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1.
eClinicalMedicine ; 53:101651, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031251

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Reliable estimates of frequency, severity and associated factors of both fatigue and cognitive impairment after COVID-19 are needed. Also, it is not clear whether the two are distinct sequelae of COVID-19 or part of the same syndrome." Methods In this prospective multicentre study, frequency of post-COVID fatigue and cognitive impairment were assessed in n = 969 patients (535 [55%] female) ≥6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection with the FACIT-Fatigue scale (cut-off ≤30) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (≤25 mild, ≤17 moderate impairment) between November 15, 2020 and September 29, 2021 at University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel and University Hospital Würzburg in Germany. 969 matched non-COVID controls were drawn from a pre-pandemic, randomised, Germany-wide population survey which also included the FACIT-Fatigue scale. Associated sociodemographic, comorbid, clinical, psychosocial factors and laboratory markers were identified with univariate and multivariable linear regression models. Findings On average 9 months after infection, 19% of patients had clinically relevant fatigue, compared to 8% of matched non-COVID controls (p < 0.001). Factors associated with fatigue were female gender, younger age, history of depression and the number of acute COVID symptoms. Among acute COVID symptoms, altered consciousness, dizziness and myalgia were most strongly associated with long-term fatigue. Moreover, 26% of patients had mild and 1% had moderate cognitive impairment. Factors associated with cognitive impairment were older age, male gender, shorter education and a history of neuropsychiatric disease. There was no significant correlation between fatigue and cognitive impairment and only 5% of patients suffered from both conditions. Interpretation Fatigue and cognitive impairment are two common, but distinct sequelae of COVID-19 with potentially separate pathophysiological pathways. Funding German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

2.
Immunity ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989998

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination generates enormous host response heterogeneity and an age-dependent loss of immune response quality. How the pre-exposure T cell repertoire contributes to this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We combined analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells pre- and post-vaccination with longitudinal T cell receptor tracking. We identified strong pre-exposure T cell variability that correlated with subsequent immune response quality and age. High-quality responses, defined by strong expansion of high-avidity spike-specific T cells, high interleukin 21 production, and specific immunoglobulin G, depended on an intact naïve repertoire and exclusion of pre-existing memory T cells. In the elderly, T cell expansion from both compartments was severely compromised. Our results reveal that an intrinsic defect of the CD4+ T cell repertoire causes the age-dependent decline of immune response quality against SARS-CoV-2 and highlight the need for alternative strategies to induce high-quality T cell responses against newly arising pathogens in the elderly. Graphical Determinants of immune response quality to SARS-CoV-2 remain poorly defined. Saggau et al. examine spike-specific naïve and memory T cells pre- and post-vaccination and track pre-existing memory T cell receptors. They define T cell parameters of high-quality vaccine responses and identify high pre-existing memory and low naïve T cell contributions as predictors of low-quality responses, particularly in the elderly.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (CID) declines more rapidly with TNFα inhibition. Furthermore, the efficacy of current vaccines against Omicron variants of concern (VOC) including BA.2 is limited. Alterations within immune cell populations, changes in IgG affinity and the ability to neutralise a pre-VOC strain and the BA.2 virus were investigated in these at-risk patients. METHODS: Serum levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgG avidity and neutralising antibodies (NA) were determined in anti-TNFα patients (n=10) and controls (n=24 healthy individuals; n=12 patients under other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, oDMARD) before and after the second and third vaccination by ELISA, immunoblot and live virus neutralisation assay. SARS-CoV-2-specific B- and T cell subsets were analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. RESULTS: IgG avidity and anti-pre-VOC NA titres decreased faster in anti-TNFα recipients than in controls 6 months after the second vaccination (healthy individuals: avidity: p≤0.0001; NA: p=0.0347; oDMARDs: avidity: p=0.0012; NA: p=0.0293). Total plasma cell counts were increased in anti-TNFα patients (Healthy individuals: p=0.0344; oDMARDs: p=0.0254), whereas absolute numbers of SARS-CoV-2-specific cells were comparable 7 days after vaccination. These patients had lower BA.2 NA titres compared to both other groups, even after the third vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: We show a reduced SARS-CoV-2 neutralising capacity in patients under TNFα blockade. In this cohort, the plasma cell response appears to be less specific and show stronger bystander activation. While these effects were observable after the first two vaccinations and with older VOC, the differences in responses to BA.2 were enhanced. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 51: 101549, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936334

