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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1214, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy of people with migratory backgrounds among Turkish- and German-speaking patients in Munich. METHODS: Primary outcomes were the intention to get vaccinated for COVID-19 and COVID-19 knowledge levels (25 true/false items). Other variables included demographics, attitudes to COVID-19 and vaccination (7 items), and behaviors regarding COVID-19 (7 items). The attitude and behavior questions had 5-point Likert scales. Of the 10 Turkish-speaking family physicians in Munich, six agreed to administer Turkish or German questionnaires to consecutive patients in February 2021. Furthermore, participants with either citizenship, country of origin, native language, or place of birth being non-German were categorized as "Having a migratory background." Data from 420 respondents were analyzed. RESULTS: Women constituted 41.4% (n = 174), the mean age was 42.2 ± 15.5 years, 245 (58.3%) preferred the Turkish questionnaire, 348 (82.9%) had a migratory background, and 197 (47.9%) intended to be vaccinated. The mean knowledge, attitude, and behavioral scores were 21.5 ± 3.2 (max = 25), 3.7 ± 0.8 (max = 5), and 4.0 ± 0.5 (max = 5). While 42.3% (n = 145) of the participants with a migratory background considered getting vaccinated, this proportion was 76.5% (n = 52) for non-immigrant Germans (Chi-square = 26.818, p < 0.001). Non-migratory background (odds ratio (OR): 3.082), high attitude scores (OR: 2.877), male sex (OR: 2.185), years of schooling (OR: 1.064), and age (OR: 1.022) were positively associated with vaccination intention. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest initiating or supporting projects run by persons or groups with immigrant backgrounds to attempt to elaborate and change their vaccination attitudes.

2.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 46, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537315

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contact history and clinical symptoms and to develop decision rules for ruling-in and ruling-out SARS-CoV-2 infection in family practice. We performed a prospective diagnostic study. Consecutive inclusion of patients coming for COVID-PCR testing to 19 general practices. Contact history and self-reported symptoms served as index test. PCR testing of nasopharyngeal swabs served as reference standard. Complete data were available from 1141 patients, 605 (53.0%) female, average age 42.2 years, 182 (16.0%) COVID-PCR positive. Multivariable logistic regression showed highest odds ratios (ORs) for "contact with infected person" (OR 9.22, 95% CI 5.61-15.41), anosmia/ageusia (8.79, 4.89-15.95), fever (4.25, 2.56-7.09), and "sudden disease onset" (2.52, 1.55-4.14). Patients with "contact with infected person" or "anosmia/ageusia" with or without self-reported "fever" had a high probability of COVID infection up to 84.8%. Negative response to the four items "contact with infected person, anosmia/ageusia, fever, sudden disease onset" showed a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-0.99). This was present in 446 (39.1%) patients. NPV of "completely asymptomatic," "no contact," "no risk area" was 1.0 (0.96-1.0). This was present in 84 (7.4%) patients. To conclude, the combination of four key items allowed exclusion of SARS-CoV-2 infection with high certainty. With the goal of 100% exclusion of SARS-CoV-2 infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to the population level, COVID-PCR testing could be saved only for patients with negative response in all items. The decision rule might also help for ruling-in SARS-CoV-2 infection in terms of rapid assessment of infection risk.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051167, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine German patients': (1) self-estimation of the impact of the pandemic on their health and healthcare; and (2) use of digital self-care practices during the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mixed-methods survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: General practice patients from four physicians' offices located in urban and rural areas of Bavaria, Germany, between 21 July 2020 and 17 October 2020. A total of 254 patients participated (55% response rate); 57% (262 of 459) identified as female and participants had an average age of 39.3 years. Patients were eligible to participate if they were 18 years or older and spoke German, and had access to the internet. RESULTS: (1) Healthcare for patients was affected by the pandemic, and the mental health of a small group of respondents was particularly affected. The risk of depression and anxiety disorder was significantly increased in patients with quarantine experience. (2) Self-care practices have increased; more than one-third (39%) of participants indicated that they started a new or additional self-care practice during the pandemic, and about a quarter (23%) of patients who were not previously engaged in self-care practices started new self-care activities for the first time; however, such practices were not necessarily digital. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is required to understand the relationship between digital self-care and public health events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and to develop strategies to alleviate the burden of the quarantine experience for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 27(1): 176-183, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the 'first wave' in spring 2020, opinions regarding the threat and measures against COVID-19 seemed to vary among German general practitioners (GPs). OBJECTIVES: To systematically investigate opinions and to identify subgroups of GPs sharing similar views. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all 210 practices accredited for undergraduate teaching of family medicine at the Medical Faculty of the Technical University of Munich. Questions addressed personal opinions regarding risks, dilemmas, restrictions and their relaxation associated with COVID-19, and personal fears, symptoms of depression and anxiety. Patterns of strong opinions ('archetypes') were identified using archetypal analysis, a statistical method seeking extremal points in the multidimensional data. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-one GPs sent back a questionnaire (response rate 77%); 143 (68%) with complete data for all 38 relevant variables could be included in the analysis. We identified four archetypes with subgroups of GPs tending in the direction of these archetypes: a small group of 'Sceptics' (n = 12/8%) considering threats of COVID-19 as overrated and measures taken as exaggerated; 'Hardliners' (n = 34/24%) considering threats high and supporting strong measures; 'Balancers' (n = 77/54%) who also rated the threats high but were more critical about potentially impairing the quality of life of elderly people and children; and 'Anxious' GPs (n = 20/14%) tending to report more fear, depressive and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Among the participants in this survey, opinions regarding the threat and the measures taken against COVID-19 during the 'first wave' in Germany in spring 2020 varied greatly.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , General Practitioners , Public Policy , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , General Practitioners/psychology , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
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