Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Artif Intell Life Sci ; 1: 100020, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588542

ABSTRACT

Despite available vaccinations COVID-19 case numbers around the world are still growing, and effective medications against severe cases are lacking. In this work, we developed a machine learning model which predicts mortality for COVID-19 patients using data from the multi-center 'Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients' (LEOSS) observational study (>100 active sites in Europe, primarily in Germany), resulting into an AUC of almost 80%. We showed that molecular mechanisms related to dementia, one of the relevant predictors in our model, intersect with those associated to COVID-19. Most notably, among these molecules was tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), a protein that has been patented as drug target in Alzheimer's Disease but also genetically associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. We experimentally verified that anti-cancer drugs Sorafenib and Regorafenib showed a clear anti-cytopathic effect in Caco2 and VERO-E6 cells and can thus be regarded as potential treatments against COVID-19. Altogether, our work demonstrates that interpretation of machine learning based risk models can point towards drug targets and new treatment options, which are strongly needed for COVID-19.

2.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6703-6713, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544323

ABSTRACT

Scores to identify patients at high risk of progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may become instrumental for clinical decision-making and patient management. We used patient data from the multicentre Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients (LEOSS) and applied variable selection to develop a simplified scoring system to identify patients at increased risk of critical illness or death. A total of 1946 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included in the initial analysis and assigned to derivation and validation cohorts (n = 1297 and n = 649, respectively). Stability selection from over 100 baseline predictors for the combined endpoint of progression to the critical phase or COVID-19-related death enabled the development of a simplified score consisting of five predictors: C-reactive protein (CRP), age, clinical disease phase (uncomplicated vs. complicated), serum urea, and D-dimer (abbreviated as CAPS-D score). This score yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.85) in the validation cohort for predicting the combined endpoint within 7 days of diagnosis and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) during full follow-up. We used an additional prospective cohort of 682 patients, diagnosed largely after the "first wave" of the pandemic to validate the predictive accuracy of the score and observed similar results (AUC for the event within 7 days: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.78-0.87]; for full follow-up: 0.82 [95% CI: 0.78-0.86]). An easily applicable score to calculate the risk of COVID-19 progression to critical illness or death was thus established and validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Urea/blood , Young Adult
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538417

ABSTRACT

Long-term health consequences in survivors of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Eighteen COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit at the University Hospital Rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany, between 14 March and 23 June 2020, were prospectively followed-up at a median of 36, 75.5, 122 and 222 days after discharge. The health-related quality of life (HrQoL) (36-item Short Form Health Survey and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), cardiopulmonary function, laboratory parameters and chest imaging were assessed longitudinally. The HrQoL assessment revealed a reduced physical functioning, as well as increased SGRQ impact and symptoms scores that all improved over time but remained markedly impaired compared to the reference groups. The median radiological severity scores significantly declined; persistent abnormalities were found in 33.3% of the patients on follow-up. A reduced diffusion capacity was the most common abnormal pulmonary function parameter. The length of hospitalization correlated with role limitations due to physical problems, the SGRQ symptom and the impact score. In conclusion, in survivors of severe COVID-19, the pulmonary function and symptoms improve over time, but impairments in their physical function and diffusion capacity can persist over months. Longer follow-up studies with larger cohorts will be necessary to comprehensively characterize long-term sequelae upon severe COVID-19 and to identify patients at risk.

4.
JMIR Form Res ; 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large-scale PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 testing is expensive, resource-intensive, and time-consuming. A self-collection approach is a probable alternative; however, it requires evaluating the feasibility, expenses, and the ability to prevent infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare an innovative self-collection approach with a regular SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy in a large European industrial manufacturing site. METHODS: The feasibility of a telemedical PCR-based self-collection approach was assessed for 150 employees (intervention group) and compared with a regular SARS-CoV-2 testing approach (n=143, control group). Acceptance, ergonomics, and efficacy were evaluated using a software application. A simulation model was implemented to evaluate the effectiveness. An interactive R shiny app was created to enable customized simulations. RESULTS: The test results were successfully communicated and interpreted without uncertainty by 76% and 77% of the participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P=.96). The ratings for the acceptability, ergonomics, and efficacy of the intervention group were noninferior when compared with those of the control group (acceptability: 71.6% versus 37.6%; ergonomics: 88.1% versus 74.5%; efficacy: 86.4% versus 77.5%). The self-collection approach was found to be less time consuming (23 min versus 38 min, P<0.001). The simulation model indicated that both testing approaches reduce the risk of infection and the self-collection approach tends to be slightly less effective owing to the lower sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The self-collection approach for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis is technically feasible and is well rated in terms of acceptance, ergonomics, and efficacy. The simulation model facilitates the evaluation of the test effectiveness; nonetheless, considering the context specificity, appropriate adaption by the companies is required.