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-COVID syndrome (PCS) is an important sequela of COVID-19, characterised by symptom persistence for >3 months, post-acute symptom development, and worsening of pre-existing comorbidities. The causes and public health impact of PCS are still unclear, not least for the lack of efficient means to assess the presence and severity of PCS. Methods: COVIDOM is a population-based cohort study of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, recruited through public health authorities in three German regions (Kiel, Berlin, Würzburg) between November 15, 2020 and September 29, 2021. Main inclusion criteria were (i) a PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and (ii) a period of at least 6 months between the infection and the visit to the COVIDOM study site. Other inclusion criteria were written informed consent and age ≥18 years. Key exclusion criterion was an acute reinfection with SARS-CoV-2. Study site visits included standardised interviews, in-depth examination, and biomaterial procurement. In sub-cohort Kiel-I, a PCS (severity) score was developed based upon 12 long-term symptom complexes. Two validation sub-cohorts (Würzburg/Berlin, Kiel-II) were used for PCS score replication and identification of clinically meaningful predictors. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04679584) and at the German Registry for Clinical Studies (DRKS, DRKS00023742). Findings: In Kiel-I (n = 667, 57% women), 90% of participants had received outpatient treatment for acute COVID-19. Neurological ailments (61·5%), fatigue (57·1%), and sleep disturbance (57·0%) were the most frequent persisting symptoms at 6-12 months after infection. Across sub-cohorts (Würzburg/Berlin, n = 316, 52% women; Kiel-II, n = 459, 56% women), higher PCS scores were associated with lower health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L-VAS/-index: r = -0·54/ -0·56, all p < 0·0001). Severe, moderate, and mild/no PCS according to the individual participant's PCS score occurred in 18·8%, 48·2%, and 32·9%, respectively, of the Kiel-I sub-cohort. In both validation sub-cohorts, statistically significant predictors of the PCS score included the intensity of acute phase symptoms and the level of personal resilience. Interpretation: PCS severity can be quantified by an easy-to-use symptom-based score reflecting acute phase disease burden and general psychological predisposition. The PCS score thus holds promise to facilitate the clinical diagnosis of PCS, scientific studies of its natural course, and the development of therapeutic interventions. Funding: The COVIDOM study is funded by the Network University Medicine (NUM) as part of the National Pandemic Cohort Network (NAPKON).

