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J Appl Lab Med ; 7(3): 661-673, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510987


BACKGROUND: Diagnostic sensitivities of point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 assays depend on specimen type and population-specific viral loads. Evaluation of these assays require "direct" specimens from paired-swab studies rather than more accessible residual specimens in viral transport media (VTM). METHODS: Residual VTM and limit-of-detection studies were conducted on Abbott ID NOW™ COVID-19, Quidel Sofia 2™ SARS Antigen FIA, and DiaSorin Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assays, with cycle threshold (CT) adjustments to approximate direct-specimen testing based on gene-target doubling each PCR cycle. Logistic regression was used to model assay performance by specimen CT. These models were applied to CT distributions of symptomatic and asymptomatic populations presenting to emergency services to predict the percentage of specimens that would be detected by each assay. A 96-sample paired-swab study was conducted to confirm model results. RESULTS: When using direct nasopharyngeal samples and fit with either VTM or limit-of-detection data, percent positivities for ID NOW (symptomatic 94.9%/97.4%; asymptomatic 88.4.0%/89.6%) and Simplexa (symptomatic 97.8%/97.2%; asymptomatic 91.1%/90.8%) were predicted to be similar. Likewise, percent positivities for ID NOW with direct nasal specimens (symptomatic 77.8%; asymptomatic 64.5%) and, fit with VTM data, Sofia 2 with direct nasopharyngeal specimens (symptomatic 76.6%, asymptomatic 60.3%) were similar. The paired-swab study comparing direct nasopharyngeal specimens on ID NOW and nasopharyngeal VTM specimens on Simplexa showed 99% concordance. CONCLUSIONS: Assay performance can be modeled as dependent on viral load, fit using laboratory bench study results, and adjusted to account for direct-specimen testing. When using nasopharyngeal specimens, direct testing on Abbott ID NOW and VTM testing on DiaSorin Simplexa have similar performance.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Progression , Humans , Nasopharynx , Sensitivity and Specificity
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(2): 267-279, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841691


OBJECTIVES: Serologic testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has experienced a changing landscape of available assays coupled with uncertainty surrounding performance characteristics. Studies are needed to directly compare multiple commercially available assays. METHODS: Residual serum samples were identified based on SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, clinical test results, and collection dates. Serum samples were analyzed using assays from four different manufacturers: DiaSorin anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, EUROIMMUN anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2, and Siemens SARS-CoV-2 Total antibody assays. RESULTS: Samples from SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive patients became increasingly positive as time from symptom onset increased. For patients with latest sample 14 or more days after symptom onset, sensitivities reached 93.1% to 96.6%, 98.3%, and 96.6% for EUROIMMUN, Roche, and Siemens assays, respectively, which were superior to the DiaSorin assay at 87.7%. The specificity of Roche and Siemens assays was 100% and superior to DiaSorin and EUROIMMUN assays, which ranged from 96.1% to 97.0% and 86.3% to 96.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratories should be aware of the advantages and limitations of serology testing options for SARS-CoV-2. The specificity and sensitivity achieved by the Roche and Siemens assays would be acceptable for testing in lower-prevalence regions and have the potential of orthogonal testing advantages if used in combination.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity