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1.
American Journal of Transplantation ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1807004

ABSTRACT

Seroconversion after COVID‐19 vaccination is impaired in kidney transplant recipients. Emerging variants of concern such as the B.1.617.2 (delta) and the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variants pose an increasing threat to these patients. In this observational cohort study, we measured anti‐S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and anti‐receptor‐binding domain antibodies three weeks after a third mRNA vaccine dose in 49 kidney transplant recipients and compared results to 25 age‐matched healthy controls. In addition, vaccine‐induced neutralization of SARS‐CoV‐2 wild‐type, the B.1.617.2 (delta), and the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variants was assessed using a live‐virus assay. After a third vaccine dose, anti‐S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and anti‐receptor‐binding domain antibodies were significantly lower in kidney transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. Only 29/49 (59%) sera of kidney transplant recipients contained neutralizing antibodies against the SARS‐CoV‐2 wild‐type or the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant and neutralization titers were significantly reduced compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001). Vaccine‐induced cross‐neutralization of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variants was detectable in 15/35 (43%) kidney transplant recipients with seropositivity for anti‐S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and/or anti‐RBD antibodies. Neutralization of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variants was significantly reduced compared to neutralization of SARS‐CoV‐2 wild‐type or the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant for both, kidney transplant recipients and healthy controls (p < .001 for all). [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of American Journal of Transplantation is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Infection ; 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to develop a scalable approach for direct comparison of the analytical sensitivities of commercially available SARS-CoV-2 antigen point-of-care tests (AgPOCTs) to rapidly identify poor-performing products. METHODS: We present a methodology for quick assessment of the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 AgPOCTs suitable for quality evaluation of many different products. We established reference samples with high, medium, and low SARS-CoV-2 viral loads along with a SARS-CoV-2 negative control sample. Test samples were used to semi-quantitatively assess the analytical sensitivities of 32 different commercial AgPOCTs in a head-to-head comparison. RESULTS: Among 32 SARS-CoV-2 AgPOCTs tested, we observe sensitivity differences across a broad range of viral loads (9.8 × 108 to 1.8 × 105 SARS-CoV-2 genome copies per ml). 23 AgPOCTs detected the Ct25 test sample (1.6 × 106 copies/ml), while only five tests detected the Ct28 test sample (1.8 × 105 copies/ml). In the low-range of analytical sensitivity, we found three saliva spit tests only delivering positive results for the Ct21 sample (2.7 × 107 copies/ml). Comparison with published data supports our AgPOCT ranking. Importantly, we identified an AgPOCT widely offered, which did not reliably recognize the sample with the highest viral load (Ct16 test sample with 9.8 × 108 copies/ml) leading to serious doubts about its usefulness in SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. CONCLUSION: The results show that the rapid sensitivity assessment procedure presented here provides useful estimations on the analytical sensitivities of 32 AgPOCTs and identified a widely-spread AgPOCT with concerningly low sensitivity.

3.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332348

ABSTRACT

Background: Access to RT-PCR testing, the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection, is limited throughout the world, due to restricted resources, available infrastructure, and high costs. Antigen-detecting, rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) overcome some of these barriers, but independent clinical validations in settings of intended use are scarce. To inform the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) emergency use listing (EUL) procedure and ensure affordable, high-quality Ag-RDTs, we assessed the performance and ease-of-use of the SureStatus for SARS-CoV-2. Methods: This prospective, multi-center diagnostic accuracy study recruited unvaccinated participants with presumed SARS-CoV-2 infection in India and Germany from Dec 2019 to Mar 2021 when predominantly alpha (B.1.1.7) variant was circulating. Paired swabs were performed for (i) routine clinical RT-PCR testing (sampling was either nasopharyngeal (NP), or NP/OP combined) and (ii) for Ag-RDT (sampling was nasopharyngeal (NP)). Performance of the Ag-RDT was compared to RT-PCR overall, and according to predefined subgroups e.g., cycle threshold (Ct)-value, symptoms, and days from symptom onset. To understand usability, a System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire and ease-of-use (EoU) assessment were performed. Findings: A total of 1119 participants were included in the analysis of whom 205 (18·3%) were RT-PCR positive. SureStatus detected 169 out of 205 RT-PCR positive participants, reporting a sensitivity of 82·4% (95% CI: 76·6%-87·1%) and a specificity of 98·5% (95% CI: 97·4%-99·1%). In the first 7 days post symptom onset sensitivity was 90·7% (95% CI: 83·5%-94·9%). The test was characterized as easy to use (SUS: 85/100) and considered suitable for point-of-care settings although quality concerns were raised due to visibly contaminated packaging of swabs included in the test kits. Interpretation: The SureStatus diagnostic test can be considered a reliable test in the first week of SARS-CoV-2 infection with high sensitivity in combination with excellent usability.