5.
Lancet ; 399(10340): 2015-2030, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risankizumab, an interleukin (IL)-23 p19 inhibitor, was evaluated for safety and efficacy as induction therapy in patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. METHODS: ADVANCE and MOTIVATE were randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 3 induction studies. Eligible patients aged 16-80 years with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease, previously showing intolerance or inadequate response to one or more approved biologics or conventional therapy (ADVANCE) or to biologics (MOTIVATE), were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of intravenous risankizumab (600 mg or 1200 mg) or placebo (2:2:1 in ADVANCE, 1:1:1 in MOTIVATE) at weeks 0, 4, and 8. We used interactive response technology for random assignment, with stratification by number of previous failed biologics, corticosteroid use at baseline, and Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD). All patients and study personnel (excluding pharmacists who prepared intravenous solutions) were masked to treatment allocation throughout the study. Coprimary endpoints were clinical remission (defined by Crohn's disease activity index [CDAI] or patient-reported outcome criteria [average daily stool frequency and abdominal pain score]) and endoscopic response at week 12. The intention-to-treat population (all eligible patients who received at least one dose of study drug in the 12-week induction period) was analysed for efficacy outcomes. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Both trials were registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03105128 (ADVANCE) and NCT03104413 (MOTIVATE), and are now complete. FINDINGS: Participants were enrolled between May 10, 2017, and Aug 24, 2020 (ADVANCE trial), and Dec 18, 2017 and Sept 9, 2020 (MOTIVATE trial). In ADVANCE, 931 patients were assigned to either risankizumab 600 mg (n=373), risankizumab 1200 mg (n=372), or placebo (n=186). In MOTIVATE, 618 patients were assigned to risankizumab 600 mg (n=206), risankizumab 1200 mg (n=205), or placebo (n=207). The primary analysis population comprised 850 participants in ADVANCE and 569 participants in MOTIVATE. All coprimary endpoints at week 12 were met in both trials with both doses of risankizumab (p values ≤0·0001). In ADVANCE, CDAI clinical remission rate was 45% (adjusted difference 21%, 95% CI 12-29; 152/336) with risankizumab 600 mg and 42% (17%, 8-25; 141/339) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 25% (43/175) with placebo; stool frequency and abdominal pain score clinical remission rate was 43% (22%, 14-30; 146/336) with risankizumab 600 mg and 41% (19%, 11-27; 139/339) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 22% (38/175) with placebo; and endoscopic response rate was 40% (28%, 21-35; 135/336) with risankizumab 600 mg and 32% (20%, 14-27; 109/339) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 12% (21/175) with placebo. In MOTIVATE, CDAI clinical remission rate was 42% (22%, 13-31; 80/191) with risankizumab 600 mg and 40% (21%, 12-29; 77/191) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 20% (37/187) with placebo; stool frequency and abdominal pain score clinical remission rate was 35% (15%, 6-24; 66/191) with risankizumab 600 mg and 40% (20%, 12-29; 76/191) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 19% (36/187) with placebo; and endoscopic response rate was 29% (18%, 10-25; 55/191) with risankizumab 600 mg and 34% (23%, 15-31; 65/191) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 11% (21/187) with placebo. The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar among the treatment groups in both trials. Three deaths occurred during induction (two in the placebo group [ADVANCE] and one in the risankizumab 1200 mg group [MOTIVATE]). The death in the risankizumab-treated patient was deemed unrelated to the study drug. INTERPRETATION: Risankizumab was effective and well tolerated as induction therapy in patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. FUNDING: AbbVie.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Crohn Disease , Abdominal Pain , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1220, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735246

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 shares the feature of autoantibody production with systemic autoimmune diseases. In order to understand the role of these immune globulins in the pathogenesis of the disease, it is important to explore the autoantibody spectra. Here we show, by a cross-sectional study of 246 individuals, that autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and RAS-related molecules associate with the clinical severity of COVID-19. Patients with moderate and severe disease are characterized by higher autoantibody levels than healthy controls and those with mild COVID-19 disease. Among the anti-GPCR autoantibodies, machine learning classification identifies the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and the RAS-related molecule AGTR1 as targets for antibodies with the strongest association to disease severity. Besides antibody levels, autoantibody network signatures are also changing in patients with intermediate or high disease severity. Although our current and previous studies identify anti-GPCR antibodies as natural components of human biology, their production is deregulated in COVID-19 and their level and pattern alterations might predict COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/immunology , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoimmunity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328632

ABSTRACT

The German government initiated the Network University Medicine (NUM) in early 2020 to improve national research activities on the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. To this end, 36 German Academic Medical Centers started to collaborate on 13 projects, with the largest being the National Pandemic Cohort Network (NAPKON). The NAPKON’s goal is creating the most comprehensive Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cohort in Germany. Within NAPKON, adult and pediatric patients are observed in three complementary cohort platforms (Cross-Sectoral, High-Resolution and Population-Based) from the initial infection until up to three years of follow-up. Study procedures comprise comprehensive clinical and imaging diagnostics, quality-of-life assessment, patient-reported outcomes and biosampling. The three cohort platforms build on four infrastructure core units (Interaction, Biosampling, Epidemiology, and Integration) and collaborations with NUM projects. Key components of the data capture, regulatory, and data privacy are based on the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research. By December 01, 2021, 34 university and 34 non-university hospitals have enrolled 4,241 patients with local data quality reviews performed on 2,812 (66%). 47% were female, the median age was 53 (IQR: 38-63)) and 3 pediatric cases were included. 30% of patients were hospitalized, 11% admitted to an intensive care unit, and 4% of patients deceased while enrolled. 7,143 visits with biosampling in 3,595 patients were conducted by November 29, 2021. In this overview article, we summarize NAPKON’s design, relevant milestones including first study population characteristics, and outline the potential of NAPKON for German and international research activities. Trial registration: · https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04768998· https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04747366· https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04679584

