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1.
Nature Communications ; 13(1):2442-2442, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1821586

ABSTRACT

Interferon restricts SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture, but only a handful of Interferon Stimulated Genes with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. Here, we describe a functional CRISPR/Cas9 screen aiming at identifying SARS-CoV-2 restriction factors. We identify DAXX, a scaffold protein residing in PML nuclear bodies known to limit the replication of DNA viruses and retroviruses, as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in human cells. Basal expression of DAXX is sufficient to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, and DAXX over-expression further restricts infection. DAXX restricts an early, post-entry step of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. DAXX-mediated restriction of SARS-CoV-2 is independent of the SUMOylation pathway but dependent on its D/E domain, also necessary for its protein-folding activity. SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the re-localization of DAXX to cytoplasmic sites and promotes its degradation. Mechanistically, this process is mediated by the viral papain-like protease (PLpro) and the proteasome. Together, these results demonstrate that DAXX restricts SARS-CoV-2, which in turn has evolved a mechanism to counteract its action.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331294

ABSTRACT

Background: The protective immunity against Omicron following a BNT162b2 Pfizer booster dose among elderly is not well characterized. Methods: Thirty-eight residents from three nursing homes were recruited for the study. Antibodies targeting the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured with the S-Flow assay. Neutralizing activities in sera were measured as effective dilution 50% (ED50) with the S-Fuse assay using authentic isolates of Delta and Omicron. Results: Among the 38 elderly included in the study, with median (inter-quartile range, IQR) age of 88 (81-92) years, 30 (78.9%) had been previously infected. The ED50 of neutralization were lower against Omicron than Delta, and higher among convalescent compared to naive residents. During an Omicron epidemic affecting two of the three nursing homes in December 2021-January 2022, 75% (6/8) of naive residents got infected, compared to 25% (6/24) of convalescents (P=0.03). Antibody levels to Spike and ED50 of neutralization against Omicron after the BNT162b2 booster dose were lower in those with breakthrough infection (n=12) compared to those without (n=20): median of 1256 vs 2523 BAU/mL (P=0.02) and median ED50 of 234 vs 1298 (P=0.0004), respectively. Conclusion: This study confirmed the importance of receiving at least three antigenic exposures to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein for achieving satisfactory neutralizing antibody levels. In this population, protection against Omicron infection was increased in individuals who had been previously infected in addition to the three vaccine doses. Thus, a fourth antigenic exposure may be useful in the elderly population to prevent infection with Omicron, a variant known for its high escape immunity properties.

3.
Nat Med ; 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758268

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron BA.1 sublineage has been supplanted in many countries by the BA.2 sublineage. BA.2 differs from BA.1 by about 21 mutations in its spike. In this study, we first compared the sensitivity of BA.1 and BA.2 to neutralization by nine therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In contrast to BA.1, BA.2 was sensitive to cilgavimab, partly inhibited by imdevimab and resistant to adintrevimab and sotrovimab. We then analyzed sera from 29 immunocompromised individuals up to 1 month after administration of Ronapreve (casirivimab and imdevimab) and/or Evusheld (cilgavimab and tixagevimab) antibody cocktails. All treated individuals displayed elevated antibody levels in their sera, which efficiently neutralized the Delta variant. Sera from Ronapreve recipients did not neutralize BA.1 and weakly inhibited BA.2. Neutralization of BA.1 and BA.2 was detected in 19 and 29 out of 29 Evusheld recipients, respectively. As compared to the Delta variant, neutralizing titers were more markedly decreased against BA.1 (344-fold) than BA.2 (nine-fold). We further report four breakthrough Omicron infections among the 29 individuals, indicating that antibody treatment did not fully prevent infection. Collectively, BA.1 and BA.2 exhibit noticeable differences in their sensitivity to therapeutic mAbs. Anti-Omicron neutralizing activity of Ronapreve and, to a lesser extent, that of Evusheld is reduced in patients' sera.

