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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 128, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616978

ABSTRACT

The quality and persistence of children's humoral immune response following SARS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown but will be crucial to guide pediatric SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs. Here, we examine 548 children and 717 adults within 328 households with at least one member with a previous laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We assess serological response at 3-4 months and 11-12 months after infection using a bead-based multiplex immunoassay for 23 human coronavirus antigens including SARS-CoV-2 and its Variants of Concern (VOC) and endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and additionally by three commercial SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays. Neutralization against wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the Delta VOC are analysed in a pseudotyped virus assay. Children, compared to adults, are five times more likely to be asymptomatic, and have higher specific antibody levels which persist longer (96.2% versus 82.9% still seropositive 11-12 months post infection). Of note, symptomatic and asymptomatic infections induce similar humoral responses in all age groups. SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs independent of HCoV serostatus. Neutralization responses of children and adults are similar, although neutralization is reduced for both against the Delta VOC. Overall, the long-term humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is of longer duration than in adults even after asymptomatic infection.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases receiving rituximab (RTX) therapy are at higher risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes and show substantially impaired humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses. However, the complex relationship between antigen-specific B and T cells and the level of B cell repopulation necessary to achieve anti-vaccine responses remain largely unknown. METHODS: Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and induction of antigen-specific B and CD4/CD8 T cell subsets were studied in 19 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients receiving RTX, 12 RA patients on other therapies and 30 healthy controls after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with either mRNA or vector based vaccines. RESULTS: A minimum of 10 B cells/µL (0,4% of lymphocytes) in the peripheral circulation appeared to be required in RTX patients to mount seroconversion to anti-S1 IgG upon SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. RTX patients lacking IgG seroconversion showed reduced RBD+ B cells, lower frequency of TfH-like cells as well as less activated CD4 and CD8 T cells compared to IgG seroconverted RTX patients. Functionally relevant B cell depletion resulted in impaired IFNγ secretion by spike-specific CD4 T cells. In contrast, antigen-specific CD8 T cells were reduced in patients, independently of IgG formation. CONCLUSIONS: In patients receiving RTX, a minimum of 10 B cells/µl in the peripheral circulation candidates as biomarker for a high likelihood of an appropriate cellular and humoral response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Mechanistically, the data emphasize the crucial role of co-stimulatory B cell functions for the proper induction of CD4 responses propagating vaccine-specific B and plasma cell differentiation.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103761, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous COVID-19 vaccination regimens combining vector- and mRNA-based vaccines are already administered, but data on solicited adverse reactions, immunological responses and elicited protection are limited. METHODS: To evaluate the reactogenicity and humoral as well as cellular immune responses towards most prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variants after a heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination, we analysed a cohort of 26 clinic employees aged 25-46 (median 30.5) years who received a ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime followed by a BNT162b2 boost after an 8-week interval. Serological data were compared to a cohort which received homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week interval (14 individuals aged 25-65, median 42). FINDINGS: Self-reported solicited symptoms after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime were in line with previous reports and more severe than after the BNT162b2 boost. Antibody titres increased significantly over time resulting in strong neutralization titres two weeks after the BNT162b2 boost and subsequently slightly decreased over the course of 17 weeks. At the latest time point measured, all analysed sera retained neutralizing activity against the currently dominant Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. Two weeks post boost, neutralizing activity against the Alpha (B.1.1.7) and immune-evading Beta (B.1.351) variant was ∼4-fold higher than in individuals receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination. No difference was observed in neutralization of Kappa (B.1.617.1). In addition, heterologous vaccination induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells reactive to SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides of all analysed variants; Wuhan-Hu-1, Alpha, Beta, Gamma (P.1), and Delta. INTERPRETATION: In conclusion, heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination is not associated with serious adverse events and induces potent humoral and cellular immune responses. The Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Kappa variants of spike are potently neutralized by sera from all participants and reactive T cells recognize spike peptides of all tested variants. These results suggest that this heterologous vaccination regimen is at least as immunogenic and protective as homologous vaccinations and also offers protection against current variants of concern. FUNDING: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, the German Research Foundation, the BMBF, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the Baden-Württemberg Stiftung, the county of Lower Saxony, the Ministry for Science, Research and the Arts of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, and the National Institutes of Health.