5.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 16(1): 793, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512830

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic. Bacterial superinfections seem to be associated with higher mortality in COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICUs). However, details on the prevalence and species distribution of secondary infections are limited. Moreover, the increasing use of dexamethasone may pose an additional risk of superinfections. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective study of the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 154 COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between March 2020 and January 2021, focusing on bacterial infections, use of antimicrobial agents and dexamethasone therapy. Results: The median age was 68 years; 67.5% of the patients were men. Critically ill COVID-19 patients were treated with dexamethasone since July 2020 (second wave), which was not common during the first wave of the pandemic. In the dexamethasone group (n=90, 58.4%), respiratory pathogens were detected more frequently, as were multidrugresistant pathogens. The number of patients with polymicrobial detection of respiratory pathogens was significantly increased (p=0.013). The most frequently detected species were Enterobacterales, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The rates of bloodstream infections did not differ between the groups. The use of dexamethasone in ICU COVID-19 patients was associated with higher rates of respiratory infectious complications. Conclusions: Secondary infections are present in a substantial fraction of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Respiratory pathogens were detectable in the majority of COVID-19 ICU patients. The use of dexamethasone poses a potential risk of secondary pulmonary infections. Infectious complications in patients with dexamethasone therapy could be associated with worse outcomes.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the entry site of respiratory virus infections, the oropharyngeal microbiome has been proposed as a major hub integrating viral and host immune signals. Early studies suggested that infections with Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with changes of the upper and lower airway microbiome, and that specific microbial signatures may predict COVID-19 illness. However, the results are not conclusive, as critical illness can drastically alter a patient's microbiome through multiple confounders. METHODS: To study oropharyngeal microbiome profiles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical confounders, and prediction models in COVID-19, we performed a multi-center, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing oropharyngeal microbial metagenomes in healthy adults, patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, or with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 (n=322 participants). RESULTS: In contrast to mild infections, patients admitted to a hospital with moderate or severe COVID-19 showed dysbiotic microbial configurations, which were significantly pronounced in patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, or when sampling was performed during prolonged hospitalization. In contrast, specimens collected early after admission allowed us to segregate microbiome features predictive of hospital COVID-19 mortality utilizing machine learning models. Taxonomic signatures were found to perform better than models utilizing clinical variables with Neisseria and Haemophilus species abundances as most important features. CONCLUSION: In addition to the infection per se, several factors shape the oropharyngeal microbiome of severely affected COVID-19 patients and deserve consideration in the interpretation of the role of the microbiome in severe COVID-19. Nevertheless, we were able to extract microbial features that can help to predict clinical outcomes.

7.
Infection ; 49(6): 1299-1306, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thorough knowledge of the nature and frequency of co-infections is essential to optimize treatment strategies and risk assessment in cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening approach for community-acquired bacterial pathogens (CABPs) at hospital admission, which could facilitate identification of bacterial co-infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Clinical data and biomaterials from 200 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from the observational cohort of the Competence Network for community-acquired pneumonia (CAPNETZ) prospectively recruited between March 17, 2020, and March 12, 2021 in 12 centers in Germany and Switzerland, were included in this study. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were analyzed on hospital admission using multiplex real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for a broad range of CABPs. RESULTS: In total of 200 patients Staphylococcus aureus (27.0%), Haemophilus influenzae (13.5%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5.5%), Moraxella catarrhalis (2.5%), and Legionella pneumophila (1.5%) were the most frequently detected bacterial pathogens. PCR detection of bacterial pathogens correlated with purulent sputum, and showed no correlation with ICU admission, mortality, and inflammation markers. Although patients who received antimicrobial treatment were more often admitted to the ICU and had a higher mortality rate, PCR pathogen detection was not significantly related to antimicrobial treatment. CONCLUSION: General CABP screening using multiplex PCR with nasopharyngeal swabs may not facilitate prediction or identification of bacterial co-infections in the early phase of COVID-19-related hospitalization. Most patients with positive PCR results appear to be colonized rather than infected at that time, questioning the value of routine antibiotic treatment on admission in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Legionella pneumophila , Pneumonia , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427245

