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1.
Vaccine ; 40(33): 4845-4855, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission. However, evidence is emerging on the degree of protection across variants and in high-transmission settings. To better understand the protection afforded by vaccination specifically in a high-transmission setting, we examined household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during a period of high community incidence with predominant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant, among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts. METHODS: We conducted a household transmission investigation in San Diego County, California, and Denver, Colorado, during January-April 2021. Households were enrolled if they had at least one person with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected nasopharyngeal swabs, blood, demographic information, and vaccination history from all consenting household members. We compared infection risks (IRs), RT-PCR cycle threshold values, SARS-CoV-2 culture results, and antibody statuses among vaccinated and unvaccinated household contacts. RESULTS: We enrolled 493 individuals from 138 households. The SARS-CoV-2 variant was identified from 121/138 households (88%). The most common variants were Alpha (75/121, 62%) and Epsilon (19/121, 16%). There were no households with discordant lineages among household members. One fully vaccinated secondary case was symptomatic (13%); the other 5 were asymptomatic (87%). Among unvaccinated secondary cases, 105/108 (97%) were symptomatic. Among 127 households with a single primary case, the IR for household contacts was 45% (146/322; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 40-51%). The observed IR was higher in unvaccinated (130/257, 49%, 95% CI 45-57%) than fully vaccinated contacts (6/26, 23%, 95% CI 11-42%). A lower proportion of households with a fully vaccinated primary case had secondary cases (1/5, 20%) than households with an unvaccinated primary case (66/108, 62%). CONCLUSIONS: Although SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated household contacts were reported in this high transmission setting, full vaccination protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings further support the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination and highlight the need for ongoing vaccination among eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , California/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Spring 2021, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha) became the predominant variant in the U.S. Research suggests that Alpha has increased transmissibility compared to non-Alpha lineages. We estimated household secondary infection risk (SIR), assessed characteristics associated with transmission, and compared symptoms of persons with Alpha and non-Alpha infections. METHODS: We followed households with SARS-CoV-2 infection for two weeks in San Diego County and metropolitan Denver, January to April 2021. We collected epidemiologic information and biospecimens for serology, RT-PCR, and whole genome sequencing. We stratified SIR and symptoms by lineage, and identified characteristics associated with transmission using Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: We investigated 127 households with 322 household contacts; 72 households (56.7%) had member(s) with secondary infections. SIRs were not significantly higher for Alpha (61.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 52.4-69.0%]) than non-Alpha (55.6% [CI 44.7-65.9%], P = 0.49). In households with Alpha, persons who identified as Asian or Hispanic/Latino had significantly higher SIRs than those who identified as White (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Close contact (e.g., kissing, hugging) with primary cases was associated with increased transmission for all lineages. Persons with Alpha infection were more likely to report constitutional symptoms than persons with non-Alpha (86.9% vs. 76.8%, P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Household SIRs were similar for Alpha and non-Alpha. Comparable SIRs may be due to saturation of transmission risk in households owing to extensive close contact, or true lack of difference in transmission rates. Avoiding close contact within households may reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission for all lineages among household members.

3.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the household secondary infection risk (SIR) of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and non-Alpha lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children. STUDY DESIGN: During January to April 2021, we prospectively followed households with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected questionnaires, serial nasopharyngeal swabs for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing and whole genome sequencing, and serial blood samples for serology testing. We calculated SIRs by primary case age (pediatric vs adult), household contact age, and viral lineage. We evaluated risk factors associated with transmission and described symptom profiles among children. RESULTS: Among 36 households with pediatric primary cases, 21 (58%) had secondary infections. Among 91 households with adult primary cases, 51 (56%) had secondary infections. SIRs among pediatric and adult primary cases were 45% and 54%, respectively (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.41-1.54). SIRs among pediatric primary cases with Alpha and non-Alpha lineage were 55% and 46%, respectively (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.51-4.53). SIRs among pediatric and adult household contacts were 55% and 49%, respectively (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.50). Among pediatric contacts, no significant differences in the odds of acquiring infection by demographic or household characteristics were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from children and adult primary cases to household members was frequent. The risk of secondary infection was similar among child and adult household contacts. Among children, household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of secondary infection was not influenced by lineage. Continued mitigation strategies (eg, masking, physical distancing, vaccination) are needed to protect at-risk groups regardless of virus lineage circulating in communities.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(7): 701-709, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825745