4.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 20(4): 187-188, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751730
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330085

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant has been supplanted in many countries by the BA.2 sub-lineage. BA.2 differs from BA.1 by about 21 mutations in its spike. Human anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used for prevention or treatment of COVID-19. However, the capacity of therapeutic mAbs to neutralize BA.1 and BA.2 remains poorly characterized. Here, we first compared the sensitivity of BA.1 and BA.2 to neutralization by 9 therapeutic mAbs. In contrast to BA.1, BA.2 was sensitive to Cilgavimab, partly inhibited by Imdevimab and resistant to Adintrevimab and Sotrovimab. Two combinations of mAbs, Ronapreve (Casirivimab + Imdevimab) and Evusheld (Cilgavimab + Tixagevimab), are indicated as a pre-exposure prophylaxis in immunocompromised persons at risk of severe disease. We analyzed sera from 29 such individuals, up to one month after administration of Ronapreve and/or Evusheld. After treatment, all individuals displayed elevated antibody levels in their sera and neutralized Delta with high titers. Ronapreve recipients did not neutralize BA.1 and weakly impaired BA.2. With Evusheld, neutralization of BA.1 and BA.2 was detected in 19 and 29 out of 29 patients, respectively. As compared to Delta, titers were more severely decreased against BA.1 (344-fold) than BA.2 (9-fold). We further report 4 breakthrough Omicron infections among the 29 participants. Therefore, BA.1 and BA.2 exhibit noticeable differences in their sensitivity to therapeutic mAbs. Anti-Omicron activity of Ronapreve, and to a lesser extent that of Evusheld, is reduced in patients’ sera, a phenomenon associated with decreased clinical efficacy.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103934, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 lineages are continuously evolving. As of December 2021, the AY.4.2 Delta sub-lineage represented 20 % of sequenced strains in the UK and had been detected in dozens of countries. It has since then been supplanted by Omicron. The AY.4.2 spike displays three additional mutations (T95I, Y145H and A222V) in the N-terminal domain when compared to the original Delta variant (B.1.617.2) and remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We compared the Delta and the AY.4.2 spikes, by assessing their binding to antibodies and ACE2 and their fusogenicity. We studied the sensitivity of an authentic AY.4.2 viral isolate to neutralizing antibodies. FINDINGS: The AY.4.2 spike exhibited similar binding to all the antibodies and sera tested, and similar fusogenicity and binding to ACE2 than the ancestral Delta spike. The AY.4.2 virus was slightly less sensitive than Delta to neutralization by a panel of monoclonal antibodies; noticeably, the anti-RBD Imdevimab showed incomplete neutralization. Sensitivity of AY.4.2 to sera from vaccinated individuals was reduced by 1.3 to 3-fold, when compared to Delta. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that mutations in the NTD remotely impair the efficacy of anti-RBD antibodies. The spread of AY.4.2 was not due to major changes in spike fusogenicity or ACE2 binding, but more likely to a partially reduced neutralization sensitivity. FUNDING: The work was funded by Institut Pasteur, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, Urgence COVID-19 Fundraising Campaign of Institut Pasteur, ANRS, the Vaccine Research Institute, Labex IBEID, ANR/FRM Flash Covid PROTEO-SARS-CoV-2 and IDISCOVR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
7.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733147

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections after complete vaccination are increasing whereas their determinants remain uncharacterized. Methods We analyzed two cases of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infections by α and β variants, respectively. For each participant both humoral (binding and neutralizing antibodies) and cellular (activation markers and cytokine expression) immune responses were characterized longitudinally. Results The first participant (P1) was infected by an α variant and displayed an extended and short period of viral excretion and symptom. Analysis of cellular and humoral response 72 h post-symptom onset revealed that P1 failed at developing neutralizing antibodies and a potent CD4 memory response (lack of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+IL-2+ cells) and CD8 effector response (CD8+IFNγ+ cells). The second participant (P2) developed post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection by a β variant, associated with a short period of viral excretion and symptoms. Despite displaying initially high levels and polyfunctional T cell responses, P2 lacked initial β-directed neutralizing antibodies. Both participants developed and/or increased their neutralization activity and cellular responses against all variants, namely, β and δ variants that lasts up to 3 months after breakthrough infection. Conclusions An analysis of cellular and humoral response suggests two possible mechanisms of breakthrough infection: a poor immune response to vaccine and viral evasion to neutralizing antibodies.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 817905, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699973

ABSTRACT

The duration of humoral and cellular immune memory following SARS-CoV-2 infection in populations in least developed countries remains understudied but is key to overcome the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Sixty-four Cambodian individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection with asymptomatic or mild/moderate clinical presentation were evaluated for Spike (S)-binding and neutralizing antibodies and antibody effector functions during acute phase of infection and at 6-9 months follow-up. Antigen-specific B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were characterized, and T cells were interrogated for functionality at late convalescence. Anti-S antibody titers decreased over time, but effector functions mediated by S-specific antibodies remained stable. S- and nucleocapsid (N)-specific B cells could be detected in late convalescence in the activated memory B cell compartment and are mostly IgG+. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune memory was maintained to S and membrane (M) protein. Asymptomatic infection resulted in decreased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and frequency of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells at late convalescence. Whereas anti-S antibodies correlated with S-specific B cells, there was no correlation between T cell response and humoral immune memory. Hence, all aspects of a protective immune response are maintained up to nine months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the absence of re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cambodia , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326346

ABSTRACT

Serological tests are important for understanding the physiopathology and following the evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic. Assays based on flow cytometry (FACS) of tissue culture cells expressing the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 have repeatedly proven to perform slightly better than the plate-based assays ELISA and CLIA (chemiluminescent immuno-assay), and markedly better than lateral flow immuno-assays (LFIA). Here, we describe an optimized and very simple FACS assay based on staining a mix of two Jurkat cell lines, expressing either high levels of the S protein (Jurkat-S) or a fluorescent protein (Jurkat-R expressing m-Cherry, or Jurkat-G, expressing GFP, which serve as an internal negative control). We show that the Jurkat-S\&R-flow test has a much broader dynamic range than a commercial ELISA test and performs at least as well in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Also, it is more sensitive and quantitative than the hemagglutination-based test HAT, which we described recently. The Jurkat-flow test requires only a few microliters of blood;thus, it can be used to quantify various Ig isotypes in capillary blood collected from a finger prick. It can be used also to evaluate serological responses in mice, hamsters, cats and dogs. FACS tests offer a very attractive solution for laboratories with access to tissue culture and flow cytometry who want to monitor serological responses in humans or in animals, and how these relate to susceptibility to infection, or re-infection, by the virus, and to protection against Covid-19.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307952

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is generally milder than in adults, yet a proportion of cases result in hyperinflammatory conditions often including myocarditis. To better understand these cases, we applied a multi-parametric approach to the study of blood cells of 56 children hospitalized with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most severe forms of MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to SARS-CoV-2), that resulted in myocarditis, were characterized by elevated levels of pro-angiogenesis cytokines and several chemokines. Single-cell transcriptomic analyses identified a unique monocyte/dendritic cell gene signature that correlated with the occurrence of severe myocarditis, characterized by sustained NF-κ B activity, TNF-α signaling, associated with decreased gene expression of NF-κ B inhibitors. We also found a weak response to type-I and type-II interferons, hyperinflammation and response to oxidative stress related to increased HIF-1α and VEGF signaling. These results provide potential for a better understanding of disease pathophysiology.Funding: The study was supported by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), by the “URGENCE COVID-19” fundraising campaign of Institut Pasteur, by the Atip-Avenir, Emergence ville de Paris program and fond de dotation Janssen Horizon and by government grants managed by the Agence National de la Recherche as part of the “Investment for the Future” program (Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Imagine, grant ANR-10-IAHU-01, Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire, grant ANR-18-RHUS-0010, Laboratoire d’Excellence ‘‘Milieu Intérieur”, grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01), the Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires (CEREDIH), the Agence National de la Recherche (ANR-flash Covid19 “AIROCovid” to FRL and “CoVarImm” to DD and JDS), and by the FASTFoundation (French Friends of Sheba Tel Hashomer Hospital). The LabTech Single-Cell@Imagine is supported by the Paris Region and the “Investissements d’avenir” program through the 2019 ATF funding – Sésame Filières PIA (Grant N°3877871).CdC is the recipient of a CIFRE-PhD (Sanofi). L.B. was a recipient of an Imagine institute PhD international program supported by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller. L.B. was also supported by the EUR G.E.N.E. (reference #ANR-17-EURE-0013) and is part of the Université de Paris IdEx #ANR-18-IDEX-0001 funded by the French Government through its“Investments for the Future” program. S.M. was a recipient of an INSERM and Institut Imagine post-doctorat program supported by the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRMN°SPF20170938825). NS was a recipient of the Pasteur-Roux-Cantarini Fellowship. VGP obtained an Imagine international PhD fellowship program supported by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller. BPP is the recipient of an ANRS post-doctoral fellowship.Conflict of Interest: DD, FRL, JT and MMM are listed as inventors on a patent application related to this technology (European Patent Application no. EP21305197, entitled “Methods of predicting multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) with severe myocarditis in subjects suffering from a SARS-CoV-2 infection”).Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Ouest IV, n° DC-2017-2987).