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312470

ABSTRACT

Here we report the manifestation of insulin dependent diabetes after a COVID-19 infection in the absence of typical autoantibodies for type 1 diabetes. A 19-year-old Caucasian male subject presented to our emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). C-peptide levels accounted to 0.62µg/L in the presence of blood glucose concentrations of 30.6 mmol/L (552 mg/dL). The patient´s case history revealed a COVID-19 disease 6-8 weeks prior to admission. This is of interest, since COVID-19 internalization into host cells is mediated via Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) [1] , a transmembrane glycoprotein which amongst others is crucial for β-cell homeostasis and function [2,3,4] . Detailed laboratory testing was performed, revealing no serum-antibodies against islet-cells (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65-AA), tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2-AA), insulin (IAA) and zinc-transport-8 (ZnT8-AA), but against COVID-19. Hence, this is a presentation of an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the absence of markers of autoimmunity, which might suggest direct cytolytic effects of COVID-19 on pancreatic β-cells presumably mediated via ACE2.

10.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(6): 658-669, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recruitment rates for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis clinical trials continue to decrease annually. The inability to reach recruitment targets and complete trials has serious implications for stakeholders in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) community. Action is required to ensure patients with an unmet medical need have access to new therapies to improve the management of their IBD. AIMS: Identify challenges contributing to recruitment decline in IBD clinical trials and propose potential solutions. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to identify literature, regulatory guidelines and conference proceedings related to IBD clinical trials and related concepts. Data on IBD clinical trials conducted between 1989 and 2020 were extracted from the Trialtrove database. RESULTS: Key aspects that may improve recruitment rates were identified. An increasingly patient-centric approach should be taken to study design including improvements to the readability of key trial documentation and inclusion of patient representatives in trial planning. Placebo is unappealing to patients; approaches including platform trials should be explored to minimise placebo exposure. Non-invasive imaging, biomarkers and novel digital endpoints should continue to be examined to reduce the burden on patients. Reducing the administrative burden associated with trials via the use of electronic signatures, for example, may benefit study sites and investigators. Changes implemented to IBD trials during the COVID-19 pandemic provided examples of how trial conduct can be rapidly and constructively adapted. CONCLUSIONS: To improve recruitment in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis trials, the IBD community should address a broad range of issues related to clinical trial conduct.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Adv Ther ; 39(6): 2342-2364, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607755

