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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 50, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779649

ABSTRACT

The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Glycemic Outcomes, was held virtually on November 18-19, 2021. Pursuing the tradition of the previous summits, this reference congress served as a platform for in-depth discussion and exchange on recently completed CVOTs. This year's focus was placed on the outcomes of EMPEROR-Preserved, FIGARO-DKD, AMPLITUDE-O, SURPASS 1-5, and STEP 1-5. Trial implications for diabetes and obesity management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for endocrinologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussions evolved from outcome trials using SGLT2 inhibitors as therapy for heart failure, to CVOTs with nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, trials for glycemic and overweight/obesity management, challenges in diabetes management in COVID-19, and novel guidelines and treatment strategies were discussed.Trial registration The 8th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November 10-11, 2022 ( http://www.cvot.org ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
2.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 130(3): 178-189, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747156

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - has resulted in a global pandemic. The associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a high number of death worldwide. Observational studies and case reports have provided insights that older age and the presence of chronic diseases is frequently associated with a higher COVID-19 severity. These individuals also seem to have a higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19. In this review we provide insights into the impact chronic diseases associated with the cardiovascular system, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease might have on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Additionally we review recommendations and guidance's of international scientific associations and discuss which key learnings might be of importance for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Heart , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 218, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503722

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most relevant risk factors for heart failure, the prevalence of which is increasing worldwide. The aim of the review is to highlight the current perspectives of the pathophysiology of heart failure as it pertains to type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the proposed mechanistic bases, explaining the myocardial damage induced by diabetes-related stressors and other risk factors, i.e., cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes. We highlight the complex pathology of individuals with type 2 diabetes, including the relationship with chronic kidney disease, metabolic alterations, and heart failure. We also discuss the current criteria used for heart failure diagnosis and the gold standard screening tools for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Currently approved pharmacological therapies with primary use in type 2 diabetes and heart failure, and the treatment-guiding role of NT-proBNP are also presented. Finally, the influence of the presence of type 2 diabetes as well as heart failure on COVID-19 severity is briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Management , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening/trends , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis
4.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 75, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166910

ABSTRACT

The 6th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit "Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes 2020" was the first to be held virtually on October 29-30, 2020. As in previous years, this summit served as reference meeting for in-depth discussions on the topic of recently completed and presented major outcome trials. This year, focus was placed on the outcomes of VERTIS-CV, EMPEROR-Reduced, DAPA-CKD, and FIDELIO-DKD. Trial implications for diabetes management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for diabetologists, cardiologists, endocrinologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussion evolved from major outcome trials using SGLT-2 inhibitors for treatment and prevention of heart failure and chronic kidney disease in people with and without diabetes, to additional therapy options for chronic kidney disease with a novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Furthermore, challenges in diabetes management like COVID-19 and obesity, as well as novel treatment strategies and guidelines, were discussed.The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November, 18-19, 2021 ( http://www.cvot.org ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Congresses as Topic/trends , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Research Report/trends , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiology , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108794, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163637

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing heart failure (HF) in diagnosed patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a close to two-fold increased mortality rate compared to COVID-19 patients without prior HF history. Moreover, based both on biomarker as well as imaging findings, widespread endothelial and cardiac injury seems to be present in many patients presenting with COVID-19, associated with adverse outcomes including new onset HF. Systematic echocardiographic studies in patients with COVID-19 indicate that the most common cardiac pathology is right ventricular (RV) dilatation (39%) over and above both left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (16%) and LV systolic dysfunction (10%). In addition, myocardial injury, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is observed in some 55% to 70% of patients recently recovered from COVID-19 even in those who didn't get very sick during the acute illness. These observations seem to indicate a potentially rather high risk of clinical HF emerging in patients post-COVID-19, warranting close long-term monitoring of patients during recovery. On the other hand, given the established adverse prognostic role that pre-existing HF plays as a comorbidity in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, it not only seems important in the still ongoing COVID-19 pandemic that all patients with known HF should proactively be well controlled and treated according to current guidelines, but also additionally be considered for priority vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 infection if not yet vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Failure/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
6.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 114, 2020 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656673

ABSTRACT

In the pandemic "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) people with diabetes have a high risk to require ICU admission. The management of diabetes in Intensive Care Unit is always challenging, however, when diabetes is present in COVID-19 the situation seems even more complicated. An optimal glycemic control, avoiding acute hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability may significantly improve the outcome. In this case, intravenous insulin infusion with continuous glucose monitoring should be the choice. No evidence suggests stopping angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-renin-blockers or statins, even it has been suggested that they may increase the expression of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, which is used by "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to penetrate into the cells. A real issue is the usefulness of several biomarkers, which have been suggested to be measured during the COVID-19. N-Terminal-pro-Brain Natriuretic-Peptide, D-dimer and hs-Troponin are often increased in diabetes. Their meaning in the case of diabetes and COVID-19 should be therefore very carefully evaluated. Even though we understand that in such a critical situation some of these requests are not so easy to implement, we believe that the best possible action to prevent a worse outcome is essential in any medical act.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1427-1432, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-360923

ABSTRACT

People with diabetes compared with people without exhibit worse prognosis if affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), particularly when compromising metabolic control and concomitant cardiovascular disorders are present. This Perspective seeks to explore newly occurring cardio-renal-pulmonary organ damage induced or aggravated by the disease process of COVID-19 and its implications for the cardiovascular risk management of people with diabetes, especially taking into account potential interactions with mechanisms of cellular intrusion of SARS-CoV-2. Severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 can precipitate myocardial infarction, myocarditis, heart failure, and arrhythmias as well as an acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal failure. They may evolve along with multiorgan failure directly due to SARS-CoV-2-infected endothelial cells and resulting endotheliitis. This complex pathology may bear challenges for the use of most diabetes medications in terms of emerging contraindications that need close monitoring of all people with diabetes diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whenever possible, continuous glucose monitoring should be implemented to ensure stable metabolic compensation. Patients in the intensive care unit requiring therapy for glycemic control should be handled solely by intravenous insulin using exact dosing with a perfusion device. Although not only ACE inhibitors and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers but also SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, pioglitazone, and probably insulin seem to increase the number of ACE2 receptors on the cells utilized by SARS-CoV-2 for penetration, no evidence presently exists that shows this might be harmful in terms of acquiring or worsening COVID-19. In conclusion, COVID-19 and related cardio-renal-pulmonary damage can profoundly affect cardiovascular risk management of people with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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