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306787

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 induces a humoral response with seroconversion occurring within the first weeks after COVID-19 disease. Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution overtime after COVID-19 is however unknown.Methods: In this monocentric prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 months and 6 months post-infection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-Spike (S) and anti-Nucleocapsid (NP) IgG.Findings: Levels of sero-neutralization decreased significantly over study time, as well as IgG rates. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect on SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing assays. IgG levels correlated with sero-neutralization and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of sero-neutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission in intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation.Interpretation: Decrease of IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity in our patients. Those results are encouraging and in favor of sustained humoral response for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19, which will have to be considered in global deployment of vaccination strategy.Trial Registration: The French Covid cohort (NCT04262921)Funding Statement: The French COVID cohort is funding by the REACTing (REsearch & ACtion emergING infectious diseases) consortium and by a grant of the French Ministry of Health (PHRC n°20-0424).Outside the submitted work, JSH is supported by AP-HP, INSERM, the French National Research Agency (NADHeart ANR-17-CE17-0015-02, PACIFIC ANR-18-CE14-0032-01, CORRECT_LMNA ANR-19-CE17-0013-02), the ERA-Net-CVD (ANR-16-ECVD-0011-03, Clarify project), Fédération Française de Cardiologie, the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, and by a grant from the Leducq Foundation (18CVD05), and is coordinating a French PIA Project (2018-PSPC-07, PACIFIC-preserved, BPIFrance) and a University Research Federation against heart failure (FHU2019, PREVENT_Heart Failure). JG reports personal fees from ViiV Healthcare, Gilead Science, Janssen Cilag, and research grants from Gilead Sciences, MSD and ViiV Healthcare, outside the submitted work.Declaration of Interests: Authors have nothing to disclose. There are no relationships with industry.Ethics Approval Statement: The French Covid cohort (NCT04262921) is a prospective multi-center observational cohort sponsored by Inserm which was authorized by the French Ethics Committee CPP Ile-de-France VI (ID RCB:2020-A00256-33).

13.
Am J Transplant ; 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685185

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients may experience prolonged viral shedding after their initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, symptomatic relapses after remission currently remain rare. We herein describe a severe COVID-19 relapse case of a kidney transplant recipient (KTR) following rituximab therapy, 3 months after a moderate COVID-19 infection, despite viral clearance after recovery of the first episode. During the clinical relapse, the diagnosis was established on a broncho-alveolar lavage specimen (BAL) by RT-PCR. The infectivity of the BAL sample was confirmed on a cell culture assay. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of an identical stain (Clade 20A). However, it had an acquired G142D mutation and a larger deletion of 3-amino-acids at position 143-145. These mutations located within the N-terminal domain are suggested to play a role in viral entry. The diagnosis of a COVID-19 relapse should be considered in the setting of unexplained persistent fever and/or respiratory symptoms in KTRs (especially for those after rituximab therapy), even in patients with previous negative naso-pharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR.

