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Cell Rep ; 42(6): 112599, 2023 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241737


Therapeutic neoantigen cancer vaccines have limited clinical efficacy to date. Here, we identify a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy using a self-assembling peptide nanoparticle TLR-7/8 agonist (SNP) vaccine prime and a chimp adenovirus (ChAdOx1) vaccine boost that elicits potent CD8 T cells and tumor regression. ChAdOx1 administered intravenously (i.v.) had 4-fold higher antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses than mice boosted by the intramuscular (i.m.) route. In the therapeutic MC38 tumor model, i.v. heterologous prime-boost vaccination enhances regression compared with ChAdOx1 alone. Remarkably, i.v. boosting with a ChAdOx1 vector encoding an irrelevant antigen also mediates tumor regression, which is dependent on type I IFN signaling. Single-cell RNA sequencing of the tumor myeloid compartment shows that i.v. ChAdOx1 reduces the frequency of immunosuppressive Chil3 monocytes and activates cross-presenting type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s). The dual effect of i.v. ChAdOx1 vaccination enhancing CD8 T cells and modulating the TME represents a translatable paradigm for enhancing anti-tumor immunity in humans.

Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7733, 2022 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160214


An important consequence of infection with a SARS-CoV-2 variant is protective humoral immunity against other variants. However, the basis for such cross-protection at the molecular level is incompletely understood. Here, we characterized the repertoire and epitope specificity of antibodies elicited by infection with the Beta, Gamma and WA1 ancestral variants and assessed their cross-reactivity to these and the more recent Delta and Omicron variants. We developed a method to obtain immunoglobulin sequences with concurrent rapid production and functional assessment of monoclonal antibodies from hundreds of single B cells sorted by flow cytometry. Infection with any variant elicited similar cross-binding antibody responses exhibiting a conserved hierarchy of epitope immunodominance. Furthermore, convergent V gene usage and similar public B cell clones were elicited regardless of infecting variant. These convergent responses despite antigenic variation may account for the continued efficacy of vaccines based on a single ancestral variant.

COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Variable Region , Humans , Epitopes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Clone Cells , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255096, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325440


The COVID-19 pandemic raises the need for diverse diagnostic approaches to rapidly detect different stages of viral infection. The flexible and quantitative nature of single-molecule imaging technology renders it optimal for development of new diagnostic tools. Here we present a proof-of-concept for a single-molecule based, enzyme-free assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2. The unified platform we developed allows direct detection of the viral genetic material from patients' samples, as well as their immune response consisting of IgG and IgM antibodies. Thus, it establishes a platform for diagnostics of COVID-19, which could also be adjusted to diagnose additional pathogens.

COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Viral Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Nasopharynx/virology , Polyproteins/blood , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Single Molecule Imaging/instrumentation , Viral Proteins/blood