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1.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 13(5): 855-864, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947205

ABSTRACT

A selection of compounds from a proprietary library, based on chemical diversity and various biological activities, was evaluated as potential inhibitors of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a phenotypic-based screening assay. A compound based on a 2-phenylquinoline scaffold emerged as the most promising hit, with EC50 and CC50 values of 6 and 18 µM, respectively. The subsequent selection of additional analogues, along with the synthesis of ad hoc derivatives, led to compounds that maintained low µM activity as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication and lacked cytotoxicity at 100 µM. In addition, the most promising congeners also show pronounced antiviral activity against the human coronaviruses HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, with EC50 values ranging from 0.2 to 9.4 µM. The presence of a 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline group at the C-4 position of the 2-phenylquinoline core gave compound 6g that showed potent activity against SARS-CoV-2 helicase (nsp13), a highly conserved enzyme, highlighting a potentiality against emerging HCoVs outbreaks.

2.
iScience ; 25(8): 104705, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914523

ABSTRACT

Treatment with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to COVID-19 management. Unfortunately, SARS-CoV-2 variants escape several of these recently approved mAbs, highlighting the need for additional discovery and development. In a convalescent patient with COVID-19, we identified six mAbs, classified in four epitope groups, that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G, beta, gamma, and delta infection in vitro, with three mAbs neutralizing omicron as well. In hamsters, mAbs 3E6 and 3B8 potently cured infection with SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan, beta, and delta when administered post-viral infection at 5 mg/kg. Even at 0.2 mg/kg, 3B8 still reduced viral titers. Intramuscular delivery of DNA-encoded 3B8 resulted in in vivo mAb production of median serum levels up to 90 µg/mL, and protected hamsters against delta infection. Overall, our data mark 3B8 as a promising candidate against COVID-19, and highlight advances in both the identification and gene-based delivery of potent human mAbs.

3.
ACS medicinal chemistry letters ; 13(5):855-864, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837623

ABSTRACT

A selection of compounds from a proprietary library, based on chemical diversity and various biological activities, was evaluated as potential inhibitors of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a phenotypic-based screening assay. A compound based on a 2-phenylquinoline scaffold emerged as the most promising hit, with EC50 and CC50 values of 6 and 18 μM, respectively. The subsequent selection of additional analogues, along with the synthesis of ad hoc derivatives, led to compounds that maintained low μM activity as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication and lacked cytotoxicity at 100 μM. In addition, the most promising congeners also show pronounced antiviral activity against the human coronaviruses HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, with EC50 values ranging from 0.2 to 9.4 μM. The presence of a 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline group at the C-4 position of the 2-phenylquinoline core gave compound 6g that showed potent activity against SARS-CoV-2 helicase (nsp13), a highly conserved enzyme, highlighting a potentiality against emerging HCoVs outbreaks.

4.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820417

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants and the replacement of preceding isolates have been observed through B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, and B.1.1.529 lineages (corresponding to alpha, beta, delta, and omicron variants of concern (VoC), respectively). However, there is still a lack of biological evidence to which extent those VoC differ from the ancestral lineages. By exploiting human airway epithelial cell (HAEC) cultures, which closely resemble the human airway architecture and physiology, we report distinctive SARS-CoV-2 tropism in different respiratory tissues. In general, SARS-CoV-2 VoC predominantly infect and replicate in HAEC better than the progenitor USA-WA1 isolate or the BavPat1 isolate, which contains the D614G mutation, even though there is little to no difference between variants regarding their infectivity (i.e., virion-per-vRNA copy ratio). We also observe differential tissue-specific innate immunity activation between the upper and lower respiratory tissues in the presence of the virus. Our study provides better comprehension of the behavior of the different VoC in this physiologically relevant ex vivo model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Epithelial Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virion/pathogenicity
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327124

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses such as influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and coronaviruses initiate infection at the mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract (URT), where the resident respiratory microbiome has an important gatekeeper function. In contrast to gut-targeting administration of beneficial bacteria against respiratory viral disease, topical URT administration of probiotics is currently underexplored, especially for the prevention and/or treatment of viral infections. Here, we report the selection and formulation of a broad-acting throat spray with live lactobacilli which induce interferon regulatory pathways and are able to inhibit respiratory viruses. Rational selection of Lactobacillaceae strains was based on safety, applicability, and potential antiviral and immunostimulatory efficacy in the URT. Three strains, Lacticaseibacillus casei AMBR2, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum WCFS1 significantly reduced the cytopathogenic effects of RSV, influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses, and HCoV-229E coronavirus in co-culture models with bacteria, virus and host cells. Subsequently, these strains were formulated in a throat spray and human monocytes were employed to confirm the formulation process did not reduce the interferon regulatory pathway-inducing capacity. Administration of the throat spray in healthy volunteers revealed that the lactobacilli were capable of temporary colonization of the throat in a metabolically active form.