14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients on maintenance hemodialysis have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 and a reduced response to vaccines. Data are needed to identify immune correlates of protection in this population. METHODS: Following a COVID-19 outbreak among vaccinated patients in a hemodialysis unit, clinical data and serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine were retrospectively recorded. RESULTS: Among fifty-three patients present in the dialysis room, fourteen were infected by SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant (COVID_Pos) and 39 were not. In comparison to uninfected patients, COVID_Pos patients more frequently had additional causes of immunosuppression (50% vs 21%, p = 0.046), and were more often scheduled on the Monday-Wednesday-Friday (MWF) shift (86% vs 39%, p = 0.002). Moreover, COVID_pos had lower anti-Spike IgG titers than uninfected patients (24 BAU/ml [3-1163] vs 435 BAU/mL [99-2555], p = 0.001) and lower neutralization titers (108 [17-224] vs 2483 [481-43 908], p = 0.007). Anti-Spike and neutralization antibody titers are correlated (r = 0.92, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, MWF schedule (OR = 10.74 (1.9-93.5), p = 0.014) and anti-spike IgG titers one month before the outbreak (<205 BAU/ml: OR = 0.046 (0.002-0.29), p = 0.006) were independently associated with COVID-19 infection. None of the patients with anti-Spike IgG above 284 BAU/mL got infected. Ten out of fourteen COVID_Pos patients were treated with Casirivimab and Imdevimab. No patient developed severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-spike IgG titer measured prior to exposure correlates to protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in hemodialysis patients. BNT162b2 vaccination alone or in combination with monoclonal antibodies prevented severe COVID-19.

15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(5): 720-728, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of strains of SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting increase viral fitness and immune escape potential, such as the Delta variant (B.1.617.2), raises concerns in immunocompromised patients. We aimed to evaluate seroconversion, cross-neutralisation and T-cell responses induced by BNT162b2 in immunocompromised patients with systemic inflammatory diseases. METHODS: Prospective monocentric study including patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and healthcare immunocompetent workers as controls. Primary endpoints were anti-spike antibodies levels and cross-neutralisation of Alpha and Delta variants after BNT162b2 vaccine. Secondary endpoints were T-cell responses, breakthrough infections and safety. RESULTS: Sixty-four cases and 21 controls not previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analysed. Kinetics of anti-spike IgG after BNT162b2 vaccine showed lower and delayed induction in cases, more pronounced with rituximab. Administration of two doses of BNT162b2 generated a neutralising response against Alpha and Delta in 100% of controls, while sera from only one of rituximab-treated patients neutralised Alpha (5%) and none Delta. Other therapeutic regimens induced a partial neutralising activity against Alpha, even lower against Delta. All controls and cases except those treated with methotrexate mounted a SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response. Methotrexate abrogated T-cell responses after one dose and dramatically impaired T-cell responses after two doses of BNT162b2. Third dose of vaccine improved immunogenicity in patients with low responses. CONCLUSION: Rituximab and methotrexate differentially impact the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, by impairing B-cell and T-cell responses, respectively. Delta fully escapes the humoral response of individuals treated with rituximab. These findings support efforts to improve BNT162b2 immunogenicity in immunocompromised individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04870411).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Methotrexate , Prospective Studies , Rituximab , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Nature ; 602(7898): 671-675, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616994

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was first identified in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa1-3. It has since spread to many countries and is expected to rapidly become dominant worldwide. The lineage is characterized by the presence of around 32 mutations in spike-located mostly in the N-terminal domain and the receptor-binding domain-that may enhance viral fitness and enable antibody evasion. Here we isolated an infectious Omicron virus in Belgium from a traveller returning from Egypt. We examined its sensitivity to nine monoclonal antibodies that have been clinically approved or are in development4, and to antibodies present in 115 serum samples from COVID-19 vaccine recipients or individuals who have recovered from COVID-19. Omicron was completely or partially resistant to neutralization by all monoclonal antibodies tested. Sera from recipients of the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine, sampled five months after complete vaccination, barely inhibited Omicron. Sera from COVID-19-convalescent patients collected 6 or 12 months after symptoms displayed low or no neutralizing activity against Omicron. Administration of a booster Pfizer dose as well as vaccination of previously infected individuals generated an anti-Omicron neutralizing response, with titres 6-fold to 23-fold lower against Omicron compared with those against Delta. Thus, Omicron escapes most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and, to a large extent, vaccine-elicited antibodies. However, Omicron is neutralized by antibodies generated by a booster vaccine dose.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , /immunology , Belgium , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , /immunology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296907