4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566580

ABSTRACT

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that solid organ transplant recipients, as opposed to the general population, show strongly impaired responsiveness towards standard SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination, demanding alternative strategies for protection of this vulnerable group. Methods: In line with recent recommendations, a third dose of either heterologous ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca) or homologous BNT162b2 (BioNTech) was administered to 25 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) without humoral response after 2 doses of BNT162b2, followed by analysis of serological responses and vaccine-specific B- and T-cell immunity. Results: 9/25 (36%) KTR under standard immunosuppressive treatment seroconverted until day 27 after the third vaccination, while one patient developed severe COVID-19 infection immediately after vaccination. Cellular analysis seven days after the third dose showed significantly elevated frequencies of viral spike protein receptor binding domain specific B cells in humoral responders as compared to non-responders. Likewise, portions of spike-reactive CD4+ T helper cells were significantly elevated in seroconverting patients. Furthermore, overall frequencies of IL-2+, IL-4+ and polyfunctional CD4+ T cells significantly increased after the third dose, whereas memory/effector differentiation remained unaffected. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a fraction of transplant recipients benefits from triple vaccination, where seroconversion is associated with quantitative and qualitative changes of cellular immunity. At the same time, the study highlights that modified vaccination approaches for immunosuppressed patients still remain an urgent medical need.

5.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296154

ABSTRACT

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Hyperinflammation is frequently observed in patients with severe COVID-19. Inadequate and defective IFN type I responses against SARS-CoV-2, associated with autoantibodies in a proportion of patients, lead to severe courses of disease. In addition, hyperactive responses of the humoral immune system have been described. In the current study we investigated a possible role of neutralizing autoantibodies against antiinflammatory mediators. Plasma from adult patients with severe and critical COVID-19 was screened by ELISA for antibodies against PGRN, IL-1-Ra, IL-10, IL-18BP, IL-22BP, IL-36-Ra, CD40, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, IFN-ω and serpinB1. Autoantibodies were characterized and the antigens were analyzed for immunogenic alterations. In a discovery cohort with severe to critical COVID-19 high titers of PGRN-autoantibodies were detected in 11 of 30 (36.7%), and of IL-1-Ra-autoantibodies in 14 of 30 (46.7%) patients. In a validation cohort of 64 patients with critical COVID-19 high-titer PGRN-Abs were detected in 25 (39%) and IL-1-Ra-Abs in 32 of 64 patients (50%). PGRN-Abs and IL-1-Ra-Abs belonged to IgM and several IgG subclasses. In separate cohorts with non-critical COVID-19, PGRN-Abs and IL-1-Ra-Abs were detected in low frequency (i.e. in < 5% of patients) and at low titers. Neither PGRN-nor IL-1-Ra-Abs were found in 40 healthy controls vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 or 188 unvaccinated healthy controls. PGRN-Abs were not cross-reactive against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins nor against IL-1-Ra. Plasma levels of both free PGRN and free IL-1-Ra were significantly decreased in autoantibody-positive patients compared to Ab-negative and non-COVID-19 controls. In vitro PGRN-Abs from patients functionally reduced PGRN-dependent inhibition of TNF-α signaling, and IL-1-Ra-Abs from patients reduced IL-1-Ra- or anakinra-dependent inhibition of IL-1ß signaling. The pSer81 hyperphosphorylated PGRN isoform was exclusively detected in patients with high-titer PGRN-Abs;likewise, a hyperphosphorylated IL-1-Ra isoform was only found in patients with high-titer IL-1-Ra-Abs. Thr111 was identified as the hyperphophorylated amino acid of IL-1-Ra. In longitudinally collected samples hyperphosphorylated isoforms of both PGRN and IL-1-Ra emerged transiently, and preceded the appearance of autoantibodies. In hospitalized patients, the presence of IL-1-Ra-Abs or IL-1-Ra-Abs in combination with PGRN-Abs was associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. To conclude, neutralizing autoantibodies to IL-1-Ra and PGRN occur in a significant portion of patients with critical COVID-19, with a concomitant decrease in circulating free PGRN and IL-1-Ra, indicative of a misdirected, proinflammatory autoimmune response. The break of self-tolerance is likely caused by atypical hyperphosphorylated isoforms of both antigens, whose appearances precede autoantibody induction. Our data suggest that these immunogenic secondary modifications are induced by the SARS-CoV-2-infection itself or the inflammatory environment evoked by the infection and predispose for a critical course of COVID-19.