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coagulopathy and venous thromboembolism are common findings in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are associated with poor outcome. Timely initiation of anticoagulation after hospital admission was shown to be beneficial. In this study we aim to examine the association of pre-existing oral anticoagulation (OAC) with outcome among a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the data from the large multi-national Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (LEOSS) from March to August 2020. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible for inclusion. We retrospectively analysed the association of pre-existing OAC with all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures included COVID-19-related mortality, recovery and composite endpoints combining death and/or thrombotic event and death and/or bleeding event. We restricted bleeding events to intracerebral bleeding in this analysis to ensure clinical relevance and to limit reporting errors. A total of 1 433 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were analysed, while 334 patients (23.3%) had an existing premedication with OAC and 1 099 patients (79.7%) had no OAC. After risk adjustment for comorbidities, pre-existing OAC showed a protective influence on the endpoint death (OR 0.62, P = 0.013) as well as the secondary endpoints COVID-19-related death (OR 0.64, P = 0.023) and non-recovery (OR 0.66, P = 0.014). The combined endpoint death or thrombotic event tended to be less frequent in patients on OAC (OR 0.71, P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing OAC is protective in COVID-19, irrespective of anticoagulation regime during hospital stay and independent of the stage and course of disease.

9.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103278, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) on clinical courses of B-cell-sufficient and B-cell-depleted patients with life-threatening COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this case series, we retrospectively analysed clinical, laboratory and cardiopulmonary parameters of six patients with life-threatening COVID-19 receiving convalescent plasma (CP) as rescue therapy between April 11, 2020 to October 10, 2020. Clinical and laboratory parameters before and after transfusion were compared in two B-cell-depleted patients and four B-cell sufficient patients (control group). RESULTS: Both B-cell-depleted patients cleared SARS-CoV-2 virus and survived, while all other patients died within 14 days from intervention despite maximal therapeutic efforts. D-dimer levels increased in both cohorts subsequent to CPT. In control patients, mean Interleukin-6 increased and platelet levels decreased as opposed to decreasing and stable levels in B-cell-depleted patients, respectively. Control patients required increased doses of vasopressor compared to decreasing doses in B-cell depleted patients subsequent to CPT. PO2/FiO2 decrease was more pronounced and respiratory deterioration required postinterventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in two control patients. Transpulmonary thermodilution revealed a further increase of the Extravascular Lung Water Index upon CPT in control patients. CONCLUSION: Use of CP in late stages of life-threatening COVID-19 should be used with caution but may be beneficial in B-cell-depleted patients. Further studies are necessary to assess factors predicting potential therapeutic benefits as well as possible hazards.

10.
Infection ; 49(5): 927-934, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic reliability and practicability of self-collected oropharyngeal swab samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection as self-sampling could enable broader testing availability and reduce both personal protective equipment and potential exposure. METHODS: Hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were asked to collect two oropharyngeal swabs (SC-OPS1/2), and an additional oropharyngeal swab was collected by a health care professional (HCP-OPS). SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing for samples from 58 participants was performed, with a 48-h delay in half of the self-collected samples (SC-OPS2). The sensitivity, probability of concordance, and interrater reliability were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess predictive factors. Practicability was evaluated through a questionnaire. RESULTS: The test sensitivity for HCP-OPS, SC-OPS1, and SC-OPS2 was 88%, 78%, and 77%, respectively. Combining both SC-OPS results increased the estimated sensitivity to 88%. The concordance probability between HCP-OPS and SC-OPS1 was 77.6% and 82.5% between SC-OPS1 and SC-OPS2, respectively. Of the participants, 69% affirmed performing future self-sampling at home, and 34% preferred self-sampling over HCP-guided testing. Participants with both positive HCP-OPS1 and SC-OPS1 indicating no challenges during self-sampling had more differences in viral load levels between HCP-OPS1 and SC-OPS1 than those who indicated challenges. Increasing disease duration and the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG correlated with negative test results in self-collected samples of previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals. CONCLUSION: Oropharyngeal self-sampling is an applicable testing approach for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. Self-sampling tends to be more effective in early versus late infection and symptom onset, and the collection of two distinct samples is recommended to maintain high test sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Health Personnel , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
11.
Infection ; 49(6): 1313-1318, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303394

