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2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702700

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic threatens patients with a compromised immune and endothelial system, including patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Thus, there is an unmet need for optimizing vaccination management in this high-risk cohort. Here, we monitored antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S1) in 167 vaccinated alloSCT patients. Humoral immune responses were detectable in 81% of patients after two vaccinations with either mRNA-, vector-based, or heterologous regimens. Age, B-cell counts, time interval from vaccination, and the type of vaccine determined antibody titres in patients without systemic immunosuppression (sIS). Similar to a healthy control cohort, mRNA vaccine-based regimens induced higher titres than vector-based vaccines. Patients on two or more immunosuppressants rarely developed immunity. In contrast, 62% and 45% of patients without or on only one immunosuppressant, respectively, showed a strong humoral vaccination response (titre > 100). Exacerbation of cGVHD upon vaccination was observed in 6% of all patients and in 22% of patients receiving immunosuppression for cGVHD. cGVHD exacerbation and low antibody titres were both associated with higher angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) serum levels. In conclusion, mRNA-based vaccines elicit strong humoral responses in alloSCT patients in the absence of double sIS. Biomarkers such as ANG2 might help with weighing cGVHD risk versus beneficial responses.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686808

ABSTRACT

After solid-organ transplantation, reactivation of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is often observed in seronegative patients and associated with a high risk of disease and mortality. CMV-specific T cells can prevent CMV reactivation. In a phase 1 trial, CMV-seronegative patients with end-stage renal disease listed for kidney transplantation were subjected to CMV phosphoprotein 65 (CMVpp65) peptide vaccination and further investigated for T-cell responses. To this end, CMV-specific CD8+ T cells were characterized by bulk T-cell-receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing and combined single-cell RNA and TCR sequencing. In patients mounting an immune response to the vaccine, a common SYE(N)E TCR motif known to bind CMVpp65 was detected. CMV-peptide-vaccination-responder patients had TCR features distinct from those of non-responders. In a non-responder patient, a monoclonal inflammatory T-cell response was detected upon CMV reactivation. The identification of vaccine-induced CMV-reactive TCRs motifs might facilitate the development of cellular therapies for patients wait-listed for kidney transplantation.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/administration & dosage , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single Molecule Imaging , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295767

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has proven to be very effective in patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, infections-related either due to lymphodepletion or the CAR-T cell therapy itself-can result in severe and potentially life-threatening complications, while side effects such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) might complicate differential diagnosis. Sixty-seven dosings of CAR-T cells in sixty adult patients with NHL (85%) and ALL (15%) receiving CAR-T cell therapy were assessed for infectious complications. Almost two-thirds of patients (61%) developed fever following lymphodepletion and CAR-T cell dosing. Microbiological or radiological findings were observed in 25% of all cases (bacterial 12%, viral 5%, fungal 8%). Inpatient infections were associated with more lines of therapy and more severe CRS. However, overall serious complications were rare after CAR-T therapy, with one patient dying of infection. Pathogen detection after inpatient stay was infrequent and mostly occurred in the first 90 days after dosing. Infections in CAR-T cell treated patents are common. Fast and suitable identification and treatment are crucial in these heavily pretreated and immunocompromised patients. In most cases infectious complications are manageable. Nonetheless, standardized anti-infective prophylaxis and supportive therapy are mandatory to reduce morbidity and mortality in CAR-T cell therapy.

6.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1189

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by reprehensible cyber operations directed against medical facilities and capabilities, as well as by a flood of misi

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