4.
Am J Transplant ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774728

ABSTRACT

Seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination is impaired in kidney transplant recipients. Emerging variants of concern such as the B.1.617.2 (delta) and the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant pose an increasing threat to these patients. In this observational cohort study, we measured anti-S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and anti-receptor-binding domain antibodies three weeks after a third mRNA vaccine dose in 49 kidney transplant recipients and compared results to 25 age-matched healthy controls. In addition, vaccine-induced neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 wild-type, the B.1.617.2 (delta), and the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant was assessed using a live-virus assay. After a third vaccine dose, anti-S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and anti-receptor-binding domain antibodies were significantly lower in kidney transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. Only 29/49 (59%) sera of kidney transplant recipients contained neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type or the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant and neutralization titers were significantly reduced compared to healthy controls (P<0.001). Vaccine-induced cross-neutralization of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant was detectable in 15/35 (43%) kidney transplant recipients with seropositivity for anti-S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and/or anti-RBD antibodies. Neutralization of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant was significantly reduced compared to neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 wild-type or the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant for both, kidney transplant recipients and healthy controls (P<0.001 for all).

5.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To characterize humoral response after standard anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Rituximab-treated patients and to determine the optimal time point after last Rituximab treatment for appropriate immunization. METHODS: Sixty-four patients who received Rituximab within the last seven years prior to the first anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were recruited in a prospective observational study. Anti-S1 IgG, SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralization, and various SARS-CoV-2 target antibodies were determined. A live virus assay was used to assess neutralizing antibody activity against B.1.617.2 (delta). In Rituximab-treated patients, CD19+ peripheral B-cells were quantified using flow cytometry. RESULTS: After second vaccination, all antibodies were significantly reduced compared to healthy controls. Neutralizing antibody activity against B.1.617.2 (delta) was detectable with a median (IQR) ID50 of 0 (0-1:20) compared to 1:320 (1:160-1:320) in healthy controls (for all p < 0.001). Longer time period since last Rituximab administration correlated with higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and a stronger neutralization of B.1.617.2 (delta). With one exception, only patients with a CD19+ cell proportion ≥ 1% had detectable neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that a reconstitution of the B-cell population to >1% seems crucial in developing neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. We suggest that anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination should be administered at least 8-12 months after the last Rituximab treatment for sufficient humoral responses.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 840136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753372

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for severe COVID-19, and impaired seroconversion rates have been demonstrated after COVID-19 vaccination. Humoral immunity wanes over time and variants of concern with immune escape are posing an increasing threat. Little is known about protection against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of concern in hemodialysis patients before and after third vaccination. We determined anti-S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and IgG antibodies against different SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in 84 hemodialysis patients directly before and three weeks after a third vaccine dose with BNT162b2. Third vaccination was performed after a median (IQR) of 119 (109-165) days after second vaccination. In addition, neutralizing activity against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant was assessed in 31 seroconverted hemodialysis patients before and after third vaccination. Triple seropositivity for anti-S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and anti-RBD antibodies increased from 31/84 (37%) dialysis patients after second to 80/84 (95%) after third vaccination. Neutralizing activity against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant was significantly higher after third vaccination with a median (IQR) ID50 of 1:320 (1:160-1:1280) compared with 1:20 (0-1:40) before a third vaccine dose (P<0.001). The anti-S1 IgG index showed the strongest correlation with the ID50 against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant determined by live virus neutralization (r=0.91). We demonstrate low neutralizing activity against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant in dialysis patients four months after standard two-dose vaccination but a substantial increase after a third vaccine dose. Booster vaccination(s) should be considered earlier than 6 months after the second vaccine dose in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702700

