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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e058704, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential bidirectional relationship between food insecurity and HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Nationally representative HIV impact assessment household-based surveys. SETTING: Zambia, Eswatini, Lesotho, Uganda and Tanzania and Namibia. PARTICIPANTS: 112 955 survey participants aged 15-59 years with HIV and recency test results. MEASURES: Recent HIV infection (within 6 months) classified using the HIV-1 limited antigen avidity assay, in participants with an unsuppressed viral load (>1000 copies/mL) and no detectable antiretrovirals; severe food insecurity (SFI) defined as having no food in the house ≥three times in the past month. RESULTS: Overall, 10.3% of participants lived in households reporting SFI. SFI was most common in urban, woman-headed households, and in people with chronic HIV infection. Among women, SFI was associated with a twofold increase in risk of recent HIV infection (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 2.08, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.97). SFI was also associated with transactional sex (aRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.41), a history of forced sex (aRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.66) and condom-less sex with a partner of unknown or positive HIV status (aRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) in all women, and intergenerational sex (partner ≥10 years older) in women aged 15-24 years (aRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.46). Recent receipt of food support was protective against HIV acquisition (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.88). CONCLUSION: SFI increased risk for HIV acquisition in women by twofold. Heightened food insecurity during climactic extremes could imperil HIV epidemic control, and food support to women with SFI during these events could reduce HIV transmission.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Tanzania
2.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295346

ABSTRACT

A bstract Introduction Food insecurity has a bidirectional relationship with HIV infection, with hunger driving compensatory risk behaviors, while infection can increase poverty. We used a laboratory recency assay to estimate the timing of HIV infection vis-à-vis the timing of severe food insecurity (SFI). Methods Data from population-based surveys in Zambia, Eswatini, Lesotho, Uganda, and Tanzania and Namibia were used. We defined SFI as having no food ≥three times in the past month. Recent HIV infection was identified using the HIV-1 LAg avidity assay, with a viral load (>1000 copies/ml) and no detectable antiretrovirals indicating an infection in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was conducted to assess correlates of SFI. Poisson regression was conducted on pooled data, adjusted by country to determine the association of SFI with recent HIV infection and risk behaviors, with effect heterogeneity evaluated for each country. All analyses were done using weighted data. Results Of 112,955 participants aged 15-59, 10.3% lived in households reporting SFI. SFI was most common in urban, woman-headed households. Among women and not men, SFI was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of recent HIV infection (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 2.08, 95% CI 1.09-3.97), with lower risk in high prevalence countries (Eswatini and Lesotho). SFI was associated with transactional sex (aRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.41), a history of forced sex (aRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.66), and condom-less sex with a partner of unknown or positive HIV status (aRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14) in all women, and intergenerational sex (partner ≥10 years older) in women aged 15-24 (aRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46), although this was heterogeneous. Recent receipt of food support was protective (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.88). Conclusion SFI increased risk for HIV acquisition in women by two-fold. Worsening food scarcity due to climactic extremes could imperil HIV epidemic control. SUMMARY What is already known The link between food insecurity and the adoption of high-risk sexual behaviors as a coping mechanism has been shown in several settings. HIV infection can also drive food insecurity due to debilitating illness reducing productivity, the costs of treatment diverting money from supplies, and potentially reduced labor migration. Food insecurity has been associated with chronic HIV infection, but it has not been linked with HIV acquisition. What are the new findings This study of 112,955 adults across six countries in sub-Saharan Africa provides unique information on the association between acute food insecurity and recent HIV infection in women, as well as the potential behavioral and biological mediators, including community viremia as a measure of infectiousness. The data enabled a comprehensive analysis of factors associated with risk of infection, and how these factors differed by country and gender. Women living in food insecure households had a two-fold higher risk of recent HIV acquisition, and reported higher rates of transactional sex, early sexual debut, forced sex, intergenerational sex and sex without a condom with someone of unknown or positive HIV status. This pattern was not seen in men. This study is also the first to demonstrate a protective association for food support, which was associated with a lower risk of recent HIV infection in women. What do the new findings imply In light of worsening food insecurity due to climate change and the recent COVID-19 pandemic, our results support further exploration of gender-specific pathways of response to acute food insecurity, particularly how women’s changes in sexual behavior heighten their risk of HIV acquisition. These and other data support the inclusion of food insecurity in HIV risk assessments for women, as well as the exploration of provision of food support to those households at highest risk based on geographic and individual factors.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 478-482, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168277