6.
eJHaem ; 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1540110

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic requires tests to monitor antibody formation and prevalence. We detected SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using red cells coated by Kode technology with short peptides derived from the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP). Such modified red cells, called C19-kodecytes, can be used as reagent cells in any manual or automated column agglutination assay. We investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 130 samples from COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors using standard manual technique, two FDA-authorized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays and a virus neutralisation assay. The sensitivity of the C19-kodecyte assay was 88%, comparable to the anti-SP and anti-nucleocapsid protein (NCP) ELISAs (86% and 83%) and the virus neutralisation assay (88%). The specificity of the C19-kodecyte assay was 90% (anti-SP 100% and anti-NCP 97%). Likewise, 231 samples from 73 vaccinated individuals were tested with an automated analyser, and we monitored the appearance and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The C19-kodecyte assay is a robust tool for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Automated blood group analyser use enables large-scale SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing for vaccination monitoring in population surveys.

7.
Eur J Immunol ; 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479399

ABSTRACT

The interferon pathway, a key antiviral defense mechanism, is being considered as a therapeutic target in COVID-19. Both, substitution of interferon and JAK/STAT inhibition to limit cytokine storms have been proposed. However, little is known about possible abnormalities in STAT signaling in immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated downstream targets of interferon signaling, including STAT1, STAT2, pSTAT1 and 2, and IRF1, 7 and 9 by flow cytometry in 30 patients with COVID-19, 17 with mild, and 13 with severe infection. We report upregulation of STAT1 and IRF9 in mild and severe COVID-19 cases, which correlated with the IFN-signature assessed by Siglec-1 (CD169) expression on peripheral monocytes. Interestingly, Siglec-1 and STAT1 in CD14+ monocytes and plasmablasts showed lower expression among severe cases compared to mild cases. Contrary to the baseline STAT1 expression, the phosphorylation of STAT1 was enhanced in severe COVID-19 cases, indicating a dysbalanced JAK/STAT signaling that fails to induce transcription of interferon stimulated response elements (ISRE). This abnormality persisted after IFN-α and IFN-γ stimulation of PBMCs from patients with severe COVID-19. Data suggest impaired STAT1 transcriptional upregulation among severely infected patients may represent a potential predictive biomarker and would allow stratification of patients for certain interferon-pathway targeted treatments.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 743422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472388

