (35-56) years, with a median body mass index of 30 (27-35) kg/m2, and a Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score of 12 (8-16). Baseline levels of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, factor VIII, prothrombin F1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin, D-dimer, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were elevated in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients, indicating that endothelial activation, endogenous thrombin generation, and fibrinolysis shutdown occur in all ARDS patients before ECMO implantation. From baseline to day 7, thrombin generation (prothrombin F1 + 2, p < 0.01) and fibrin formation markers (fibrin monomers, p < 0.001) significantly increased, further resulting in significant decreases in platelet count (p < 0.0001) and fibrinogen level (p < 0.001). PAI-1 levels significantly decreased from baseline to day 7 (p < 0.0001) in all ARDS patients. These changes were more marked in COVID-19 patients, resulting in 14 nonfatal and 3 fatal bleeding. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether monitoring of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis markers might help to early predict bleeding complications in COVID-19 patients supported by ECMO.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Fibrinolysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 238, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current practices regarding tracheostomy in patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome are unknown. Our objectives were to assess the prevalence and the association between the timing of tracheostomy (during or after ECMO weaning) and related complications, sedative, and analgesic use. METHODS: International, multicenter, retrospective study in four large volume ECMO centers during a 9-year period. RESULTS: Of the 1,168 patients treated with ECMO for severe ARDS (age 48 ± 16 years, 76% male, SAPS II score 51 ± 18) during the enrollment period, 353 (30%) and 177 (15%) underwent tracheostomy placement during or after ECMO, respectively. Severe complications were uncommon in both groups. Local bleeding within 24 h of tracheostomy was four times more frequent during ECMO (25 vs 7% after ECMO, p < 0.01). Cumulative sedative consumption decreased more rapidly after the procedure with sedative doses almost negligible 48-72 h later, when tracheostomy was performed after ECMO decannulation (p < 0.01). A significantly increased level of consciousness was observed within 72 h after tracheostomy in the "after ECMO" group, whereas it was unchanged in the "during-ECMO" group. CONCLUSION: In contrast to patients undergoing tracheostomy after ECMO decannulation, tracheostomy during ECMO was neither associated with a decrease in sedation and analgesia levels nor with an increase in the level of consciousness. This finding together with a higher risk of local bleeding in the days following the procedure reinforces the need for a case-by-case discussion on the balance between risks and benefits of tracheotomy when performed during ECMO.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Internationality , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Simplified Acute Physiology Score , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(6): 2098-2107, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Markedly elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and defective type-I interferon responses were reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether particular cytokine profiles are associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Cytokine concentrations and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antigen were measured at hospital admission in serum of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 (N = 115), classified at hospitalization into 3 respiratory severity groups: no need for mechanical ventilatory support (No-MVS), intermediate severity requiring mechanical ventilatory support (MVS), and critical severity requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Principal-component analysis was used to characterize cytokine profiles associated with severity and mortality. The results were thereafter confirmed in an independent validation cohort (N = 86). RESULTS: At time of hospitalization, ECMO patients presented a dominant proinflammatory response with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. In contrast, an elevated type-I interferon response involving IFN-α and IFN-ß was characteristic of No-MVS patients, whereas MVS patients exhibited both profiles. Mortality at 1 month was associated with higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines in ECMO patients, higher levels of type-I interferons in No-MVS patients, and their combination in MVS patients, resulting in a combined mortality prediction accuracy of 88.5% (risk ratio, 24.3; P < .0001). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antigen levels correlated with type-I interferon levels and were associated with mortality, but not with proinflammatory response or severity. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct cytokine profiles are observed in association with COVID-19 severity and are differentially predictive of mortality according to oxygen support modalities. These results warrant personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients based on cytokine profiling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 77, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a heavy burden in terms of health care resources. Future decision-making policies require consistent data on the management and prognosis of the older patients (> 70 years old) with COVID-19 admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Characteristics, management, and prognosis of critically ill old patients (> 70 years) were extracted from the international prospective COVID-ICU database. A propensity score weighted-comparison evaluated the impact of intubation upon admission on Day-90 mortality. RESULTS: The analysis included 1199 (28% of the COVID-ICU cohort) patients (median [interquartile] age 74 [72-78] years). Fifty-three percent, 31%, and 16% were 70-74, 75-79, and over 80 years old, respectively. The most frequent comorbidities were chronic hypertension (62%), diabetes (30%), and chronic respiratory disease (25%). Median Clinical Frailty Scale was 3 (2-3). Upon admission, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 154 (105-222). 740 (62%) patients were intubated on Day-1 and eventually 938 (78%) during their ICU stay. Overall Day-90 mortality was 46% and reached 67% among the 193 patients over 80 years old. Mortality was higher in older patients, diabetics, and those with a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio upon admission, cardiovascular dysfunction, and a shorter time between first symptoms and ICU admission. In propensity analysis, early intubation at ICU admission was associated with a significantly higher Day-90 mortality (42% vs 28%; hazard ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.24-2.27; p < 0·001). CONCLUSION: Patients over 70 years old represented more than a quarter of the COVID-19 population admitted in the participating ICUs during the first wave. Day-90 mortality was 46%, with dismal outcomes reported for patients older than 80 years or those intubated upon ICU admission.

18.
ASAIO J ; 67(5): 485-495, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203774

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: This is an updated guideline from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) for the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The great majority of COVID-19 patients (>90%) requiring ECMO have been supported using venovenous (V-V) ECMO for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). While COVID-19 ECMO run duration may be longer than in non-COVID-19 ECMO patients, published mortality appears to be similar between the two groups. However, data collection is ongoing, and there is a signal that overall mortality may be increasing. Conventional selection criteria for COVID-19-related ECMO should be used; however, when resources become more constrained during a pandemic, more stringent contraindications should be implemented. Formation of regional ECMO referral networks may facilitate communication, resource sharing, expedited patient referral, and mobile ECMO retrieval. There are no data to suggest deviation from conventional ECMO device or patient management when applying ECMO for COVID-19 patients. Rarely, children may require ECMO support for COVID-19-related ARDS, myocarditis, or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); conventional selection criteria and management practices should be the standard. We strongly encourage participation in data submission to investigate the optimal use of ECMO for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
20.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2168-2183, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151991

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary infection is one of the main complications occurring in patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Besides traditional risk factors, dysregulation of lung immune defenses and microbiota may play an important role in ARDS patients. Prone positioning does not seem to be associated with a higher risk of pulmonary infection. Although bacteria associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ARDS patients are similar to those in patients without ARDS, atypical pathogens (Aspergillus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus) may also be responsible for infection in ARDS patients. Diagnosing pulmonary infection in ARDS patients is challenging, and requires a combination of clinical, biological and microbiological criteria. The role of modern tools (e.g., molecular methods, metagenomic sequencing, etc.) remains to be evaluated in this setting. One of the challenges of antimicrobial treatment is antibiotics diffusion into the lungs. Although targeted delivery of antibiotics using nebulization may be interesting, their place in ARDS patients remains to be explored. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the most severe patients is associated with a high rate of infection and raises several challenges, diagnostic issues and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics changes being at the top. Prevention of pulmonary infection is a key issue in ARDS patients, but there is no specific measure for these high-risk patients. Reinforcing preventive measures using bundles seems to be the best option.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung , Patient Positioning , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
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