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2.
Vaccine ; 40(42): 6017-6022, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031735

ABSTRACT

In 2020, 26 million refugees resettled in a new country-fleeing their homes due to conflict and persecution. Due to low immunization coverage and underlying health conditions, refugees commonly face an increased risk of contracting vaccine-preventable diseases. We collected and analyzed existing routine immunization policies for refugees across 20 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and 20 high-income countries (HICs), each with the highest number of refugees per 1000 residents. Primary and secondary data sources were used to collect policy evidence. Across 20 LMICs, 13 countries specified standing nationwide routine immunization policies for refugees, while 14 out of the 20 HICs included refugees in their national routine immunization programs. LMICs and HICs should include refugees in their national routine immunization policies and provide accessible and affordable immunizations. Such efforts would reduce vaccine-preventable diseases and protect the health of refugee populations-especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Pandemics , Policy
4.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 107, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends in a large part on individual and societal actions which is influenced by the quality and salience of the information to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, COVID-19 misinformation has proliferated. To date, no systematic efforts have been made to evaluate interventions that mitigate COVID-19-related misinformation. We plan to conduct a scoping review that seeks to fill several of the gaps in the current knowledge of interventions that mitigate COVID-19-related misinformation. METHODS: A scoping review focusing on interventions that mitigate COVID-19 misinformation will be conducted. We will search (from January 2020 onwards) MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection, Africa-Wide Information, Global Health, WHO Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease Database, WHO Global Index Medicus, and Sociological Abstracts. Gray literature will be identified using Disaster Lit, Google Scholar, Open Science Framework, governmental websites, and preprint servers (e.g., EuropePMC, PsyArXiv, MedRxiv, JMIR Preprints). Study selection will conform to Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual 2020 Methodology for JBI Scoping Reviews. Only English language, original studies will be considered for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. A narrative summary of findings will be conducted. Data analysis will involve quantitative (e.g., frequencies) and qualitative (e.g., content and thematic analysis) methods. DISCUSSION: Original research is urgently needed to design interventions to mitigate COVID-19 misinformation. The planned scoping review will help to address this gap. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATIONS: Systematic Review Registration: Open Science Framework (osf/io/etw9d).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Publications , Review Literature as Topic
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 446, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open online forums like Reddit provide an opportunity to quantitatively examine COVID-19 vaccine perceptions early in the vaccine timeline. We examine COVID-19 misinformation on Reddit following vaccine scientific announcements, in the initial phases of the vaccine timeline. METHODS: We collected all posts on Reddit (reddit.com) from January 1 2020 - December 14 2020 (n=266,840) that contained both COVID-19 and vaccine-related keywords. We used topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence within topics after the release of vaccine trial data. Social network analysis was also conducted to determine the relationship between Reddit communities (subreddits) that shared COVID-19 vaccine posts, and the movement of posts between subreddits. RESULTS: There was an association between a Pfizer press release reporting 90% efficacy and increased discussion on vaccine misinformation. We observed an association between Johnson and Johnson temporarily halting its vaccine trials and reduced misinformation. We found that information skeptical of vaccination was first posted in a subreddit (r/Coronavirus) which favored accurate information and then reposted in subreddits associated with antivaccine beliefs and conspiracy theories (e.g. conspiracy, NoNewNormal). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can inform the development of interventions where individuals determine the accuracy of vaccine information, and communications campaigns to improve COVID-19 vaccine perceptions, early in the vaccine timeline. Such efforts can increase individual- and population-level awareness of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding vaccines and thereby improve attitudes about vaccines, especially in the early phases of vaccine roll-out. Further research is needed to understand how social media can contribute to COVID-19 vaccination services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Urban Econ ; 127: 103382, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720521

ABSTRACT

We examine the potential for exploiting retailer location choice in targeting health interventions. Using geospatial data, we quantify proximity to vaccines created by a U.S. federal program distributing COVID-19 vaccines to commercial retail pharmacies. We assess the distributional impacts of a proposal to provide vaccines at Dollar General, a low-priced general merchandise retailer. Adding Dollar General to the federal program would substantially decrease the distance to vaccine sites for low-income, rural, and minority U.S. households, groups for which COVID-19 vaccine take-up has been disproportionately slow.

8.
Journal of behavioral medicine ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1698097

ABSTRACT

Health care provider recommendations are among the most important factors influencing parents’ decisions to vaccinate their adolescents. However, delivery of high-quality health care provider recommendations for vaccination is not universal. There is wide variation in the strength, timeliness and consistency of the delivery of recommendations for all adolescent vaccines. The factors that influence health care providers’ recommendations are multi-level and can be conceptualized in much the same way as vaccine acceptance among parents. Health care providers are influenced by their own attitudes and beliefs about a vaccine and also by the patient they are treating and by the community in which they practice as well as state and national level vaccine policy. We propose a multi-level framework for understanding the factors that influence health care providers’ recommendations at the individual, interpersonal and community level to both develop and adapt interventions to improve providers’ recommendations.