ABSTRACT

Elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have long been underrepresented in studies on vaccine efficacy, particularly in light of currently emerging variants of concern (VOCs). In this prospective observational cohort study, we analyzed serological immune responses in 190 individuals before, 3 weeks after 1st and 3 weeks after 2nd vaccination with BNT162b2. Unvaccinated COVID-19-convalescent subjects served as reference. End points comprised serum anti-spike IgG and IgA titers as well as neutralization capacities against unmutated and mutated SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domains including B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1. We found that antibody titers and neutralization capacities up to 3 weeks after 2nd vaccination with BNT162b2 were significantly higher in COVID-19-convalescent as compared to COVID-19-naive vaccinees. Moreover, pre-vaccination anti-NCP IgG titers, but not age or gender, had a high impact on the strength and kinetics of post-vaccination neutralization capacity development. Most importantly, BNT162b2-induced neutralization capacity was cross-reactive with VOCs. In contrast to unvaccinated convalescents, vaccinated convalescent individuals of all ages acquired strong neutralizing capacities against current VOCs. The present study suggests that COVID-19-convalescent individuals with a broad age range between 18 and 98 years benefit from BNT162b2 vaccination by developing strong and broad neutralizing immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 including current VOCs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Convalescence , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Long-Term Care , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCOVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been considered a treatment option for COVID-19. This trial assessed the efficacy of a neutralizing antibody containing high-dose CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or intensive care treatment.METHODSPatients (n = 105) were randomized 1:1 to either receive standard treatment and 3 units of CCP or standard treatment alone. Control group patients with progress on day 14 could cross over to the CCP group. The primary outcome was a dichotomous composite outcome of survival and no longer fulfilling criteria for severe COVID-19 on day 21.ResultsThe primary outcome occurred in 43.4% of patients in the CCP group and 32.7% in the control group (P = 0.32). The median time to clinical improvement was 26 days in the CCP group and 66 days in the control group (P = 0.27). The median time to discharge from the hospital was 31 days in the CCP group and 51 days in the control group (P = 0.24). In the subgroup that received a higher cumulative amount of neutralizing antibodies, the primary outcome occurred in 56.0% of the patients (vs. 32.1%), with significantly shorter intervals to clinical improvement (20 vs. 66 days, P < 0.05) and to hospital discharge (21 vs. 51 days, P = 0.03) and better survival (day-60 probability of survival 91.6% vs. 68.1%, P = 0.02) in comparison with the control group.ConclusionCCP added to standard treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in the primary and secondary outcomes. A predefined subgroup analysis showed a significant benefit of CCP among patients who received a larger amount of neutralizing antibodies.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04433910.FundingBundesministerium für Gesundheit (German Federal Ministry of Health): ZMVI1-2520COR802.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
10.
Transfusionsmedizin ; 11(03):182-187, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1390252

ABSTRACT

The following article provides an overview of commercially available test systems for screening blood samples for various antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. It also discusses possible applications of such testing, ranging from seroprevalence and longitudinal studies to screening of potential convalescent plasma donors and monitoring of the humoral immune response after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Sci Immunol ; 6(60)2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369380

ABSTRACT

Patients with kidney failure are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection making effective vaccinations a critical need. It is not known how well mRNA vaccines induce B and plasma cell responses in dialysis patients (DP) or kidney transplant recipients (KTR) compared to healthy controls (HC). We studied humoral and B cell responses of 35 HC, 44 DP and 40 KTR. Markedly impaired anti-BNT162b2 responses were identified among KTR and DP compared to HC. In DP, the response was delayed (3-4 weeks after boost) and reduced with anti-S1 IgG and IgA positivity in 70.5% and 68.2%, respectively. In contrast, KTR did not develop IgG responses except one patient who had a prior unrecognized infection and developed anti-S1 IgG. The majority of antigen-specific B cells (RBD+) were identified in the plasmablast or post-switch memory B cell compartments in HC, whereas RBD+ B cells were enriched among pre-switch and naïve B cells from DP and KTR. The frequency and absolute number of antigen-specific circulating plasmablasts in the cohort correlated with the Ig response, a characteristic not reported for other vaccinations. In conclusion, these data indicated that immunosuppression resulted in impaired protective immunity after mRNA vaccination, including Ig induction with corresponding generation of plasmablasts and memory B cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve vaccination protocols in patients after kidney transplantation or on chronic dialysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360834

ABSTRACT

To identify the most efficient methods of immunological protection against SARS-CoV-2, including the currently most widespread variants of concern (VOCs)-B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1-a simultaneous side-by-side-comparison of available vaccination regimes is required. In this observational cohort study, we compared immunological responses in 144 individuals vaccinated with the mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 and the vector vaccine ChAdOx1-nCoV-19, either alone, in combination, or in the context of COVID-19-convalescence. Unvaccinated COVID-19-convalescent subjects served as a reference. We found that cellular and serological immune responses, including neutralizing capacity against VOCs, were significantly stronger with mRNA vaccines as compared with COVID-19-convalescent individuals or vaccinated individuals receiving the vector vaccine ChAdOx1-nCoV-19. Booster immunizations with mRNA vaccines triggered strong and broadly neutralizing antibody and IFN-γ responses in 100% of vaccinated individuals investigated. This effect was particularly strong in COVID-19-convalescent and ChAdOx1-nCoV-19-primed individuals, who were characterized by comparably moderate cellular and neutralizing antibody responses before mRNA vaccine booster. Heterologous vaccination regimes and convalescent booster regimes using mRNA vaccines may allow enhanced protection against SARS-CoV-2, including current VOCs. Furthermore, such regimes may facilitate rapid (re-)qualification of convalescent plasma donors with high titers of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311203