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic threatens patients with a compromised immune and endothelial system, including patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Thus, there is an unmet need for optimizing vaccination management in this high-risk cohort. Here, we monitored antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S1) in 167 vaccinated alloSCT patients. Humoral immune responses were detectable in 81% of patients after two vaccinations with either mRNA-, vector-based, or heterologous regimens. Age, B-cell counts, time interval from vaccination, and the type of vaccine determined antibody titres in patients without systemic immunosuppression (sIS). Similar to a healthy control cohort, mRNA vaccine-based regimens induced higher titres than vector-based vaccines. Patients on two or more immunosuppressants rarely developed immunity. In contrast, 62% and 45% of patients without or on only one immunosuppressant, respectively, showed a strong humoral vaccination response (titre > 100). Exacerbation of cGVHD upon vaccination was observed in 6% of all patients and in 22% of patients receiving immunosuppression for cGVHD. cGVHD exacerbation and low antibody titres were both associated with higher angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) serum levels. In conclusion, mRNA-based vaccines elicit strong humoral responses in alloSCT patients in the absence of double sIS. Biomarkers such as ANG2 might help with weighing cGVHD risk versus beneficial responses.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321964

ABSTRACT

Background: Since SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus without an available disease-specific medication, the hope is focused on a sustained immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection and a near-term successful vaccination therapy. A sufficient anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production with neutralizing antibodies is crucial to prevent further viral spreading and for protection against prospective reinfection. Kidney transplant recipients may have a potentially aggravated risk for COVID-19 complications as well as a reduced vaccine response due to the allograft protecting immunosuppressive therapy. However, little is known about the strength and duration of their immunological response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Case presentation Here we report on 4 kidney transplant recipients proven to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by positive PCR testing, focusing on their immunological response with the production of disease-specific neutralizing antibodies. All kidney transplant recipients developed a sufficient antibody response including specific neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 within 2 to 3 weeks after the first onset of symptoms that sustained during the follow-up of 15 weeks. After 6 weeks, the virus was eliminated in all patients. Most important, the serological response and viral shedding were achieved and sustained in the presence of immunosuppression. Acute kidney graft deterioration was common but reconstituted in all transplant recipients during follow-up. Conclusions: Immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients showed a functional serological response with disease-specific neutralizing antibodies upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, a basic prerequisite for a prospective successful vaccination response.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Humoral immunity wanes over time after two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination. Emerging variants of concern, such as the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, are increasingly responsible for breakthrough infections owing to their higher transmissibility and partial immune escape. Longitudinal data on neutralization against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant are urgently needed to guide vaccination strategies. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal observational study, anti-S1 IgG and surrogate neutralizing antibodies were measured in 234 collected samples from 60 health care workers after two-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 at five different time points over an 8-month period. In addition, antibodies against various severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 epitopes, neutralization against wild-type, and cross-neutralization against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant using a live virus assay were measured 6 weeks (second time point) and 8 months (last time point) after first vaccine dose. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) anti-S1 IgG, surrogate neutralizing, and receptor-binding domain antibodies decreased significantly from a maximum level of 147 (102-298), 97 (96-98), and 20 159 (19 023-21 628) to 8 (4-13), 92 (80-96), and 15 324 (13 055-17 288) at the 8-month follow-up, respectively (p < 0.001 for all). Neutralization against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant was detectable in all 36 (100%) participants at 6 weeks and in 50 of 53 (94%) participants 8 months after first vaccine dose. Median (interquartile) ID50 as determined by a live virus assay decreased from 160 (80-320) to 40 (20-40) (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Although humoral immunity wanes over time after two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination in healthy individuals, most individuals still had detectable neutralizing activity against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant after 8 months.

13.
Eur J Radiol ; 144: 110002, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605018

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the performance of radiologists in differentiating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 atypical pneumonia and to perform an analysis of CT patterns in a study cohort including viral, fungal and atypical bacterial pathogens. METHODS: Patients with positive RT-PCR tests for COVID-19 pneumonia (n = 90) and non-COVID-19 atypical pneumonia (n = 294) were retrospectively included. Five radiologists, blinded to the pathogen test results, assessed the CT scans and classified them as COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 pneumonia. For both groups specific CT features were recorded and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate their ability to predict COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: The radiologists differentiated between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia with an overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 88% ± 4 (SD), 79% ± 6 (SD), and 90% ± 6 (SD), respectively. The percentage of correct ratings was lower in the early and late stage of COVID-19 pneumonia compared to the progressive and peak stage (68 and 71% vs 85 and 89%). The variables associated with the most increased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia were band like subpleural opacities (OR 5.55, p < 0.001), vascular enlargement (OR 2.63, p = 0.071), and subpleural curvilinear lines (OR 2.52, p = 0.021). Bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules were associated with decreased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia with OR of 0.30 (p = 0.013) and 0.10 (p < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Radiologists can differentiate between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 atypical pneumonias at chest CT with high overall accuracy, although a lower performance was observed in the early and late stage of COVID 19 pneumonia. Specific CT features might help to make the correct diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Lung , Radiologists , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103774, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) for SARS-CoV-2 are important diagnostic tools. We assessed clinical performance and ease-of-use of seven Ag-RDTs in a prospective, manufacturer-independent, multi-centre cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study to inform global decision makers. METHODS: Unvaccinated participants suspected of a first SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited at six sites (Germany, Brazil). Ag-RDTs were evaluated sequentially, with collection of paired swabs for routine reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing and Ag-RDT testing. Performance was compared to RT-PCR overall and in sub-group analyses (viral load, symptoms, symptoms duration). To understandusability a System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire and ease-of-use (EoU) assessment were performed. FINDINGS: 7471 participants were included in the analysis. Sensitivities across Ag-RDTs ranged from 70·4%-90·1%, specificities were above 97·2% for all Ag-RDTs but one (93·1%).Ag-RDTs, Mologic, Bionote, Standard Q, showed diagnostic accuracy in line with WHO targets (> 80% sensitivity, > 97% specificity). All tests showed high sensitivity in the first three days after symptom onset (≥87·1%) and in individuals with viral loads≥ 6 log10SARS-CoV2 RNA copies/mL (≥ 88·7%). Usability varied, with Rapigen, Bionote and Standard Q reaching very good scores; 90, 88 and 84/100, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Variability in test performance is partially explained by variable viral loads in population evaluated over the course of the pandemic. All Ag-RDTs reach high sensitivity early in the disease and in individuals with high viral loads, supporting their role in identifying transmission relevant infections. For easy-to-use tests, performance shown will likely be maintained in routine implementation. FUNDING: Ministry of Science, Research and Arts, State of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, internal funds from Heidelberg University Hospital, University Hospital Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, UK Department of International Development, WHO, Unitaid.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(1): 98-106, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antibody response after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination is impaired in kidney transplant recipients. Emerging variants, such as B.1.617.2 (δ), are of particular concern because of their higher transmissibility and partial immune escape. Little is known about protection against these variants in immunocompromised patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this prospective two-center study, antispike 1 IgG and surrogate neutralizing antibodies were measured in 173 kidney transplant recipients and 166 healthy controls with different vaccination schedules. In addition, different SARS-CoV-2 epitope antibodies from 135 vaccinated kidney transplant recipients were compared with antibodies in 25 matched healthy controls after second vaccination. In 36 kidney transplant recipients with seroconversion, neutralization against B.1.1.7 (α), B.1.351 (ß), and B.1.617.2 (δ) was determined on VeroE6 cells and compared with neutralization in 25 healthy controls. RESULTS: Kidney transplant recipients had significantly lower seroconversion rates compared with healthy controls. After the second vaccination, antispike 1, antireceptor-binding domain, and surrogate neutralizing antibodies were detectable in 30%, 27%, and 24% of kidney transplant recipients, respectively. This compares with 100%, 96%, and 100% in healthy controls, respectively (P<0.001). Neutralization against B.1.1.7 was detectable in all kidney transplant recipients with seroconversion, with a median serum dilution that reduces infection of cells by 50% of 80 (interquartile range, 80-320). In contrast, only 23 of 36 (64%) and 24 of 36 (67%) kidney transplant recipients showed neutralization against B.1.351 and B.1.617.2, respectively, with median serum dilutions that reduce infection of cells by 50% of 20 (interquartile range, 0-40) and 20 (interquartile range, 0-40), respectively. Neutralization against different variants was significantly higher in healthy controls (P<0.001), with all patients showing neutralization against all tested variants. CONCLUSIONS: Seroconverted kidney transplant recipients show impaired neutralization against emerging variants of concern after standard two-dose vaccination. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Observational study to assess the SARS-CoV-2 specific immune response in kidney transplant recipients (COVID-19 related immune response), DRKS00024668.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the entry site of respiratory virus infections, the oropharyngeal microbiome has been proposed as a major hub integrating viral and host immune signals. Early studies suggested that infections with Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with changes of the upper and lower airway microbiome, and that specific microbial signatures may predict COVID-19 illness. However, the results are not conclusive, as critical illness can drastically alter a patient's microbiome through multiple confounders. METHODS: To study oropharyngeal microbiome profiles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical confounders, and prediction models in COVID-19, we performed a multi-center, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing oropharyngeal microbial metagenomes in healthy adults, patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, or with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 (n=322 participants). RESULTS: In contrast to mild infections, patients admitted to a hospital with moderate or severe COVID-19 showed dysbiotic microbial configurations, which were significantly pronounced in patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, or when sampling was performed during prolonged hospitalization. In contrast, specimens collected early after admission allowed us to segregate microbiome features predictive of hospital COVID-19 mortality utilizing machine learning models. Taxonomic signatures were found to perform better than models utilizing clinical variables with Neisseria and Haemophilus species abundances as most important features. CONCLUSION: In addition to the infection per se, several factors shape the oropharyngeal microbiome of severely affected COVID-19 patients and deserve consideration in the interpretation of the role of the microbiome in severe COVID-19. Nevertheless, we were able to extract microbial features that can help to predict clinical outcomes.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463844

ABSTRACT

It has been demonstrated that patients on hemo- or peritoneal dialysis are particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and impaired seroconversion compared to healthy controls. Follow-up data on vaccination response in dialysis patients is limited but is greatly needed to individualize and guide (booster) vaccination strategies. In this prospective, multicenter study we measured anti-spike S1 and neutralizing antibodies in 124 hemodialysis patients, 41 peritoneal dialysis patients, and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls over 12 weeks after homologous BNT162b2 vaccination. Compared to healthy controls, both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients had lower anti-S1 IgG antibodies (median (IQR) 7.0 (2.8-24.3) and 21.8 (5.8-103.9) versus 134.9 (23.8-283.6), respectively; p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) and a reduced SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-ACE2 binding inhibition caused by vaccine-induced antibodies (median (IQR) 56% (40-81) and 77% (52-89) versus 96% (90-98), respectively; p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) three weeks after the second vaccination. Twelve weeks after the second vaccination, the spike protein-ACE2 binding inhibition significantly decreased to a median (IQR) of 45% (31-60) in hemodialysis patients and 55% (36-78) in peritoneal dialysis patients, respectively (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Peritoneal dialysis patients mounted higher antibody levels compared with hemodialysis patients at all time points during the 12-week follow-up. Individual booster vaccinations in high-risk individuals without seroconversion or rapidly waning neutralizing antibody levels are required and further data on the neutralization of emerging variants of concern in these patients are urgently needed.

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