9.
Lancet ; 398(10317): 2186-2192, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521624

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of COVID-19 was identified in the USA in January, 2020, over 46 million people in the country have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several COVID-19 vaccines have received emergency use authorisations from the US Food and Drug Administration, with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine receiving full approval on Aug 23, 2021. When paired with masking, physical distancing, and ventilation, COVID-19 vaccines are the best intervention to sustainably control the pandemic. However, surveys have consistently found that a sizeable minority of US residents do not plan to get a COVID-19 vaccine. The most severe consequence of an inadequate uptake of COVID-19 vaccines has been sustained community transmission (including of the delta [B.1.617.2] variant, a surge of which began in July, 2021). Exacerbating the direct impact of the virus, a low uptake of COVID-19 vaccines will prolong the social and economic repercussions of the pandemic on families and communities, especially low-income and minority ethnic groups, into 2022, or even longer. The scale and challenges of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign are unprecedented. Therefore, through a series of recommendations, we present a coordinated, evidence-based education, communication, and behavioural intervention strategy that is likely to improve the success of COVID-19 vaccine programmes across the USA.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/transmission , Communication , Immunization Programs , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Politics , United States , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
10.
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series ; No. 28835, 2021.
Article in English | NBER | ID: grc-748274

ABSTRACT

As countries transition from facing COVID-19 vaccine supply shortfalls to requiring novel strategies to facilitate vaccination, modern retail chains—often designed and located to target particular demographic groups—are a potential vaccine delivery vehicle. Using geospatial data, we quantify the proximity to vaccines created by a U.S. federal program that distributes vaccines to commercial retail pharmacies. We then quantify the impact of a proposal to provide vaccines at Dollar General, a low-priced general merchandise retailer. We show that adding Dollar General to the federal program would substantially decrease the distance to vaccine sites for low-income and minority U.S. households.

12.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(11): 1563-1571, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective vaccines, improved testing technologies, and decreases in COVID-19 incidence prompt an examination of the choices available to residential college administrators seeking to safely resume in-person campus activities in fall 2021. OBJECTIVE: To help college administrators design and evaluate customized COVID-19 safety plans. DESIGN: Decision analysis using a compartmental epidemic model to optimize vaccination, testing, and other nonpharmaceutical interventions depending on decision makers' preferences, choices, and assumptions about epidemic severity and vaccine effectiveness against infection, transmission, and disease progression. SETTING: U.S. residential colleges. PARTICIPANTS: Hypothetical cohort of 5000 persons (students, faculty, and staff) living and working in close proximity on campus. MEASUREMENTS: Cumulative infections over a 120-day semester. RESULTS: Under base-case assumptions, if 90% coverage can be attained with a vaccine that is 85% protective against infection and 25% protective against asymptomatic transmission, the model finds that campus activities can be resumed while holding cumulative cases below 5% of the population without the need for routine, asymptomatic testing. With 50% population coverage using such a vaccine, a similar cap on cumulative cases would require either daily asymptomatic testing of unvaccinated persons or a combination of less frequent testing and resumption of aggressive distancing and other nonpharmaceutical prevention policies. Colleges returning to pre-COVID-19 campus activities without either broad vaccination coverage or high-frequency testing put their campus population at risk for widespread viral transmission. LIMITATION: Uncertainty in data, particularly vaccine effectiveness (preventive and transmission); no distinguishing between students and employees; and assumes limited community intermixing. CONCLUSION: Vaccination coverage is the most powerful tool available to residential college administrators seeking to achieve a safe return to prepandemic operations this fall. Given the breadth of potential outcomes in the face of uncontrollable and uncertain factors, even colleges with high vaccination rates should be prepared to reinstitute or expand testing and distancing policies on short notice. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute on Drug Abuse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Universities/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Humans , Incidence , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(1): 42-52, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937246

ABSTRACT

The global effort to develop a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is on track to produce one or more authorized vaccines. We examine how different definitions and thresholds of vaccine efficacy, coupled with different levels of implementation effectiveness and background epidemic severity, translate into outcomes including cumulative infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. Using a mathematical simulation of vaccination, we find that factors related to implementation will contribute more to the success of vaccination programs than a vaccine's efficacy as determined in clinical trials. The benefits of a vaccine will decline substantially in the event of manufacturing or deployment delays, significant vaccine hesitancy, or greater epidemic severity. Our findings demonstrate the urgent need for health officials to invest greater financial resources and attention to vaccine production and distribution programs, to redouble efforts to promote public confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, and to encourage continued adherence to other mitigation approaches, even after a vaccine becomes available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Immunization Programs , Models, Theoretical , Vaccination , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Global Health , Health Education , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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