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1.
Ann Oper Res ; : 1-43, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820664

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 can be earmarked as the year of global supply chain disruption owing to the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19). It is however not only because of the pandemic that supply chain risk assessment (SCRA) has become more critical today than it has ever been. With the number of supply chain risks having increased significantly over the last decade, particularly during the last 5 years, there has been a flurry of literature on supply chain risk management (SCRM), illustrating the need for further classification so as to guide researchers to the most promising avenues and opportunities. We therefore conduct a bibliometric and network analysis of SCRA publications to identify research areas and underlying themes, leading to the identification of three major research clusters for which we provide interpretation and guidance for future work. In doing so we focus in particular on the variety of parameters, analytical approaches, and characteristics of multi-criteria decision-making techniques for assessing supply chain risks. This offers an invaluable synthesis of the SCRA literature, providing recommendations for future research opportunities. As such, this paper is a formidable starting point for operations researchers delving into this domain, which is expected to increase significantly also due to the current pandemic.

2.
Journal of Operations Management ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057654

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the impact of the Chinese government's Level I emergency response policy on manufacturers' stock market values. We empirically examine the roles of human resource dependence (labor intensity) and operational slack within the context of supply chain resilience. Through an event study of 1357 Chinese manufacturing companies, we find that the government's emergency response policy triggered statistically significant positive abnormal returns for manufacturers. However, we also find that there exists a negative impact on abnormal returns for manufacturers that are labor‐intensive, giving rise to arguments based in resource dependence theory. In addition, the results indicate the positive role played by operational slack (e.g., financial and inventory slack) in helping manufacturers maintain operations and business continuity, effectively mitigating risks and adding to the manufacturers' resilience. With these findings, we contribute to operations and supply chain management by calling attention to the importance of human resource redundancy while at the same time identifying financial slack and inventory as supply chain resilience strategies that were able to mitigate pandemic‐related risks. Highlights Although government policies and regulations are often central for supply chain risk mitigation, they may sometimes also carry secondary risks;manufacturers should monitor and ideally anticipate public policy interventions. Slack financial resources provide greater flexibility in a company's response to an unanticipated event and should thus be emphasized;nevertheless, the value of excess inventory should not be neglected. A greater dependence on labor exposes manufacturers to greater risks, especially when public policy curtails travel and the movement of labor. Governments should use policymaking as a means to provide guidance and support regarding the deployment of manufacturers' operational slack, especially financial slack.

3.
Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management ; : 100753, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1747617

ABSTRACT

The raison d'être for this article is simple: traditional ways of researching, theorizing, and practicing purchasing and supply management (PSM) are no longer sufficient to ‘meet the moment’. Scholars need to advance a “business-not-as-usual” footing approach to their work, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to addressing the current and future emergencies, as highlighted by recent extreme weather and the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, what can this, or should this, mean for a field rooted in traditional business thinking? This article builds on the Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management's (JPSM) 25th Anniversary Special Issue editorial (2019);members of the JPSM's editorial team advance their unique perspectives on what “business-not-as-usual” means for PSM. Specifically, we advocate both thinking much more widely, in scope and ambition, than we currently do, and simultaneously building our ability to comprehend supply chains in a more nuanced and granular way. We explore whether the bias toward positivist work has omitted potentially interesting findings, and viewpoints. This leads to a call to re-think how we approach our work: should the key criteria always be to focus on theory development or testing? Should academics “think bigger”? Turning to specific research themes, illustrations of how our current thinking can be challenged or broadened by addressing the circular economy, and role of purchasing and innovation. Specifically, the focus on the PSM function as an intrapreneur within the larger organization, and the role of innovation and technology in PSM work. Taken together, we hope the ideas and arguments presented here will inform and inspire ambitious and novel approaches to PSM research with significant and enduring impact on the transformation of business.

4.
Transp Res E Logist Transp Rev ; 156: 102542, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521578

ABSTRACT

While cold chain management has been part of healthcare systems, enabling the efficient administration of vaccines in both urban and rural areas, the COVID-19 virus has created entirely new challenges for vaccine distributions. With virtually every individual worldwide being impacted, strategies are needed to devise best vaccine distribution scenarios, ensuring proper storage, transportation and cost considerations. Current models do not consider the magnitude of distribution efforts needed in our current pandemic, in particular the objective that entire populations need to be vaccinated. We expand on existing models and devise an approach that considers the needed extensive distribution capabilities and special storage requirements of vaccines, while at the same time being cognizant of costs. As such, we provide decision support on how to distribute the vaccine to an entire population based on priority. We do so by conducting predictive analysis for three different scenarios and dividing the distribution chain into three phases. As the available vaccine doses are limited in quantity at first, we apply decision tree analysis to find the best vaccination scenario, followed by a synthetic control analysis to predict the impact of the vaccination programme to forecast future vaccine production. We then formulate a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for locating and allocating cold storage facilities for bulk vaccine production, followed by the proposition of a heuristic algorithm to solve the associated objective functions. The application of the proposed model is evaluated by implementing it in a real-world case study. The optimized numerical results provide valuable decision support for healthcare authorities.

5.
Transp Res E Logist Transp Rev ; 156: 102517, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487994

ABSTRACT

With convalescent plasma being recognized as an eminent treatment option for COVID-19, this paper addresses the location-allocation problem for convalescent plasma bank facilities. This is a critical topic, since limited supply and overtly increasing cases demand a well-established supply chain. We present a novel plasma supply chain model considering stochastic parameters affecting plasma demand and the unique features of the plasma supply chain. The primary objective is to first determine the optimal location of the plasma banks and to then allocate the plasma collection facilities so as to maintain proper plasma flow within the network. In addition, recognizing the perishable nature of plasma, we integrate a deteriorating rate with the objective that as little plasma as possible is lost. We formulate a robust mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model by considering two conflicting objective functions, namely the minimization of overall plasma transportation time and total plasma supply chain network cost, with the latter also capturing inventory costs to reduce wastage. We then propose a CPLEX-based optimization approach for solving the MILP functions. The feasibility of our results is validated by a comparison study using the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and a proposed modified NSGA-III. The application of the proposed model is evaluated by implementing it in a real-world case study within the context of India. The optimized numerical results, together with their sensitivity analysis, provide valuable decision support for policymakers.

6.
Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management ; : 100714, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1284490

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic has been disrupting supply chains in an unprecedented fashion, one type of firms that has been particularly affected are small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We focus on these SMEs, specifically on SME suppliers to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and investigate the impact that the pandemic has had on these suppliers, as well as the effectiveness of various government procurement efforts to alleviate the challenges. In doing so, we rely on survey data collected by the National Defense Industry Association (NDIA) during the early stages of the pandemic in March and April 2020 to assess initial government responses and SME supplier receptions. To derive more granular insight, we scrutinize the results across firm size, dependence on the DoD, whether the SME is a first-tier supplier or not, and industry. Through this investigation, we for instance find that the weakest suppliers are the very small SMEs (1–49 employees), and that most government measures were judged to not be that effective—at least in these early stages of the pandemic. Overall, our study leverages insight from one of the few large-scale surveys conducted on the impact of the pandemic on SME suppliers and their relationship with government agencies in the very early phases of the pandemic.

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