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Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376908


Microalgae and cyanobacteria are good sources for prospecting metabolites of biotechnological interest, including glucosidase inhibitors. These inhibitors act on enzymes related to various biochemical processes; they are involved in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and Gaucher disease, tumors and viral infections, thus, they are interesting hubs for the development of new drugs and therapies. In this work, the screening of 63 environmental samples collected in the Brazilian Amazon found activity against ß-glucosidase, of at least 60 min, in 13.85% of the tested extracts, with Synechococcus sp. GFB01 showing inhibitory activity of 90.2% for α-glucosidase and 96.9% against ß-glucosidase. It was found that the nutritional limitation due to a reduction in the concentration of sodium nitrate, despite not being sufficient to cause changes in cell growth and photosynthetic apparatus, resulted in reduced production of α and ß-glucosidase inhibitors and differential protein expression. The proteomic analysis of cyanobacteria isolated from the Amazon is unprecedented, with this being the first work to evaluate the protein expression of Synechococcus sp. GFB01 subjected to nutritional stress. This evaluation helps to better understand the metabolic responses of this organism, especially related to the production of inhibitors, adding knowledge to the industrial potential of these cyanobacterial compounds.

Cell ; 182(6): 1419-1440.e23, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694631


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myelopoiesis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD11 Antigens/genetics , CD11 Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/cytology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Proteome/genetics , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , Single-Cell Analysis