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1.
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2157827

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious, airborne viral infection that can infect anyone. Those with certain underlying conditions may be at higher risk for infection to develop into a severe disease requiring hospitalization. This report summarizes use of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 in high-risk patients at a single academic medical center through a pharmacist delegation protocol and demonstrates real-world efficacy and safety of treatment. Method(s): This retrospective, single-center, observational study analyzed all patients who received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir ordered by a clinical pharmacist for treatment of COVID-19 infection. The primary outcomes were safety and efficacy of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. Safety was evaluated by analyzing drug interaction management and adverse events. Efficacy was evaluated through hospitalization and death within 28 days of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir use. Result(s): Sixty patients were eligible for inclusion. No patients were hospitalized or died within 28 days after initiation of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. Pharmacists identified 101 drug interactions with 60% considered clinically significant, requiring modification of home medications. Adverse outcomes associated with the use of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir were reported in 13 patients (21.7%). Conclusion(s): A comprehensive program to mitigate drug interactions and prescribe nirmatrelvir-ritonavir ensured timely access to COVID-19 therapy, which may be associated with the prevention of hospitalization and death. Copyright © 2022 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

3.
CARD Agricultural Policy Review ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871712

ABSTRACT

It is reported that the USDA outlook for US agriculture in 2021 is generally positive. Most agricultural markets, including the major markets for Iowa, have recovered from the depths of the price declines that struck during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of the basic statistics (such as production, exports, imports, and prices) for cattle/beef, pigs/pigmeat, maize and soyabeans are presented.

4.
Journal of Global Health Reports ; 6(e2022024), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865746

ABSTRACT

Haiti's Central Plateau region suffers from significant malnutrition, economic hardship, and a crisis level of food insecurity. Already the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, Haiti has pervasively high malnutrition rates, but the Central Plateau is among the most severely affected areas. One in five children of the Central Plateau suffers from malnutrition, and the region exhibits a devastating 30% rate of child stunting. Our US-based team affiliated with Klinik Sen Jozef, a community-respected medical clinic in the Central Plateau city of Thomassique. We partnered with local Haitian leadership, a local agronomist, and Trees That Feed Foundation to introduce breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and an innovative development model to combat local malnutrition. Five years into the program, we have partnered with 152 farmers, and we have enhanced our malnutrition program with breadfruit derivatives. This report addresses the lessons we learned to assist others looking to introduce models or crops in a similar manner. Our experience is particularly significant in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, as supply chain disruptions have worsened food insecurity for more than 800 million people in low-income countries.

5.
Antimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1860208

ABSTRACT

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required healthcare systems and hospitals to rapidly modify standard practice, including antimicrobial stewardship services. Our study examines the impact of COVID-19 on the antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist. Design: A survey was distributed nationally to all healthcare improvement company members. Participants: Pharmacist participants were mostly leaders of antimicrobial stewardship programs distributed evenly across the United States and representing urban, suburban, and rural health-system practice sites. Results: Participants reported relative increases in time spent completing tasks related to medication access and preauthorization (300%;P =.018) and administrative meeting time (34%;P =.067) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Time spent rounding, making interventions, performing pharmacokinetic services, and medication reconciliation decreased. Conclusion: A shift away from clinical activities may negatively affect the utilization of antimicrobials. © The Author(s), 2022.

6.
Changes in regional hog slaughter during COVID-19|2021. 29 pp. 38 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1652172

ABSTRACT

This working paper describes how COVID-19 affected the pork packing industry, gives an overview of this industry, and measures changes in regional slaughter volumes in 2020. We find different effects of COVID-19 across regions. Some regions experienced a prolonged decline in hog slaughter compared with 2019, while in other regions sharp declines only lasted a few weeks. Slaughter counts in the major pork-producing regions declined for three weeks at the end of April and early May but recovered to 2019 levels by June 2020. Minor processing regions had mixed reactions to the pandemic. For instance, Region 2 (New Jersey and New York) experienced a large decline in slaughter, but, unlike major processing regions, the shock persisted throughout the year-slaughter rates were lower than 2019 levels. Overall, most regions in 2020 had increases in total slaughter compared with 2019, suggesting the industry suffered at the beginning of the pandemic but adjusted production and at least partially recovered.

7.
CARD Agricultural Policy Review ; : 11, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1489667

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the gradual recovery of the US agricultural sector during the pandemic. The first impact of the pandemic lowered agricultural prices, forced significant shifts in supply chains, and disrupted markets. However, as the summer progressed, there was some recovery in prices, supply chains realigned with consumer demand, and the markets rebalanced to the new conditions under COVID-19. To explore the extent of recovery in the US agricultural sector, the author updated the previous comparison of USDA's meat, corn, and soybean projections. The previous comparison ran from January 2020 (before the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in the United States) to USDA's June outlook. This update incorporates the changes from the most recent outlook, released in mid-October 2020, and reflects not only the impact of COVID-19, but also the progress on the US/China phase one trade deal and the natural disasters that struck the Midwest (drought and derecho). This article presents data that showed that while the initial impacts from COVID-19 struck nearly all US agricultural markets at the same time, the recoveries from that shock vary heavily and are still ongoing. For most of the meats and corn, the recovery thus far is partial-meats have seen better production, but lower prices, and corn has experienced lower production, but better prices, mostly due to factors other than COVID-19. Soybeans are the only commodity where we could argue the recovery is complete, as production and prices exceed pre-COVID-19 forecasts. However, 2020 is still a very challenging year in agriculture, but not quite as challenging as first envisioned.

8.
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy ; 43(1):4-23, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1269089

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related disruptions led to a historic rise in the spread between livestock and wholesale meat prices. Concerns about concentration and allegations of anticompetitive behavior have led to several inquiries and civil suits by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Justice, with increases in price differentials serving as a focal point. This article notes the difference between price spreads and marketing margins, outlines corresponding economic theory, and describes the empirical evidence on wholesale meat and livestock price dynamics in the wake of COVID-19 disruptions. At one point during the pandemic, beef and pork packers were both operating at about 60% of the previous year's processing volume. We explore how such a massive supply shock would be expected to affect marketing margins even in the absence of anticompetitive behavior. Moreover, we document how margin measurements are critically sensitive to the selection of data and information utilized. Finally, we conclude with some discussion around policy proposals that would pit industry concentration against industry coordination and economies of scale.

9.
Agribusiness ; 37(1):122-141, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1086254

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) severely disrupted the U.S. food supply chain. In its initial aftermath, and as we contemplate a potential reignition, the food supply chain industries, researchers, and policy makers search for evidence, causes, and consequences. This article uses publicly available data on the pork and egg industries and a survey of the turkey industry as a first step to document the impact of COVID-19. Researchers can learn from the experiences in industries where disruptions evolve differently in the face of simultaneous supply- and demand-side shocks and that stem from differences in structures of the supply chains. This early evidence is used to motivate future research needs and highlight opportunities for industry investments in resiliency strategies.

10.
CARD Agricultural Policy Review ; : 4-5, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-831149

ABSTRACT

Just like other sectors of the economy, the US agricultural sector has seen an economic downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As various economic sectors resume activity, businesses are adjusting to living with the virus. Agricultural producers and USDA are reevaluating commodity markets and changing outlooks for the rest of the year. Schulz and Hart compare USDA's meat, corn, and soybean projections from January 2020 with the most recent update, released in mid-June 2020, and find that the outlook changes are much more concentrated on prices than production.

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