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J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(2): 166-169, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235553


OBJECTIVES: Affection of the central nervous system and the eyes is increasingly recognized as manifestations of a SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19). This review aims at summarizing and discussing recent advances concerning causes and locations of impaired vision because of an infection with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: On a literature search through PubMed and ScholarOne, all available publications about COVID-19 patients with impaired vision were retrieved. RESULTS: Visual impairment in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients may be due to infection of lacrimal glands (dacryoadenitis), conjunctivitis, tonic pupils, vitritis, central retinal artery/venous occlusion, retinitis, retinal bleeding, panuveitis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic nerve stroke, optic neuritis, optic perineuritis, or occipital ischemic stroke. Visual impairment may be the initial manifestation of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: This mini review shows that impaired vision may be the initial manifestation of COVID-19, that all sections of the visual tract may be affected and causative for visual impairment in COVID-19 patients, and that SARS-CoV-2 manifests along the visual tract with ischemia, focal infection, and immunological reactions.

COVID-19/complications , Vision Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders/epidemiology
Eur J Neurol ; 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235556
Clin Case Rep ; 11(5): e7321, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235555
Brain Hemorrhages ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314537


Pituitary apoplexy often manifests with a severe headache and is often caused by bleeding in a pituitary adenoma, which is common and often undiagnosed. The pituitary gland is damaged when the tumour suddenly enlarges due to bleeding. Bleeding into the pituitary can block blood supply to the pituitary gland. The larger the tumour, the higher the risk of a future pituitary apoplexy. Since only few cases have been reported, the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is unlikely to cause pituitary apoplexy. Patients with new-type headache require neurological evaluation and may require cerebral imaging to rule out bleeding, ischemia, venous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, encephalitis, pituitary apoplexy, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, dissection, or migraine.

Brain Hemorrhages ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314535


Cerebrovascular events are increasingly recognised as a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infections. They can be due to hypercoagulability, vasculopathy, cardiac involvement in the infection, or autonomic dysfunction. However, establishing a causal relationship between cerebrovascular events and viral infection is not always easy and requires thorough investigation and documentation of a close temporal relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the onset of cerebral impairment. Establishing a causal relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and cerebrovascular events is desirable as it can guide the therapeutic management and determine the outcome.

Indian J Radiol Imaging ; 33(3): 428-429, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308454
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 30(1): 1, 2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259218


We have read with interest the article by Watroba and Bryda on a new-born male with SARS-CoV-2 associated meningo-encephalitis, post-inflammatory hydrocephalus and seizures [1]. Neuro-COVID in this patient was treated with a polypragmatic approach, including phenobarbital, acetazolamide, fluconazole, acyclovir, cefotaxime, and vancomycin [1]. The study is appealing but has limitations that raise concerns and should be discussed.

COVID-19 , Meningoencephalitis , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy , Seizures , Acetazolamide
Neuroophthalmology ; 47(1): 1-6, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259215


Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS)/opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMAS), also known as Kinsbourne's syndrome or 'dancing eyes-dancing feet' syndrome, is a rare central nervous system manifestation of COVID-19 but an increasing number of articles have reported patients in whom COVID-19 was complicated by OMS/OMAS. This narrative review aims at summarising and discussing current knowledge about the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 associated OMS/OMAS. Altogether, 29 articles reporting 45 patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated OMS/OMAS were retrieved. Their ages ranged from 2 to 88 years. Three patients were children and the remainder adults. Gender was male in 32 patients and female in 13 patients. Opsoclonus was described in 29 patients, which was associated with myoclonus in 28 cases. Myoclonus was described in 43 patients, which was associated with opsoclonus and ataxia in 18 patients. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid investigations were not informative in the majority of the cases. OMS/OMAS was treated with steroids in 28 patients and with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in 15 patients. Clonazepam was given to 18 patients, levetiracetam to 13 patients, and sodium valproate to eight patients. Complete recovery was achieved in 12 cases and incomplete recovery in 22 cases. Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 associated OMS/OMAS requires extensive neurological work up and exclusion of various differentials. SARS-CoV-2 associated OMS/OMAS may not always present with the full spectrum of manifestations but as an abortive syndrome. OMS/OMAS should not be missed as it usually responds favourably to steroids or IVIG.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e0381, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259213

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Journal of Clinical and Translational Research ; 8(6):506-508, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2124980


Background and Aim: Long post-COVID vaccination syndrome (LPCVS) is an increasingly recognized disease that occurs after SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations and lasts >4 weeks. However, little is known about the clinical presentation, underlying pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of LPCVS. This study aims to present a series of patients with LPCVS, their treatment, and outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of three patients with LPCVS. Results: In an observation period of 2 months (January and February 2022), three patients were collected in whom side effects after vaccination against COVID-19 lasted >4 weeks and in whom instrumental examinations were largely unremarkable. All three patients received only symptomatic therapy and only partially recovered within 6–8 months after vaccination. LPCVS significantly impaired the quality of life of the included patients. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations may cause not only short-term but also long-term side effects that include not only known diseases but also non-specific symptoms with normal or slightly abnormal clinical and instrumental findings. Although LPCVS leads to long-term disability, it is not widely recognized and not always accepted by manufacturers, health authorities, and even scientists. LPCVS should not be dismissed as a functional disorder and patients with LPCVS should be taken seriously. Relevance for Patients: The possible causal relation between some long side effects and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines cannot be ignored. The pathophysiology of LPCVS should be further studied to lay a foundation for further improvement of the vaccines.