ABSTRACT

Importance: As self-collected home antigen tests become widely available, a better understanding of their performance during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is needed. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of home antigen tests compared with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture by days from illness onset, as well as user acceptability. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted from January to May 2021 in San Diego County, California, and metropolitan Denver, Colorado. The convenience sample included adults and children with RT-PCR-confirmed infection who used self-collected home antigen tests for 15 days and underwent at least 1 nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR, viral culture, and sequencing. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the daily sensitivity of home antigen tests to detect RT-PCR-confirmed cases. Secondary outcomes included the daily percentage of antigen test, RT-PCR, and viral culture results that were positive, and antigen test sensitivity compared with same-day RT-PCR and cultures. Antigen test use errors and acceptability were assessed for a subset of participants. Results: This study enrolled 225 persons with RT-PCR-confirmed infection (median [range] age, 29 [1-83] years; 117 female participants [52%]; 10 [4%] Asian, 6 [3%] Black or African American, 50 [22%] Hispanic or Latino, 3 [1%] Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 145 [64%] White, and 11 [5%] multiracial individuals) who completed 3044 antigen tests and 642 nasopharyngeal swabs. Antigen test sensitivity was 50% (95% CI, 45%-55%) during the infectious period, 64% (95% CI, 56%-70%) compared with same-day RT-PCR, and 84% (95% CI, 75%-90%) compared with same-day cultures. Antigen test sensitivity peaked 4 days after illness onset at 77% (95% CI, 69%-83%). Antigen test sensitivity improved with a second antigen test 1 to 2 days later, particularly early in the infection. Six days after illness onset, antigen test result positivity was 61% (95% CI, 53%-68%). Almost all (216 [96%]) surveyed individuals reported that they would be more likely to get tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection if home antigen tests were available over the counter. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study of home antigen tests suggest that sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 was moderate compared with RT-PCR and high compared with viral culture. The results also suggest that symptomatic individuals with an initial negative home antigen test result for SARS-CoV-2 infection should test again 1 to 2 days later because test sensitivity peaked several days after illness onset and improved with repeated testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
AJPM Focus ; : 100004, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819492

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mitigation behaviors are key to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We identified behaviors associated with secondary transmission from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 primary cases to household contacts and described characteristics associated with reporting these behaviors. Methods: Households with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections were recruited in California and Colorado from January to April 2021. Self-reported behaviors and demographic were collected through interviews. We investigated behaviors associated with transmission, and individual and household characteristics associated with behaviors, using univariable and multivariable logistic regression with Generalized Estimating Equations to account for household clustering. Results: Among household contacts of primary cases, 43.3% (133/307) became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Upon adjusted analysis, household contacts who slept in the same bedroom with the primary case (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.84) and ate food prepared by the primary case (aOR: 1.98 95% CI: 1.02, 3.87) had increased odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Household contacts in homes ≤2000 ft2 had increased odds of sleeping in the same bedroom as the primary case compared to those in homes >2000 ft2 (aOR: 3.97, 95% CI: 1.73, 9.10). Parents, siblings, and other relationships (extended family, friends, or roommate) of the primary case had decreased odds of eating food prepared by the primary case compared to partners. Conclusion: Sleeping in the same bedroom as the primary case and eating food prepared by the primary case were associated with secondary transmission. Household dimension and relationship to primary case were associated with these behaviors. Our findings encourage innovative means to promote adherence to mitigation measures that reduce household transmission.

6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e26, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683880

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a hyperinflammatory illness related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The characteristics of patients with this syndrome and the frequency with which it occurs among patients hospitalised after SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-A, we created ICD-10-CM code and laboratory criteria to identify potential MIS-A patients in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, a database containing patient-level information on hospital discharges across the United States. Modified MIS-A criteria were applied to hospitalisations with discharge from March to December 2020. The proportion of hospitalisations meeting electronic health record criteria for MIS-A and descriptive statistics for patients in the potential MIS-A cohort were calculated. Of 34 515 SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations with complete clinical and laboratory data, 53 met modified criteria for MIS-A (0.15%). The median age was 62 years (IQR 52-74). Most patients met the severe cardiac illness criterion through either myocarditis (66.0%) or new-onset heart failure (35.8%). A total of 79.2% of patients required ICU admission, while 43.4% of patients in the cohort died. MIS-A appears to be a rare but severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additional studies are needed to investigate how this syndrome differs from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):288-289, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564846