ABSTRACT

Novel mRNA-based vaccines have been proven to be powerful tools in combating the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, with BNT162b2 (trade name: Comirnaty) efficiently protecting individuals from COVID-19 across a broad age range. Still, it remains largely unknown how renal insufficiency and immunosuppressive medication affect development of vaccine-induced immunity. We therefore comprehensively analyzed humoral and cellular responses in kidney transplant recipients after the standard second vaccination dose. As opposed to all healthy vaccinees and the majority of hemodialysis patients, only 4 of 39 and 1 of 39 transplanted individuals showed IgA and IgG seroconversion at day 8 ± 1 after booster immunization, with minor changes until day 23 ± 5, respectively. Although most transplanted patients mounted spike-specific T helper cell responses, frequencies were significantly reduced compared with those in controls and dialysis patients and this was accompanied by a broad impairment in effector cytokine production, memory differentiation, and activation-related signatures. Spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses were less abundant than their CD4+ counterparts in healthy controls and hemodialysis patients and almost undetectable in transplant patients. Promotion of anti-HLA antibodies or acute rejection was not detected after vaccination. In summary, our data strongly suggest revised vaccination approaches in immunosuppressed patients, including individual immune monitoring for protection of this vulnerable group at risk of developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunologic Memory , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Immunologic , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transplantation Immunology
15.
Euro Surveill ; 26(27)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304570

ABSTRACT

We compared the performance of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody testing between 12 European laboratories involved in convalescent plasma trials. Raw titres differed almost 100-fold differences between laboratories when blind-testing 15 plasma samples. Calibration of titres in relation to the reference reagent and standard curve obtained by testing a dilution series reduced the inter-laboratory variability ca 10-fold. The harmonisation of neutralising antibody quantification is a vital step towards determining the protective and therapeutic levels of neutralising antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Europe , Humans , Immunization, Passive
16.
J Immunol ; 206(11): 2614-2622, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227099

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has triggered the development of various SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests. A wild-type virus (using African green monkey VeroE6 cells), a pseudovirus (using human Caco-2 cells), and a surrogate neutralization test platform were applied to characterize the SARS-CoV-2 neutralization potential of a cohort of 111 convalescent plasma donors over a period of seven months after diagnosis. This allowed an in-depth validation and assay performance analysis of these platforms. More importantly, we found that SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers were stable or even increased within the observation period, which contradicts earlier studies reporting a rapid waning of Ab titers after three to four months. Moreover, we observed a positive correlation of neutralization titers with increasing age, number of symptoms reported, and the presence of the Rhesus Ag RhD. Validation of the platforms revealed that highest assay performances were obtained with the wild-type virus and the surrogate neutralization platforms. However, our data also suggested that selection of cutoff titers had a strong impact on the evaluation of neutralization potency. When taking strong neutralization potency, as demonstrated by the wild-type virus platform as the gold standard, up to 55% of plasma products had low neutralization titers. However, a significant portion of these products were overrated in their potency when using the surrogate assay with the recommended cutoff titer. In summary, our study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers are stable for at least seven months after diagnosis and offers a testing strategy for rapid selection of high-titer convalescent plasma products in a biosafety level 1 environment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/immunology
17.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 48(3): 137-147, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201432