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted significant changes in patient care in rheumatology and gastroenterology, with clinical guidance issued to manage ongoing therapy while minimising the risk of nosocomial infection for patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Subcutaneous (SC) formulations of biologics enable patients to self-administer treatments at home; however, switching between agents may be undesirable. CT-P13 SC is the first SC formulation of infliximab that received regulatory approval and may be termed a biobetter as it offers significant clinical advantages over intravenous (IV) infliximab, including improved pharmacokinetics and a convenient mode of delivery. Potential benefits in terms of reduced immunogenicity have also been suggested. With a new SC formulation, infliximab provides an additional option for dual formulation, which enables patients to transition from IV to SC administration route without changing agent. Before COVID-19, clinical trials supported the efficacy and safety of switching from IV to SC infliximab for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and SC infliximab may have been selected on the basis of patient and HCP preferences for SC agents. During the pandemic, patients with rheumatic diseases and IBD have successfully switched from IV to SC infliximab, with some clinical benefits and high levels of patient satisfaction. As patients switched to SC therapeutics, the reduction in resource requirements for IV infusion services may have been particularly welcome given the pandemic, facilitating reorganisation and redeployment in overstretched healthcare systems, alongside pharmacoeconomic benefits and a reduction in exposure to nosocomial infection. Telemedicine and contactless healthcare have been pushed to the forefront during the pandemic, and a lasting shift towards remote patient management and community/home-based drug administration is anticipated. SC infliximab supports the implementation of this paradigm for future improvements of healthcare value delivered. The accumulation of real-world data during the pandemic supports the high level of confidence, with patients, physicians, and healthcare systems benefitting from its uptake.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
12.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The persistence of the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, partly due to the appearance of highly infectious variants, has made booster vaccinations necessary for vulnerable groups. Questions remain as to which cohorts require SARS-CoV2 boosters. However, there is a critical lack of data on the dynamics of vaccine responses in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) undergoing immunosuppressive/disease modifying anti-rheumatic (DMARD) treatment. Here, we present the first data regarding the decline of the vaccine-induced humoral immune responses in patients with CID. METHODS: 23 patients with CID were monitored clinically and for anti-spike IgG and IgA levels, neutralization efficacy and antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses over the first 6 months after SARS-CoV2 vaccination. 24 healthy individuals were included as controls. RESULTS: While anti-spike IgG-levels declined in CID patients and healthy controls, patients receiving anti-TNF treatment showed significantly greater declines at 6 months post second vaccination in IgG and especially neutralizing antibodies. IgA levels were generally lower in CID patients, particularly during anti-TNF therapy. No differences in SARS-CoV2 spike-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were detected. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term efficacy of SARS-CoV2 vaccination in CID patients undergoing disease-modifying therapy is still not known, the pronounced declines in humoral responses towards SARS-CoV2 6 months after mRNA vaccination in the context of TNF blockade should be considered when formulating booster regimens. These patients should be considered for early booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
14.
Nature ; 594(7862): 265-270, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246377

ABSTRACT

Fast and reliable detection of patients with severe and heterogeneous illnesses is a major goal of precision medicine1,2. Patients with leukaemia can be identified using machine learning on the basis of their blood transcriptomes3. However, there is an increasing divide between what is technically possible and what is allowed, because of privacy legislation4,5. Here, to facilitate the integration of any medical data from any data owner worldwide without violating privacy laws, we introduce Swarm Learning-a decentralized machine-learning approach that unites edge computing, blockchain-based peer-to-peer networking and coordination while maintaining confidentiality without the need for a central coordinator, thereby going beyond federated learning. To illustrate the feasibility of using Swarm Learning to develop disease classifiers using distributed data, we chose four use cases of heterogeneous diseases (COVID-19, tuberculosis, leukaemia and lung pathologies). With more than 16,400 blood transcriptomes derived from 127 clinical studies with non-uniform distributions of cases and controls and substantial study biases, as well as more than 95,000 chest X-ray images, we show that Swarm Learning classifiers outperform those developed at individual sites. In addition, Swarm Learning completely fulfils local confidentiality regulations by design. We believe that this approach will notably accelerate the introduction of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Confidentiality , Datasets as Topic , Machine Learning , Precision Medicine/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Leukemia/diagnosis , Leukemia/pathology , Leukocytes/pathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Machine Learning/trends , Male , Software , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1306-1311, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150213