6.
Mol Divers ; 2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615472

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we report the design and synthesis of novel amide-type hybrid molecules based on anthranilic acid and quinoline or ß-carboline heterocyclic scaffolds. Three types of biological screenings were performed: (i) in vitro antiproliferative screening against a panel of solid tumor and leukemia cell lines, (ii) antiviral screening against several RNA viruses, and (iii) anti-quorum sensing screening using gram-negative Chromobacterium violaceum as the reporter strain. Antiproliferative screening revealed a high activity of several compounds. Anthranilamides 12 and 13 with chloroquine core and halogenated anthranilic acid were the most active agents toward diverse cancer cell lines such as glioblastoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, acute lymphoblastic, acute myeloid, chronic myeloid leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but also against noncancerous cell lines. Boc-protected analogs 2 and 3 showed moderate activities against the tested cancer cells without toxic effects against noncancerous cells. A nonhalogenated quinoline derivative 10 with N-benzylanthranilic acid residue was equally active as 12 and 13 and selective toward tumor cells. Chloroquine and quinoline anthranilamides 10-13 exerted pronounced antiviral effect against human coronaviruses 229E and OC43, whereas 12 and 13 against coronavirus OC43 (EC50 values in low micromolar range; selectivity indices from 4.6 to > 10.4). Anthranilamides 14 and 16 with PQ core inhibited HIV-1 with EC50 values of 9.3 and 14.1 µM, respectively. Compound 13 displayed significant anti-quorum/biofilm effect against the quorum sensing reporter strain (IC50 of 3.7 µM) with no apparent bactericidal effect.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293320

ABSTRACT

Treatment with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to COVID-19 management. Unfortunately, SARS-CoV-2 variants can escape several of these recently approved mAbs, highlighting the need for additional discovery and development. In a convalescent COVID-19 patient, we identified six mAbs, classified in four epitope groups, that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan, alpha, beta, gamma and delta infection in vitro. In hamsters, mAbs 3E6 and 3B8 potently cured infection with SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan, beta and delta when administered post-viral infection at 5 mg/kg. Even at 0.2 mg/kg, 3B8 still reduced viral titers. Intramuscular delivery of DNA-encoded 3B8 resulted in in vivo mAb production of median serum levels up to 90 ug/ml, and protected hamsters against delta infection. Overall, our data mark 3B8 as a promising candidate against COVID-19, and highlight advances in both the identification and gene-based delivery of potent human mAbs.

8.
JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523122

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are recognized as important circulating effector cells in the pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, their role within the inflamed lungs is incompletely understood. Here, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and parallel blood samples of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and compared BAL fluid parameters with those of mechanically ventilated patients with influenza, as a non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia cohort. Compared with those of patients with influenza, BAL fluids of patients with COVID-19 contained increased numbers of hyperactivated degranulating neutrophils and elevated concentrations of the cytokines IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-17A, TNF-α, and G-CSF; the chemokines CCL7, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL11, and CXCL12α; and the protease inhibitors elafin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. In contrast, α-1 antitrypsin levels and net proteolytic activity were comparable in COVID-19 and influenza BAL fluids. During antibiotic treatment for bacterial coinfections, increased BAL fluid levels of several activating and chemotactic factors for monocytes, lymphocytes, and NK cells were detected in patients with COVID-19 whereas concentrations tended to decrease in patients with influenza, highlighting the persistent immunological response to coinfections in COVID-19. Finally, the high proteolytic activity in COVID-19 lungs suggests considering protease inhibitors as a treatment option.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/metabolism , Coinfection/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332900