ABSTRACT

Additional treatment options for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are urgently needed, particularly for populations at high risk of severe disease. This cross-sectional, retrospective study characterized the outcomes of 43 patients with nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with and without treatment using monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (bamlanivimab or casirivimab/imdevimab). Our results indicate that treatment with monoclonal antibodies results in a significant decrease in disease progression and mortality when used for asymptomatic patients with early SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Hemasphere ; 5(7): e603, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301392

ABSTRACT

The clinical and immunological impact of B-cell depletion in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. We conducted a prospectively planned analysis of COVID-19 in patients who received B-cell depleting anti-CD20 antibodies and chemotherapy for B-cell lymphomas. The control cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without lymphoma who were hospitalized because of COVID-19. We performed detailed clinical analyses, in-depth cellular and molecular immune profiling, and comprehensive virological studies in 12 patients with available biospecimens. B-cell depleted lymphoma patients had more severe and protracted clinical course (median hospitalization 88 versus 17 d). All patients actively receiving immunochemotherapy (n = 5) required ICU support including long-term mechanical ventilation. Neutrophil recovery following granulocyte colony stimulating factor stimulation coincided with hyperinflammation and clinical deterioration in 4 of the 5 patients. Immune cell profiling and gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed early activation of monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and the complement system in B-cell depleted lymphoma patients, with subsequent exacerbation of the inflammatory response and dysfunctional interferon signaling at the time of clinical deterioration of COVID-19. Longitudinal immune cell profiling and functional in vitro assays showed SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-effector cell responses. Finally, we observed long-term detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens (median 84 versus 12 d) and an inability to mount lasting SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in B-cell depleted lymphoma patients. In summary, we identified clinically relevant particularities of COVID-19 in lymphoma patients receiving B-cell depleting immunochemotherapies.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11524, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253988