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In light of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, protecting vulnerable groups has become a high priority. Persons at risk of severe disease, for example, those receiving immunosuppressive therapies for chronic inflammatory cdiseases (CIDs), are prioritised for vaccination. However, data concerning generation of protective antibody titres in immunosuppressed patients are scarce. Additionally, mRNA vaccines represent a new vaccine technology leading to increased insecurity especially in patients with CID. OBJECTIVE: Here we present for the first time, data on the efficacy and safety of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in a cohort of immunosuppressed patients as compared with healthy controls. METHODS: 42 healthy controls and 26 patients with CID were included in this study (mean age 37.5 vs 50.5 years). Immunisations were performed according to national guidelines with mRNA vaccines. Antibody titres were assessed by ELISA before initial vaccination and 7 days after secondary vaccination. Disease activity and side effects were assessed prior to and 7 days after both vaccinations. RESULTS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as well as neutralising activity could be detected in all study participants. IgG titres were significantly lower in patients as compared with controls (2053 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL ±1218 vs 2685±1102). Side effects were comparable in both groups. No severe adverse effects were observed, and no patients experienced a disease flare. CONCLUSION: We show that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines lead to development of antibodies in immunosuppressed patients without considerable side effects or induction of disease flares. Despite the small size of this cohort, we were able to demonstrate the efficiency and safety of mRNA vaccines in our cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
16.
Rofo ; 193(6): 667-671, 2021 06.
Article in English, German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe findings on cerebral imaging in patients with COVID-19 and neurological symptoms at two German university hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 and neurological symptoms and cerebral imaging (CT or MRI) were included. A chart review regarding neurological symptoms, COVID-19 and imaging findings was conducted. RESULTS: 12 patients (4 females, age 68 ±â€Š12 years) could be included. Three patients had acute findings. Two patients had acute and subacute cerebral ischemia, one patient had additional intracranial hemorrhages and presumed central pontine myelinolysis. One patient had presumed COVID-19-associated pansinusitis. CONCLUSION: Findings on cerebral imaging in patients with COVID-19 are uncommon and nonspecific. However, cerebral ischemia is regularly encountered and patients should be evaluated for stroke symptoms. KEY POINTS: · Approx. 20 % of patients with COVID-19 develop neurological symptoms.. · Findings on cerebral imaging in patients with COVID-19 are heterogeneous and nonspecific.. · The most common findings are cerebral ischemia and hemorrhages.. CITATION FORMAT: · Jensen-Kondering U, Neumann A, Margraf N et al. Cerebral Imaging in Patients with COVID-19 and Neurological Symptoms: First Experience from two University Hospitals in Northern Germany. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2021; 193: 667 - 671.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Aged , Female , Germany , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Nat Metab ; 2(10): 1021-1024, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744385

ABSTRACT

Here we report a case where the manifestations of insulin-dependent diabetes occurred following SARS-CoV-2 infection in a young individual in the absence of autoantibodies typical for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Specifically, a 19-year-old white male presented at our emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis, C-peptide level of 0.62 µg l-1, blood glucose concentration of 30.6 mmol l-1 (552 mg dl-1) and haemoglobin A1c of 16.8%. The patient´s case history revealed probable COVID-19 infection 5-7 weeks before admission, based on a positive test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 proteins as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Interestingly, the patient carried a human leukocyte antigen genotype (HLA DR1-DR3-DQ2) considered to provide only a slightly elevated risk of developing autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, as noted, no serum autoantibodies were observed against islet cells, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase, insulin and zinc-transporter 8. Although our report cannot fully establish causality between COVID-19 and the development of diabetes in this patient, considering that SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, are expressed on pancreatic ß-cells and, given the circumstances of this case, we suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection, or COVID-19, might negatively affect pancreatic function, perhaps through direct cytolytic effects of the virus on ß-cells.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , HLA-D Antigens/genetics , HLA-D Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/immunology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(12): 1765-1768, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614015

ABSTRACT

The intense competition for resources to combat COVID-19 has greatly reduced access to health care for patients with other diseases. After the disastrous overrun of hospitals through COVID-19 patients in some jurisdictions, availability of resources for 'elective' medical procedures, including care for the chronically ill, has been greatly reduced in many places as a pre-emptive measure before or during the blooming of infection clusters. Pharmaceutical companies have either stopped recruitment or even cancelled ongoing clinical trials in chronic diseases. Pre-emptive triage and its impact on medical ethics is discussed in the framework of care for inflammatory bowel disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic/ethics , Drug Development/ethics , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Services Accessibility/ethics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Triage/ethics , Triage/methods
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