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was first identified in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa. It has in the meantime spread to many countries and is expected to rapidly become dominant worldwide. The lineage is characterized by the presence of about 32 mutations in the Spike, located mostly in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor binding domain (RBD), which may enhance viral fitness and allow antibody evasion. Here, we isolated an infectious Omicron virus in Belgium, from a traveller returning from Egypt. We examined its sensitivity to 9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) clinically approved or in development, and to antibodies present in 90 sera from COVID-19 vaccine recipients or convalescent individuals. Omicron was totally or partially resistant to neutralization by all mAbs tested. Sera from Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine recipients, sampled 5 months after complete vaccination, barely inhibited Omicron. Sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients collected 6 or 12 months post symptoms displayed low or no neutralizing activity against Omicron. Administration of a booster Pfizer dose as well as vaccination of previously infected individuals generated an anti-Omicron neutralizing response, with titers 5 to 31 fold lower against Omicron than against Delta. Thus, Omicron escapes most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and to a large extent vaccine-elicited antibodies.

19.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295788

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by lung abnormalities, including the presence of syncytial pneumocytes. Syncytia form when SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expressed on the surface of infected cells interacts with the ACE2 receptor on neighbouring cells. The syncytia forming potential of spike variant proteins remain poorly characterized. Here, we first assessed Alpha and Beta spread and fusion in cell cultures. Alpha and Beta replicated similarly to D614G reference strain in Vero, Caco-2, Calu-3 and primary airway cells. However, Alpha and Beta formed larger and more numerous syncytia. Alpha, Beta and D614G fusion was similarly inhibited by interferon induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs). Individual mutations present in Alpha and Beta spikes differentially modified fusogenicity, binding to ACE2 and recognition by monoclonal antibodies. We further show that Delta spike also triggers faster fusion relative to D614G. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 emerging variants display enhanced syncytia formation. Synopsis The Spike protein of the novel SARS-CoV-2 variants are comparative more fusogenic than the earlier strains. The mutations in the variant spike protein differential modulate syncytia formation, ACE2 binding, and antibody escape. The spike protein of Alpha, Beta and Delta, in the absence of other viral proteins, induce more syncytia than D614G The ACE2 affinity of the variant spike proteins correlates to their fusogenicity Variant associated mutations P681H, D1118H, and D215G augment cell-cell fusion, while antibody escape mutation E484K, K417N and Δ242-244 hamper it. Variant spike-mediated syncytia formation is effectively restricted by IFITMs

20.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294752

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is essential in predicting protection against reinfection and durability of vaccine protection. Here, we longitudinally measured Spike (S) and Nucleocapsid (N)-specific antibodies in 1,309 healthcare workers (HCWs), including 916 COVID-19 negative HCWs and 393 convalescent COVID-19 for up to 422 days post-symptom. From month (M)1 to M7-9 post-infection, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies decreased moderately in convalescent HCWs in a biphasic model, with men showing a slower decay of anti-N (p=0.02), and a faster decay of anti-S (p=0.0008) than women. At M11-13, anti-N dramatically decreased (half-life: 283 days) while anti-S stabilized (half-life: 725 days) at a median of 2.39 log Arbitrary Units (AU)/mL (Interquartile Range (IQR): 2.10 -2.75). Overall, 69 SARS-CoV-2 infections developed in the COVID-19 negative group (incidence of 12.22 per 100 person-years) versus one in the COVID-19 positive group (incidence of 0.40 per 100 person-years), indicating a relative reduction in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection of 96.7% (p<0.0001). Correlation with live-virus neutralization assay revealed that variants D614G and B.1.1.7, but not B.1.351, were sensitive to anti-S antibodies at 2.3 log AU/mL, while IgG ≥ 3 log AU/mL neutralized all three variants. After SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, anti-S levels reached at least 3 logs regardless of pre-vaccination IgG levels, type of vaccine, and number of doses. Our study demonstrates a long-term persistence of anti-S IgG antibodies that may protect against reinfection. By significantly increasing cross-neutralizing antibody titers, a single-dose vaccination strengthens protection against escape mutants.

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