ABSTRACT

Nearly 5% of patients suffering from COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) is a marker of pulmonary oedema which is associated with mortality in ARDS. In this study, we evaluate whether EVLWI is higher in patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS as compared to COVID-19 negative, ventilated patients with ARDS and whether EVLWI has the potential to monitor disease progression. EVLWI and cardiac function were monitored by transpulmonary thermodilution in 25 patients with COVID-19 ARDS subsequent to intubation and compared to a control group of 49 non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. At intubation, EVLWI was noticeably elevated and significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in the control group (17 (11-38) vs. 11 (6-26) mL/kg; p < 0.001). High pulmonary vascular permeability index values (2.9 (1.0-5.2) versus 1.9 (1.0-5.2); p = 0.003) suggested a non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. By contrast, the cardiac parameters SVI, GEF and GEDVI were comparable in both cohorts. High EVLWI values were associated with viral persistence, prolonged intensive care treatment and in-hospital mortality (23.2 ± 6.7% vs. 30.3 ± 6.0%, p = 0.025). Also, EVLWI showed a significant between-subjects (r = - 0.60; p = 0.001) and within-subjects correlation (r = - 0.27; p = 0.028) to Horowitz index. Compared to non COVID-19 ARDS, COVID-19 results in markedly elevated EVLWI-values in patients with ARDS. High EVLWI reflects a non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in COVID-19 ARDS and could serve as parameter to monitor ARDS progression on ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extravascular Lung Water/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Capillary Permeability , Disease Progression , Extravascular Lung Water/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/blood supply , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Monitoring, Physiologic/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thermodilution/methods , Thermodilution/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
Trials ; 22(1): 343, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there are no approved treatments for early disease stages of COVID-19 and few strategies to prevent disease progression after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate administered within 72 h of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult individuals with pre-existing risk factors at higher risk of getting seriously ill with COVID-19. Camostat mesylate acts as an inhibitor of the host cell serine protease TMPRSS2 and prevents the virus from entering the cell. CP represents another antiviral strategy in terms of passive immunization. The working hypothesis to be tested in the RES-Q-HR study is that the early use of CP or camostat mesylate reduces the likelihood of disease progression to (modified) WHO stages 4b-8 in SARS-CoV-2-positive adult patients at high risk of moderate or severe COVID-19 progression. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a 4-arm (parallel group), multicenter, randomized (2:2:1:1 ratio), partly double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate with control or placebo in adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and high risk for progression to moderate/severe COVID-19. Superiority of the intervention arms will be tested. PARTICIPANTS: The trial is conducted at 10-15 tertiary care centers in Germany. Individuals aged 18 years or above with ability to provide written informed consent with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by PCR within 3 days or less before enrolment and the presence of at least one SARS-CoV-2 symptom (such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, headache, fatigue, smell/and or taste disorder, diarrhea, abdominal symptoms, exanthema) and symptom duration of not more than 3 days. Further inclusion criteria comprise: Presence of at least one of the following criteria indicating increased risk for severe COVID-19: Age > 75 years Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or pulmonary fibrosis BMI > 40 kg/m2 Age > 65 years with at least one other risk factor (BMI > 35 kg/m2, coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) BMI > 35 kg/m2 with at least one other risk factor (CAD, CKD with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) Exclusion criteria: 1. Age < 18 years 2. Unable to give informed consent 3. Pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers 4. Previous transfusion reaction or other contraindication to a plasma transfusion 5. Known hypersensitivity to camostat mesylate and/or severe pancreatitis 6. Volume stress due to CP administration would be intolerable 7. Known IgA deficiency 8. Life expectancy < 6 months 9. Duration SARS-CoV-2 typical symptoms > 3 days 10. SARS-CoV-2 PCR detection older than 3 days 11. SARS-CoV-2 associated clinical condition ≥ WHO stage 3 (patients hospitalized for other reasons than COVID-19 may be included if they fulfill all inclusion and none of the exclusion criteria) 12. Previously or currently hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 13. Previous antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 14. ALT or AST > 5 x ULN at screening 15. Liver cirrhosis > Child A (patients with Child B/C cirrhosis are excluded from the trial) 16. Chronic kidney disease with GFR < 30 ml/min 17. Concurrent or planned anticancer treatment during trial period 18. Accommodation in an institution due to legal orders (§40(4) AMG). 19. Any psycho-social condition hampering compliance with the study protocol. 20. Evidence of current drug or alcohol abuse 21. Use of other investigational treatment within 5 half-lives of enrolment is prohibited 22. Previous use of convalescent plasma for COVID-19 23. Concomitant proven influenza A infection 24. Patients with organ or bone marrow transplant in the three months prior to screening visit INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomized to the following 4 groups: 1) Convalescent plasma (CP), 2 units at screening/baseline visit (day 0) or day 1; CP is defined by the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with titers ≥ 1:160; individuals with body weight ≥ 150 kg will receive a third unit of plasma on day 3 2) Camostat mesylate (200 mg per capsule, one capsule taken each in the morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7) 3) Standard of care (SOC, control for CP) 4) Placebo (identical in appearance to camostat mesylate capsules, one capsule taken each morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7; for camostat mesylate control group) Participants will be monitored after screening/baseline on day 3, day 5, day 8, and day 14. On day 28 and day 56, telephone visits and on day 90, another outpatient visit are scheduled. Adverse events and serious adverse events will be monitored and reported until the end of the study. An independent data safety monitoring committee will review trial progression and safety. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of the study is the cumulative number of individuals who progress to or beyond category 4b on the modified WHO COVID-19 ordinal scale (defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and additional oxygen demand via nasal cannula or mask) within 28 days after randomization. RANDOMIZATION: Participants will be randomized using the Alea-Tool ( aleaclinical.com ) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to the treatment arms (1) CP, (2) camostat mesylate, (3) standard of care (SoC), and (4) placebo matching camostat mesylate. Randomization will be stratified by study center. BLINDING (MASKING): The camostat mesylate treatment arm and the respective placebo will be blinded for participants, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes. The treatment arms convalescent plasma and standard of care will not be blinded and thus are open-labeled, unblinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Overall, n = 994 participants will be randomized to the following groups: n = 331 to convalescent plasma (CP), n = 331 to camostat mesylate, n = 166 to standard of care (SoC), and n = 166 to placebo matching camostat mesylate. TRIAL STATUS: The RES-Q-HR protocol (V04F) was approved on the 18 December 2020 by the local ethics committee and by the regulatory institutions PEI/BfARM on the 2 December 2020. The trial was opened for recruitment on 26 December 2020; the first patient was enrolled on 7 January 2021 and randomized on 8 January 2021. Recruitment shall be completed by June 2021. The current protocol version RES-Q HR V05F is from 4 January 2021, which was approved on the 18 January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number 2020-004695-18 . Registered on September 29, 2020. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04681430 . Registered on December 23, 2020, prior to the start of the enrollment (which was opened on December 26, 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (V05F) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Esters , Female , Germany , Guanidines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesylates , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Plasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 119, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 is challenging. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) detects pulmonary infiltrates with high sensitivity, but findings may be non-specific. This study assesses the diagnostic value of SARS-CoV-2 serology for patients with distinct CT features but negative PCR. METHODS: IgM/IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay was performed for 107 patients with confirmed (group A: PCR + ; CT ±) and 46 patients with suspected (group B: repetitive PCR-; CT +) COVID-19, admitted to a German university hospital during the pandemic's first wave. A standardized, in-house CT classification of radiological signs of a viral pneumonia was used to assess the probability of COVID-19. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates (SR) determined on day 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 after symptom onset (SO) were 8%, 25%, 65%, 76% and 91% for group A, and 0%, 10%, 19%, 37% and 46% for group B, respectively; (p < 0.01). Compared to hospitalized patients with a non-complicated course (non-ICU patients), seroconversion tended to occur at lower frequency and delayed in patients on intensive care units. SR of patients with CT findings classified as high certainty for COVID-19 were 8%, 22%, 68%, 79% and 93% in group A, compared with 0%, 15%, 28%, 50% and 50% in group B (p < 0.01). SARS-CoV-2 serology established a definite diagnosis in 12/46 group B patients. In 88% (8/9) of patients with negative serology > 14 days after symptom onset (group B), clinico-radiological consensus reassessment revealed probable diagnoses other than COVID-19. Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 serology was superior to PCR > 17d after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of patients with distinct COVID-19 CT findings are tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR rendering correct diagnosis difficult. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing alongside current CT/PCR-based diagnostic algorithms improves discrimination between COVID-19-related and non-related pulmonary infiltrates in PCR negative patients. However, sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 serology strongly depends on the time of testing and becomes superior to PCR after the 2nd week following symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion , Serologic Tests , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0238825, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Superinfections, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), are well-known complications of critically ill patients with severe viral pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and outcome of IPA in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively screened 32 critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia for a time period of 28 days using a standardized study protocol for oberservation of developement of COVID-19 associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We collected laboratory, microbiological, virological and clinical parameters at defined timepoints in combination with galactomannan-antigen-detection from nondirected bronchial lavage (NBL). We used logistic regression analyses to assess if COVID-19 was independently associated with IPA and compared it with matched controls. FINDINGS: CAPA was diagnosed at a median of 4 days after ICU admission in 11/32 (34%) of critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia as compared to 8% in the control cohort. In the COVID-19 cohort, mean age, APACHE II score and ICU mortality were higher in patients with CAPA than in patients without CAPA (36% versus 9.5%; p<0.001). ICU stay (21 versus 17 days; p = 0.340) and days of mechanical ventilation (20 versus 15 days; p = 0.570) were not different between both groups. In regression analysis COVID-19 and APACHE II score were independently associated with IPA. INTERPRETATION: CAPA is highly prevalent and associated with a high mortality rate. COVID-19 is independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A standardized screening and diagnostic approach as presented in our study can help to identify affected patients at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology , Male , Mannans/metabolism , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Superinfection/etiology , Superinfection/microbiology
17.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060774