ABSTRACT

Background In December 2020, B.1.1.7 lineage of SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in the United States and has since become the dominant lineage. Previous investigations involving B.1.1.7 suggested higher rates of transmission relative to non-B.1.1.7 lineages. We conducted a household transmission investigation to determine the secondary infection rates (SIR) of B.1.1.7 and non-B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Methods From January–April 2021, we enrolled members of households in San Diego County, CA, and Denver, CO metropolitan area (Tri-County), with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a household member with illness onset date in the previous 10 days. CDC investigators visited households at enrollment and 14 days later at closeout to obtain demographic and clinical data and nasopharyngeal (NP) samples on all consenting household members. Interim visits, with collection of NP swabs, occurred if a participant became symptomatic during follow-up. NP samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using TaqPath™ RT-PCR test, where failure to amplify the spike protein results in S-Gene target failure (SGTF) may indicate B.1.1.7 lineage. Demographic characteristics and SIR were compared among SGTF and non-SGTF households using two-sided p-values with chi-square tests;95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with Wilson score intervals. Results 552 persons from 151 households were enrolled. 91 (60%) households were classified as SGTF, 57 (38%) non-SGTF, and 3 (2%) indeterminant. SGTF and non-SGTF households had similar sex distribution (49% female and 52% female, respectively;P=0.54) and age (median 30 years, interquartile range (IQR 14–47) and 31 years (IQR 15–45), respectively). Hispanic people accounted for 24% and 32% of enrolled members of SGTF and non-SGTF households, respectively (p=0.04). At least one secondary case occurred in 61% of SGTF and 58% of non-SGTF households (P=0.66). SIR was 52% (95%[CI] 46%-59%) for SGTF and 45% (95% CI 37%-53%) for non-SGTF households (P=0.18). Conclusion SIRs were high in both SGTF and non-SGTF households;our findings did not support an increase in SIR for SGTF relative to non-SGTF households in this setting. Sequence confirmed SARS-CoV-2 samples will provide further information on lineage specific SIRs. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1450-1456, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389856

ABSTRACT

During the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of a new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been increasing in Europe and the United States (1-3). Clinical features in children have varied but predominantly include shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 (1). Since June 2020, several case reports have described a similar syndrome in adults; this review describes in detail nine patients reported to CDC, seven from published case reports, and summarizes the findings in 11 patients described in three case series in peer-reviewed journals (4-6). These 27 patients had cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and neurologic symptoms without severe respiratory illness and concurrently received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody assays indicating recent infection. Reports of these patients highlight the recognition of an illness referred to here as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), the heterogeneity of clinical signs and symptoms, and the role for antibody testing in identifying similar cases among adults. Clinicians and health departments should consider MIS-A in adults with compatible signs and symptoms. These patients might not have positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test results, and antibody testing might be needed to confirm previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of the temporal association between MIS-A and SARS-CoV-2 infections, interventions that prevent COVID-19 might prevent MIS-A. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis and long-term effects of this newly described condition.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(3): 498-503, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective halting of outbreaks in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) depends on the earliest recognition of cases. We assessed confirmed COVID-19 cases at an SNF impacted by COVID-19 in the United States to identify early indications of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We performed retrospective reviews of electronic health records for residents with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 during February 28-March 16, 2020. Records were abstracted for comorbidities, signs and symptoms, and illness outcomes during the 2 weeks before and after the date of positive specimen collection. Relative risks (RRs) of hospitalization and death were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 118 residents tested among approximately 130 residents from Facility A during February 28-March 16, 2020, 101 (86%) were found to test positive for SARS-CoV-2. At initial presentation, about two-thirds of SARS-CoV-2-positive residents had an abnormal vital sign or change in oxygen status. Most (90.2%) symptomatic residents had elevated temperature, change in mental status, lethargy, change in oxygen status, or cough; 9 (11.0%) did not have fever, cough, or shortness of breath during their clinical course. Those with change in oxygen status had an increased relative risk (RR) of 30-day mortality [51.1% vs 29.7%, RR 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.0]. RR of hospitalization was higher for residents with underlying hepatic disease (1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) or obesity (1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1); RR of death was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings reinforce the critical role that monitoring of signs and symptoms can have in identifying COVID-19 cases early. SNFs should ensure they have a systematic approach for responding to abnormal vital signs and oxygen saturation and consider ensuring common signs and symptoms identified in Facility A are among those they monitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States
13.
Pediatrics ; 147(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052449