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can spread rapidly in prisons and can be introduced by staff members and newly transferred incarcerated persons (1,2). On September 28, 2020, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) contacted CDC to report a COVID-19 outbreak in a state prison (prison A). During October 6-20, a CDC team investigated the outbreak, which began with 12 cases detected from specimens collected during August 17-24 from incarcerated persons housed within the same unit, 10 of whom were transferred together on August 13 and under quarantine following prison intake procedures (intake quarantine). Potentially exposed persons within the unit began a 14-day group quarantine on August 25. However, quarantine was not restarted after quarantined persons were potentially exposed to incarcerated persons with COVID-19 who were moved to the unit. During the subsequent 8 weeks (August 14-October 22), 869 (79.4%) of 1,095 incarcerated persons and 69 (22.6%) of 305 staff members at prison A received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of specimens from 172 cases among incarcerated persons showed that all clustered in the same lineage; this finding, along with others, demonstrated that facility spread originated with the transferred cohort. To effectively implement a cohorted quarantine, which is a harm reduction strategy for correctional settings with limited space, CDC's interim guidance recommendation is to serial test cohorts, restarting the 14-day quarantine period when a new case is identified (3). Implementing more effective intake quarantine procedures and available mitigation measures, including vaccination, among incarcerated persons is important to controlling transmission in prisons. Understanding and addressing the challenges faced by correctional facilities to implement medical isolation and quarantine can help reduce and prevent outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Wisconsin/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 467-472, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168275

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is common in congregate settings such as correctional and detention facilities (1-3). On September 17, 2020, a Utah correctional facility (facility A) received a report of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dental health care provider (DHCP) who had treated incarcerated persons at facility A on September 14, 2020 while asymptomatic. On September 21, 2020, the roommate of an incarcerated person who had received dental treatment experienced COVID-19-compatible symptoms*; both were housed in block 1 of facility A (one of 16 occupied blocks across eight residential units). Two days later, the roommate received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, becoming the first person with a known-associated case of COVID-19 at facility A. During September 23-24, 2020, screening of 10 incarcerated persons who had received treatment from the DHCP identified another two persons with COVID-19, prompting isolation of all three patients in an unoccupied block at the facility. Within block 1, group activities were stopped to limit interaction among staff members and incarcerated persons and prevent further spread. During September 14-24, 2020, six facility A staff members, one of whom had previous close contact† with one of the patients, also reported symptoms. On September 27, 2020, an outbreak was confirmed after specimens from all remaining incarcerated persons in block 1 were tested; an additional 46 cases of COVID-19 were identified, which were reported to the Salt Lake County Health Department and the Utah Department of Health. On September 30, 2020, CDC, in collaboration with both health departments and the correctional facility, initiated an investigation to identify factors associated with the outbreak and implement control measures. As of January 31, 2021, a total of 1,368 cases among 2,632 incarcerated persons (attack rate = 52%) and 88 cases among 550 staff members (attack rate = 16%) were reported in facility A. Among 33 hospitalized incarcerated persons, 11 died. Quarantine and monitoring of potentially exposed persons and implementation of available prevention measures, including vaccination, are important in preventing introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in correctional facilities and other congregate settings (4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Dentists , Disease Outbreaks , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Prisons , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Community-Acquired Infections , Humans , Mass Screening , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Utah/epidemiology
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