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comprises mild courses of disease as well as progression to severe disease, characterised by lung and other organ failure. The immune system is considered to play a crucial role for the pathogenesis of COVID-19, although especially the contribution of innate-like T cells remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed the phenotype and function of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, innate-like T cells with potent antimicrobial effector function, in patients with mild and severe COVID-19 by multicolour flow cytometry. Our data indicate that MAIT cells are highly activated in patients with COVID-19, irrespective of the course of disease, and express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17A and TNFα ex vivo. Of note, expression of the activation marker HLA-DR positively correlated with SAPS II score, a measure of disease severity. Upon MAIT cell-specific in vitro stimulation, MAIT cells however failed to upregulate expression of the cytokines IL-17A and TNFα, as well as cytolytic proteins, that is, granzyme B and perforin. Thus, our data point towards an altered cytokine expression profile alongside an impaired antibacterial and antiviral function of MAIT cells in COVID-19 and thereby contribute to the understanding of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Granzymes/metabolism , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
18.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(3): 162-166, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054084

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids have been found as useful adjunctive therapy in patients with various infections and hyperinflammation-associated disease. They are recommended in practice guidelines for patients with tuberculous and pneumococcal meningitis and patients with immune reconstitution syndrome associated with antiretroviral therapy. A new indication is severe COVID-19. Evidence from clinical trials is insufficient to allow the routine use of steroids among patients with septic shock, community-acquired pneumonia or tuberculous pericarditis.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/complications , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/drug therapy , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/drug therapy , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Sepsis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Spirochaetales Infections/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
19.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(4): 859-869, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898040

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. Bacterial co-infections are associated with unfavourable outcomes in respiratory viral infections; however, microbiological and antibiotic data related to COVID-19 are sparse. Adequate use of antibiotics in line with antibiotic stewardship (ABS) principles is warranted during the pandemic. We performed a retrospective study of clinical and microbiological characteristics of 140 COVID-19 patients admitted between February and April 2020 to a German University hospital, with a focus on bacterial co-infections and antimicrobial therapy. The final date of follow-up was 6 May 2020. Clinical data of 140 COVID-19 patients were recorded: The median age was 63.5 (range 17-99) years; 64% were males. According to the implemented local ABS guidelines, the most commonly used antibiotic regimen was ampicillin/sulbactam (41.5%) with a median duration of 6 (range 1-13) days. Urinary antigen tests for Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus peumoniae were negative in all cases. In critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (n = 50), co-infections with Enterobacterales (34.0%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.0%) were detected. Blood cultures collected at admission showed a diagnostic yield of 4.2%. Bacterial and fungal co-infections are rare in COVID-19 patients and are mainly prevalent in critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of antimicrobial therapy on therapeutic outcome in COVID-19 patients to prevent antimicrobial overuse. ABS guidelines could help in optimising the management of COVID-19. Investigation of microbial patterns of infectious complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients is also required.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Male , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Sulbactam/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Young Adult
20.
Infection ; 48(6): 971-974, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631448

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The first SARS-CoV-2 cases in Europe were reported in January 2020. Recently, concern arose on unrecognized infections before this date. For a better understanding of the pandemic, we retrospectively analyzed patient samples for SARS-CoV-2 from the prospective CAPNETZ study cohort. METHODS: We used nasopharyngeal swab samples from a cohort of well characterized patients with community acquired pneumonia of the CAPNETZ study group, recruited from different geographic regions across Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and Switzerland between 02nd December 2019 and 28th April 2020. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for a broad range of respiratory pathogens and SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR were performed on all samples. RESULTS: In our cohort, respiratory pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 21.5% (42/195) of patients with rhinovirus as the most frequently detected pathogen. The detection rate increased to 29.7% (58/195) when SARS-CoV-2 was included. No SARS-CoV-2 positive sample was detected before end of March 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viral pathogens accounted for a considerable number of positive results but no SARS-CoV-2 case was identified before the end of March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Community-Acquired Infections/history , Female , Germany , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/history , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...