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1.
Sports Med Int Open ; 6(1): E18-E24, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947681

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sport practice and to identify measures adopted by individuals and sports organizations to allow a safe return to community sports. An electronic survey was launched worldwide in June 2020 in the German and English languages. The questionnaire collected anonymous data on sporting activity before, during, and after pandemic-induced confinement. Participants classified themselves as either recreational, competitive, or professional sports level athletes. A total of 1336 adults (30.5±11.7 years; 54.0% women) participated in the survey; 68.5% were active athletes, 10.1% coaches, 2.1% officials and 4.3% related medical staff, 3.6% had another function, and 11.4% indicated no regular sports activity. Most participants practiced their sport in Europe (93.8%); the majority (61.0%) was amateur athletes. During confinement, 15.7% could perform their main sport unrestricted, 43.5% stated a reduced amount of time spent on sporting activities, 46.4% a reduced intensity level. Most participants (77.5%) were neither aware of screening measures nor of guidelines for dealing with infected athletes (80.0%) or for return to sports after a coronavirus infection (88.6%). Preventive measures mentioned included basic hygiene, measures to reduce personal contacts or virus transmission, or to improve traceability of infections. During confinement, a higher age (p=0.004) and training in a club setting (p<0.001) were associated with reduced sporting activity, while the availability of online training (p=0.030 ) was linked to both increased extent and intensity levels. A lower age (p=0.001) and recreational sports level (p=0.005) were associated with decreased activity after confinement. Although isolation can be necessary to protect public health, it alters the amount and intensity of physical activity.

2.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 82(2): 226-234, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692497

ABSTRACT

Purpose Detection of SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women admitted to maternity units during a pandemic is crucial. In addition to the fact that pregnancy is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 and that medical surveillance has to be adjusted in infected women and their offspring, knowledge about infection status can provide the opportunity to protect other patients and healthcare workers against virus transmission. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women in the hospital setting. Material and Methods All eligible pregnant women admitted to the nine participating hospitals in Franconia, Germany, from 2 June 2020 to 24 January 2021 were included. COVID-19-related symptoms, secondary diseases and pregnancy abnormalities were documented. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. The prevalence of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated by correcting the positive rate using the Rogan-Gladen method. The risk of infection for healthcare workers during delivery was estimated using a risk calculator. Results Of 2414 recruited pregnant women, six were newly diagnosed RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2, which yielded a prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection of 0.26% (95% CI, 0.10 - 0.57%). Combining active room ventilation and wearing FFP2 masks showed an estimated reduction of risk of infection for healthcare workers in the delivery room to < 1%. Conclusions The prevalence of newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in this study is low. Nevertheless, a systematic screening in maternity units during pandemic situations is important to adjust hygienic and medical management. An adequate hygienic setting can minimise the calculated infection risk for medical healthcare workers during patients' labour.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312282

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of genodermatoses in which deficient ectodysplasin A signalling leads to maldevelopment of skin appendages, various eccrine glands, and teeth. Individuals with HED often have disrupted epithelial barriers and, therefore, were suspected to be more susceptible to coronavirus infection. Methods 56 households with at least one member who had coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) were enrolled in a longitudinal study to compare the course of illness, immune responses, and long-term consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in HED patients (n = 15, age 9–52 years) and control subjects of the same age group (n = 149). Results In 14 HED patients, mild or moderate typical COVID-19 symptoms were observed that lasted for 4–45 days. Fever during the first days sometimes required external cooling measures. The course of COVID-19 was similar to that in control subjects if patients developed antibodies blocking the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Five out of six HED patients with completely abrogated ectodysplasin A signalling (83%) suffered from chronic, in two cases very severe fatigue following COVID-19, while only 25% of HED patients with residual activity of this pathway and 21% of control subjects recovering from COVID-19 experienced postinfectious fatigue. Hair loss after COVID-19 was also more frequent among HED patients (64%) than in the control group (13%). Conclusions HED appears to be associated with an increased risk of long-term consequences of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Preventive vaccination against COVID-19 should be recommended for individuals affected by this rare genetic disorder.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317400

ABSTRACT

Possible mother-to-child transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy is still a matter of debate. We studied the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on 56 complete households, including 27 newborns whose mothers were pregnant when exposed to the virus. Three perinatal SARS-CoV-2 transmissions with mild symptoms in affected neonates were recorded (two cases confirmed by PCR, the third one based on clinical findings). In addition, we observed a severe eye malformation (unilateral microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and congenital retinopathy) associated with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in weeks 5 and 6 of embryonic development. This embryopathy could not be explained by other infectious agents, genetic factors, or drug use during pregnancy. Eight other women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to gestational week 12, however, delivered healthy infants. Conclusion: The repeated occurrence of mother-to-child transmission in our cohort with risks that remain incompletely understood, such as long-term effects and the possibility of an embryopathy, should sensitize researchers and stimulate further studies as well as strongly support COVID19 vaccination recommendations for pregnant women. Trial registration number: NCT04741412 Date of registration: November 18, 2020

5.
Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde ; 82(2):226-234, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678867

ABSTRACT

Purpose Detection of SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women admitted to maternity units during a pandemic is crucial. In addition to the fact that pregnancy is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 and that medical surveillance has to be adjusted in infected women and their offspring, knowledge about infection status can provide the opportunity to protect other patients and healthcare workers against virus transmission. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women in the hospital setting. Material and Methods All eligible pregnant women admitted to the nine participating hospitals in Franconia, Germany, from 2 June 2020 to 24 January 2021 were included. COVID-19-related symptoms, secondary diseases and pregnancy abnormalities were documented. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. The prevalence of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated by correcting the positive rate using the Rogan–Gladen method. The risk of infection for healthcare workers during delivery was estimated using a risk calculator. Results Of 2414 recruited pregnant women, six were newly diagnosed RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2, which yielded a prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection of 0.26% (95% CI, 0.10 – 0.57%). Combining active room ventilation and wearing FFP2 masks showed an estimated reduction of risk of infection for healthcare workers in the delivery room to < 1%. Conclusions The prevalence of newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in this study is low. Nevertheless, a systematic screening in maternity units during pandemic situations is important to adjust hygienic and medical management. An adequate hygienic setting can minimise the calculated infection risk for medical healthcare workers during patientsʼ labour.

