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1.
Hosp Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe COVID-19-related pediatric hospitalizations during a period of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance and to determine age-specific factors associated with severe illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We abstracted data from medical charts to conduct a cross-sectional study of patients aged <21 years hospitalized at 6 US children's hospitals during July-August 2021 for COVID-19 or with an incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Among patients with COVID-19, we assessed factors associated with severe illness by calculating age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR). We defined severe illness as receiving high-flow nasal cannula, positive airway pressure, or invasive mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Of 947 hospitalized patients, 759 (80.1%) had COVID-19, of whom 287 (37.8%) had severe illness. Factors associated with severe illness included coinfection with RSV (PR 3.64) and bacteria (PR 1.88) in infants; RSV coinfection in patients aged 1-4 years (PR 1.96); and obesity in patients aged 5-11 (PR 2.20) and 12-17 years (PR 2.48). Having ≥2 underlying medical conditions was associated with severe illness in patients aged <1 (PR 1.82), 5-11 (PR 3.72), and 12-17 years (PR 3.19). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, factors associated with severe illness included RSV coinfection in those aged <5 years, obesity in those aged 5-17 years, and other underlying conditions for all age groups <18 years. These findings can inform pediatric practice, risk communication, and prevention strategies, including vaccination against COVID-19.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602629

ABSTRACT

Background Clinical severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may vary over time;trends in clinical severity at admission during the pandemic among hospitalized patients in the United States have been incompletely described, so a historical record of severity over time is lacking. Methods We classified 466677 hospital admissions for COVID-19 from April 2020 to April 2021 into 4 mutually exclusive severity grades based on indicators present on admission (from most to least severe): Grade 4 included intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV);grade 3 included non-IMV ICU and/or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation;grade 2 included diagnosis of acute respiratory failure;and grade 1 included none of the above indicators. Trends were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and comorbid conditions. We also examined severity in states with high vs low Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant burden. Results Severity tended to be lower among women, younger adults, and those with fewer comorbidities compared to their counterparts. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 1 or 2 fluctuated over time, but these less-severe grades comprised a majority (75%–85%) of admissions every month. Grades 3 and 4 consistently made up a minority of admissions (15%–25%), and grade 4 showed consistent decreases in all subgroups, including states with high Alpha variant burden. Conclusions Clinical severity among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has varied over time but has not consistently or markedly worsened over time. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 4 decreased in all subgroups. There was no consistent evidence of worsening severity in states with higher vs lower Alpha prevalence. Use of a 4-category measure of severity among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the US from April 2020 to April 2021 suggests that the 2 highest-severity categories make up a minority of admissions and that the most severe category has decreased over time.

4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(1): ofab599, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may vary over time; trends in clinical severity at admission during the pandemic among hospitalized patients in the United States have been incompletely described, so a historical record of severity over time is lacking. METHODS: We classified 466677 hospital admissions for COVID-19 from April 2020 to April 2021 into 4 mutually exclusive severity grades based on indicators present on admission (from most to least severe): Grade 4 included intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV); grade 3 included non-IMV ICU and/or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; grade 2 included diagnosis of acute respiratory failure; and grade 1 included none of the above indicators. Trends were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and comorbid conditions. We also examined severity in states with high vs low Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant burden. RESULTS: Severity tended to be lower among women, younger adults, and those with fewer comorbidities compared to their counterparts. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 1 or 2 fluctuated over time, but these less-severe grades comprised a majority (75%-85%) of admissions every month. Grades 3 and 4 consistently made up a minority of admissions (15%-25%), and grade 4 showed consistent decreases in all subgroups, including states with high Alpha variant burden. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical severity among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has varied over time but has not consistently or markedly worsened over time. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 4 decreased in all subgroups. There was no consistent evidence of worsening severity in states with higher vs lower Alpha prevalence.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1249-1254, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436412

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 generally results in milder disease in children and adolescents than in adults, severe illness from COVID-19 can occur in children and adolescents and might require hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) support (1-3). It is not known whether the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant,* which has been the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) in the United States since late June 2021,† causes different clinical outcomes in children and adolescents compared with variants that circulated earlier. To assess trends among children and adolescents, CDC analyzed new COVID-19 cases, emergency department (ED) visits with a COVID-19 diagnosis code, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 among persons aged 0-17 years during August 1, 2020-August 27, 2021. Since July 2021, after Delta had become the predominant circulating variant, the rate of new COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-related ED visits increased for persons aged 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 increased for persons aged 0-17 years. Among persons aged 0-17 years during the most recent 2-week period (August 14-27, 2021), COVID-19-related ED visits and hospital admissions in the states with the lowest vaccination coverage were 3.4 and 3.7 times that in the states with the highest vaccination coverage, respectively. At selected hospitals, the proportion of COVID-19 patients aged 0-17 years who were admitted to an ICU ranged from 10% to 25% during August 2020-June 2021 and was 20% and 18% during July and August 2021, respectively. Broad, community-wide vaccination of all eligible persons is a critical component of mitigation strategies to protect pediatric populations from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
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