ABSTRACT

A novel series of N-substituted cis- and trans-3-aryl-4-(diethoxyphosphoryl)azetidin-2-ones were synthesized by the Kinugasa reaction of N-methyl- or N-benzyl-(diethyoxyphosphoryl)nitrone and selected aryl alkynes. Stereochemistry of diastereoisomeric adducts was established based on vicinal H3-H4 coupling constants in azetidin-2-one ring. All the obtained azetidin-2-ones were evaluated for the antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Azetidin-2-one trans-11f showed moderate inhibitory activity against human coronavirus (229E) with EC50 = 45 µM. The other isomer cis-11f was active against influenza A virus H1N1 subtype (EC50 = 12 µM by visual CPE score; EC50 = 8.3 µM by TMS score; MCC > 100 µM, CC50 = 39.9 µM). Several azetidin-2-ones 10 and 11 were tested for their cytostatic activity toward nine cancerous cell lines and several of them appeared slightly active for Capan-1, Hap1 and HCT-116 cells values of IC50 in the range 14.5-97.9 µM. Compound trans-11f was identified as adjuvant of oxacillin with significant ability to enhance the efficacy of this antibiotic toward the highly resistant S. aureus strain HEMSA 5. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that enantiomer (3R,4S)-11f can be responsible for the promising activity due to the potency in displacing oxacillin at ß-lactamase, thus protecting the antibiotic from undesirable biotransformation.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/pharmacology , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Cytostatic Agents/chemistry , Cytostatic Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Oxacillin/chemistry , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Stereoisomerism , beta-Lactamases/chemistry
10.
Antiviral Res ; 193: 105127, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293551

ABSTRACT

In this study, a series of 10 quinoline analogues was evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against a panel of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2), as well as the human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were the most potent with antiviral EC50 values in the range of 0.12-12 µM. Chloroquine displayed the most favorable selectivity index (i.e. ratio cytotoxic versus antiviral concentration), being 165 for HCoV-OC43 in HEL cells. Potent anti-coronavirus activity was also observed with amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, although this was associated with substantial cytotoxicity for mefloquine. Primaquine, quinidine, quinine and tafenoquine only blocked coronavirus replication at higher concentrations, while piperaquine completely lacked antiviral and cytotoxic effects. A time-of-addition experiment in HCoV-229E-infected HEL cells revealed that chloroquine interferes with viral entry at a post-attachment stage. Using confocal microscopy, no viral RNA synthesis could be detected upon treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells with chloroquine. The inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine coincided with an inhibitory effect on the autophagy pathway as visualized by a dose-dependent increase in LC3-positive puncta. The latter effect was less pronounced or even absent with the other quinolines. In summary, we showed that several quinoline analogues, including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, exhibit broad anti-coronavirus activity in vitro.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Quinolines/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Mol Divers ; 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287225

ABSTRACT

A new series of ( ±)-(3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-7-yl)(phenyl)methanones were efficiently synthesized starting from 4-amino-5-hydrazinyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol 1, acetyl acetone 2, various aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes 3 and phenacyl bromides 4. All the newly synthesized compounds were tested for their antiviral and antitumoral activity. It was shown that subtle structural variations on the phenyl moiety allowed to tune biological properties toward antiviral or antitumoral activity. Mode-of-action studies revealed that the antitumoral activity was due to inhibition of tubulin polymerization.

12.
Nature ; 590(7845): 320-325, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953381

ABSTRACT

The expanding pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requires the development of safe, efficacious and fast-acting vaccines. Several vaccine platforms are being leveraged for a rapid emergency response1. Here we describe the development of a candidate vaccine (YF-S0) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that uses live-attenuated yellow fever 17D (YF17D) vaccine as a vector to express a noncleavable prefusion form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen. We assess vaccine safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in several animal models. YF-S0 has an excellent safety profile and induces high levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), mice (Mus musculus) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and-concomitantly-protective immunity against yellow fever virus. Humoral immunity is complemented by a cellular immune response with favourable T helper 1 polarization, as profiled in mice. In a hamster model2 and in macaques, YF-S0 prevents infection with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, a single dose conferred protection from lung disease in most of the vaccinated hamsters within as little as 10 days. Taken together, the quality of the immune responses triggered and the rapid kinetics by which protective immunity can be attained after a single dose warrant further development of this potent SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Glycosylation , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/genetics , Mesocricetus/immunology , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Safety , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5838, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933686