6.
British Journal of Sports Medicine ; 55(Suppl 1):A165-A166, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1533013

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of worldwide governmental restrictions and preventative measures with large impact on social life.ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of the pandemic on individual and general sport activities in an effort to provide information for safe return to community sports.DesignAn electronic survey was launched in June 2020 in German and English language. The anonymous questionnaire collected epidemiological data and responses ’before’,’during’ and ’after’ confinement conditions. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used.SettingMost participants practiced their sport in Europe (93.9%);68.5% were active athletes, 10.1% coaches, 10.1% had other sports functions, 11.3% indicated no regular sports activity.Participants1336 adults (30.5±11.7 years;54.0% women) participated in the survey.Assessment of Risk FactorsRisk factors for a serious course of COVID-19 disease were queried.Main Outcome MeasurementsThe type, extent and intensity of physical activity were defined as main outcome measures.ResultsDuring confinement, 15.7% could perform their main sport unrestricted, 43.5% stated a reduced amount of time spent on sporting activities, 46.4% a reduced intensity level. Most participants were neither aware of screening measures (77.5%) nor of guidelines for dealing with infected athletes (80.0%) or for return to sports after a coronavirus infection (88.6%). Preventive measures mentioned included basic hygiene, measures to reduce personal contacts or virus transmission, or to improve traceability. During confinement, higher age (p = 0.004) and training in a club-setting (p < 0.001) were associated with reduced sporting activity, while the availability of online training (p = 0.030) was linked to increased extent and intensity levels. Lower age (p = 0.001) and recreational sports level (p = 0.005) were associated with decreased activity after confinement.ConclusionsWhile isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, it also alters physical activity.

7.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(11): 2665-2676, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482126

ABSTRACT

To monitor infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and successful vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the kinetics of neutralizing or blocking anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers need to be assessed. Here, we report the development of a quick and inexpensive surrogate SARS-CoV-2 blocking assay (SUBA) using immobilized recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and human cells expressing the native form of surface SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Spike protein-expressing cells bound to hACE2 in the absence or presence of blocking antibodies were quantified by measuring the optical density of cell-associated crystal violet in a spectrophotometer. The advantages are that SUBA is a fast and inexpensive assay, which does not require biosafety level 2- or 3-approved laboratories. Most importantly, SUBA detects blocking antibodies against the native trimeric cell-bound SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and can be rapidly adjusted to quickly pre-screen already approved therapeutic antibodies or sera from vaccinated individuals for their ACE2 blocking activities against any emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Blocking/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/methods , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 373, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of genodermatoses in which deficient ectodysplasin A signalling leads to maldevelopment of skin appendages, various eccrine glands, and teeth. Individuals with HED often have disrupted epithelial barriers and, therefore, were suspected to be more susceptible to coronavirus infection. METHODS: 56 households with at least one member who had coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) were enrolled in a longitudinal study to compare the course of illness, immune responses, and long-term consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in HED patients (n = 15, age 9-52 years) and control subjects of the same age group (n = 149). RESULTS: In 14 HED patients, mild or moderate typical COVID-19 symptoms were observed that lasted for 4-45 days. Fever during the first days sometimes required external cooling measures. The course of COVID-19 was similar to that in control subjects if patients developed antibodies blocking the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Five out of six HED patients with completely abrogated ectodysplasin A signalling (83%) suffered from chronic, in two cases very severe fatigue following COVID-19, while only 25% of HED patients with residual activity of this pathway and 21% of control subjects recovering from COVID-19 experienced postinfectious fatigue. Hair loss after COVID-19 was also more frequent among HED patients (64%) than in the control group (13%). CONCLUSIONS: HED appears to be associated with an increased risk of long-term consequences of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Preventive vaccination against COVID-19 should be recommended for individuals affected by this rare genetic disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Adolescent , Adult , Alopecia , Child , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Young Adult
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(1): 413-418, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345122

ABSTRACT

The risk and potential consequences of mother-to-child transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy are still a matter of debate. We studied the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on 56 complete households, including 27 newborns whose mothers were pregnant when exposed to the virus. Two PCR-confirmed perinatal SARS-CoV-2 transmissions with mild symptoms in affected neonates were recorded. In addition, we observed a severe eye malformation (unilateral microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and congenital retinopathy) associated with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in weeks 5 and 6 of embryonic development. This embryopathy could not be explained by other infectious agents, genetic factors, drug use, or maternal disease during pregnancy. Eight other women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to gestational week 12, however, delivered healthy infants.Conclusion: The repeated occurrence of mother-to-child transmission in our cohort with risks that remain incompletely understood, such as long-term effects and the possibility of an embryopathy, should sensitize researchers and stimulate further studies as well as support COVID-19 vaccination recommendations for pregnant women. Trial registration number: NCT04741412. Date of registration: November 18, 2020 What is Known: •Materno-fetal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy has rarely been reported so far, but was demonstrated in isolated cases. What is New: •In a study of complete households with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, including a cohort of pregnant women, we observed perinatal coronavirus transmission at a higher frequency than expected. •We also describe a newborn boy with an eye malformation reminiscent of rubella embryopathy but associated with early gestation SARS-CoV-2 infection of his mother. •A coronavirus-related embryopathy, reported here for the first time, is a finding that requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
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