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In late June 2020, a large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred at a sleep-away youth camp in Georgia, affecting primarily persons ≤21 years. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among campers and staff (attendees) to determine the extent of the outbreak and assess factors contributing to transmission. METHODS: Attendees were interviewed to ascertain demographic characteristics, known exposures to COVID-19 and community exposures, and mitigation measures before, during, and after attending camp. COVID-19 case status was determined for all camp attendees on the basis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results and reported symptoms. We calculated attack rates and instantaneous reproduction numbers and sequenced SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from the outbreak. RESULTS: Among 627 attendees, the median age was 15 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years); 56% (351 of 627) of attendees were female. The attack rate was 56% (351 of 627) among all attendees. On the basis of date of illness onset or first positive test result on a specimen collected, 12 case patients were infected before arriving at camp and 339 case patients were camp associated. Among 288 case patients with available symptom information, 45 (16%) were asymptomatic. Despite cohorting, 50% of attendees reported direct contact with people outside their cabin cohort. On the first day of camp session, the instantaneous reproduction number was 10. Viral genomic diversity was low. CONCLUSIONS: Few introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into a youth congregate setting resulted in a large outbreak. Testing strategies should be combined with prearrival quarantine, routine symptom monitoring with appropriate isolation and quarantine, cohorting, social distancing, mask wearing, and enhanced disinfection and hand hygiene. Promotion of mitigation measures among younger populations is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Camping , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1457-1459, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842400

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that children and adolescents can efficiently transmit SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-3). During July-August 2020, four state health departments and CDC investigated a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred during a 3-week family gathering of five households in which an adolescent aged 13 years was the index and suspected primary patient; 11 subsequent cases occurred.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1023-1025, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691545

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available about transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among youths. During June 17-20, an overnight camp in Georgia (camp A) held orientation for 138 trainees and 120 staff members; staff members remained for the first camp session, scheduled during June 21-27, and were joined by 363 campers and three senior staff members on June 21. Camp A adhered to the measures in Georgia's Executive Order* that allowed overnight camps to operate beginning on May 31, including requiring all trainees, staff members, and campers to provide documentation of a negative viral SARS-CoV-2 test ≤12 days before arriving. Camp A adopted most† components of CDC's Suggestions for Youth and Summer Camps§ to minimize the risk for SARS-CoV-2 introduction and transmission. Measures not implemented were cloth masks for campers and opening windows and doors for increased ventilation in buildings. Cloth masks were required for staff members. Camp attendees were cohorted by cabin and engaged in a variety of indoor and outdoor activities, including daily vigorous singing and cheering. On June 23, a teenage staff member left camp A after developing chills the previous evening. The staff member was tested and reported a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 the following day (June 24). Camp A officials began sending campers home on June 24 and closed the camp on June 27. On June 25, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) was notified and initiated an investigation. DPH recommended that all attendees be tested and self-quarantine, and isolate if they had a positive test result.


Subject(s)
Camping , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(12): 339-342, 2020 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18477

ABSTRACT

On February 28, 2020, a case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in a woman resident of a long-term care skilled nursing facility (facility A) in King County, Washington.* Epidemiologic investigation of facility A identified 129 cases of COVID-19 associated with facility A, including 81 of the residents, 34 staff members, and 14 visitors; 23 persons died. Limitations in effective infection control and prevention and staff members working in multiple facilities contributed to intra- and interfacility spread. COVID-19 can spread rapidly in long-term residential care facilities, and persons with chronic underlying medical conditions are at greater risk for COVID-19-associated severe disease and death. Long-term care facilities should take proactive steps to protect the health of residents and preserve the health care workforce by identifying and excluding potentially infected staff members and visitors, ensuring early recognition of potentially infected patients, and implementing appropriate infection control measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Residential Facilities , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Long-Term Care , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
N Engl J Med ; 382(21): 2005-2011, 2020 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities are high-risk settings for severe outcomes from outbreaks of Covid-19, owing to both the advanced age and frequent chronic underlying health conditions of the residents and the movement of health care personnel among facilities in a region. METHODS: After identification on February 28, 2020, of a confirmed case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility in King County, Washington, Public Health-Seattle and King County, aided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, launched a case investigation, contact tracing, quarantine of exposed persons, isolation of confirmed and suspected cases, and on-site enhancement of infection prevention and control. RESULTS: As of March 18, a total of 167 confirmed cases of Covid-19 affecting 101 residents, 50 health care personnel, and 16 visitors were found to be epidemiologically linked to the facility. Most cases among residents included respiratory illness consistent with Covid-19; however, in 7 residents no symptoms were documented. Hospitalization rates for facility residents, visitors, and staff were 54.5%, 50.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. The case fatality rate for residents was 33.7% (34 of 101). As of March 18, a total of 30 long-term care facilities with at least one confirmed case of Covid-19 had been identified in King County. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of rapidly escalating Covid-19 outbreaks, proactive steps by long-term care facilities to identify and exclude potentially infected staff and visitors, actively monitor for potentially infected patients, and implement appropriate infection prevention and control measures are needed to prevent the introduction of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Long-Term Care , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
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