ABSTRACT

Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 has resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths. In search for key targets of effective therapeutics, robust animal models mimicking COVID-19 in humans are urgently needed. Here, we show that Syrian hamsters, in contrast to mice, are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 and develop bronchopneumonia and strong inflammatory responses in the lungs with neutrophil infiltration and edema, further confirmed as consolidations visualized by micro-CT alike in clinical practice. Moreover, we identify an exuberant innate immune response as key player in pathogenesis, in which STAT2 signaling plays a dual role, driving severe lung injury on the one hand, yet restricting systemic virus dissemination on the other. Our results reveal the importance of STAT2-dependent interferon responses in the pathogenesis and virus control during SARS-CoV-2 infection and may help rationalizing new strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , STAT2 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cricetinae , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT2 Transcription Factor/genetics , Virus Replication
14.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 155: 105537, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739808

ABSTRACT

Chemokine receptors are key regulators of cell migration in terms of immunity and inflammation. Among these, CCR5 and CXCR4 play pivotal roles in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 transmission and infection. They act as essential co-receptors for HIV and furnish a route to the cell entry. In particular, inhibition of either CCR5 or CXCR4 leads very often the virus to shift to a more virulent dual-tropic strain. Therefore, dual receptor inhibition might improve the therapeutic strategies against HIV. In this study, we aimed to discover selective CCR5, CXCR4, and dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonists using both receptor- and ligand-based computational methods. We employed this approach to fully incorporate the interaction attributes of the binding pocket together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations. The best hits were evaluated for their anti-HIV-1 activity against CXCR4- and CCR5-specific NL4.3 and BaL strains. Moreover, the Ca2+ mobilization assay was used to evaluate their antagonistic activity. From the 27 tested compounds, three were identified as inhibitors: compounds 27 (CCR5), 6 (CXCR4) and 3 (dual) with IC50 values ranging from 10.64 to 64.56 µM. The binding mode analysis suggests that the active compounds form a salt bridge with the glutamates and π-stacking interactions with the aromatic side chains binding site residues of the respective co-receptor. The presented hierarchical virtual screening approach provides essential aspects in identifying potential antagonists in terms of selectivity against a specific co-receptor. The compounds having multiple heterocyclic nitrogen atoms proved to be relatively more specific towards CXCR4 inhibition as compared to CCR5. The identified compounds serve as a starting point for further development of HIV entry inhibitors through synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies.


Subject(s)
HIV Fusion Inhibitors , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Binding Sites , CCR5 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Ligands , Receptors, CCR5
15.
Med Chem ; 16(3): 368-384, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nucleoside analogues are well-known antitumor, antiviral, and chemotherapeutic agents. Alterations on both their sugar and the heterocyclic parts may lead to significant changes in the spectrum of their biological activity and the degree of selective toxicity, as well as in their physicochemical properties. METHODS: C5-arylalkynyl-ß-D-ribofuranonucleosides 3-6, 3΄-deoxy 12-15, 3΄-deoxy-3΄-C-methyl- ß-D-ribofurananucleosides 18-21 and 2΄-deoxy-ß-D-ribofuranonucleosides 23-26 of uracil, were synthesized using a one-step Sonogashira reaction under microwave irradiation and subsequent deprotection. RESULTS: All newly synthesized nucleosides were tested for their antitumor or antiviral activity. Moderate cytostatic activity against cervix carcinoma (HeLa), murine leukemia (L1210) and human lymphocyte (CEM) tumor cell lines was displayed by the protected 3΄-deoxy derivatives 12b,12c,12d, and the 3΄-deoxy-3΄-methyl 18a,18b,18c. The antiviral evaluation revealed appreciable activity against Coxsackie virus B4, Respiratory syncytial virus, Yellow Fever Virus and Human Coronavirus (229E) for the 3΄-deoxy compounds 12b,14, and the 3΄-deoxy-3΄-methyl 18a,18c,18d, accompanied by low cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: This report describes the total and facile synthesis of modified furanononucleosides of uracil, with alterations on both the sugar and the heterocyclic portions. Compounds 12b,14 and 18a,c,d showed noticeable antiviral activity against a series of RNA viruses and merit further biological and structural optimization investigations.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemistry
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