ABSTRACT

Background: Convalescent plasma is one of the treatment options for COVID-19 which is currently being investigated in many clinical trials. Understanding of donor and product characteristics is important for optimization of convalescent plasma. Methods: Patients who had recovered from CO-VID-19 were recruited as donors for COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) for a randomized clinical trial of CCP for treatment of severe COVID-19 (CAPSID Trial). Titers of neutralizing antibodies were measured by a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Correlation of antibody titers with host factors and evolution of neutralizing antibody titers over time in repeat donors were analysed. Results: A series of 144 donors (41% females, 59% males; median age 40 years) underwent 319 plasmapheresis procedures providing a median collection volume of 850 mL and a mean number of 2.7 therapeutic units per plasmapheresis. The majority of donors had a mild or moderate course of COVID-19. The titers of neutralizing antibodies varied greatly between CCP donors (from <1:20 to >1:640). Donor factors (gender, age, ABO type, body weight) did not correlate significantly with the titer of neutralizing antibodies. We observed a significant positive correlation of neutralization titers with the number of reported COVID-19 symptoms and with the time from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis to plasmapheresis. Neutralizing antibody levels were stable or increased over time in 58% of repeat CCP donors. Mean titers of neutralizing antibodies of first donation and last donation of repeat CCP donors did not differ significantly (1:86 at first compared to 1:87 at the last donation). There was a significant correlation of neutralizing antibodies measured by PRNT and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies which were measured by ELISA. CCP donations with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody content above the 25th percentile were substantially enriched for CCP donations with higher neutralizing antibody levels. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of collection of a large number of CCP products under a harmonized protocol for a randomized clinical trial. Titers of neutralizing antibodies were stable or increased over time in a subgroup of repeat donors. A history of higher number of COVID-19 symptoms and higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies in immunoassays can preselect donations with higher neutralizing capacity.

18.
Cell ; 184(9): 2384-2393.e12, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141659

ABSTRACT

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is devastating health systems and economies worldwide. Recombinant or vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies are used to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (UK), B.1.351 (South Africa), and P.1 (Brazil) harbor mutations in the viral spike (S) protein that may alter virus-host cell interactions and confer resistance to inhibitors and antibodies. Here, using pseudoparticles, we show that entry of all variants into human cells is susceptible to blockade by the entry inhibitors soluble ACE2, Camostat, EK-1, and EK-1-C4. In contrast, entry of the B.1.351 and P.1 variant was partially (Casirivimab) or fully (Bamlanivimab) resistant to antibodies used for COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, entry of these variants was less efficiently inhibited by plasma from convalescent COVID-19 patients and sera from BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may escape neutralizing antibody responses, which has important implications for efforts to contain the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kinetics , Membrane Fusion , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Solubility , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Virus Internalization
19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 796-801, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117034

ABSTRACT

Highly sensitive and specific platforms for the detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are becoming increasingly important for evaluating potential SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma donors, studying the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections, and identifying individuals with seroconversion. This study provides a comparative validation of 4 anti-SARS-CoV-2 platforms. A unique feature of the study is the use of a representative cohort of convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and a mild to moderate disease course. All platforms showed significant correlations with a SARS-CoV-2 plaque reduction neutralization test, with highest sensitivities for the Euroimmun and the Roche platforms, suggesting their preferential use for screening persons at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tissue Donors , Young Adult
20.
Transfusionsmedizin ; 10(03):143-149, 2020.
Article in German | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-740044

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma therapy was administered in patients with acute, viral respiratory disorders with severe clinical course (SARS- or MERS coronavirus, influenza H1N1, H5N1). These studies suggested that convalescent plasma is likely to improve viral clearance, reduce the length of hospital stay and reduce mortality and appeared to be safe. However, since controlled randomized trials were lacking only low-quality evidence was available. Most patients mount a strong humoral immune response early in the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, including neutralizing antibodies. Due to the pandemic an increasing number of convalescent patients who are potential donors for SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma will be available. We designed a prospective randomized clinical trial to study the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for treatment of severe COVID-19 and its mechanism of action (CAPSID trial). Here we present the rationale for this trial and major aspects of the study outline.

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