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ASAIO Journal ; 68:62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032180

ABSTRACT

Background: Veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being utilized to manage critical COVID-19 associated ARDS (CCAA) in patients who fail medical optimization and mechanical ventilatory support. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of weaning patients from ECMO over time and whether a subset of patients should be considered for lung transplantation. Additionally, we investigated when lung transplant should be considered after VV ECMO support. Methods: 49 patients with CCAA who required ECMO between January 2020 and September 2021 were investigated. Baseline patient demographics, clinical, laboratory, and follow-up data were compared. The change in probability of ECMO weaning based on duration of ECMO support was studied using a univariate analysis. Additionally, patients who received lung transplantation following VV ECMO for COVID-19 during this same period were studied to compare outcomes to those of patients with only VV ECMO support. Cox proportion hazard analysis was performed to determine predictors of survival in patients who required greater than 28 days of ECMO support. Yuden index was used to determine change in probability of survival with time on ECMO. Results: Of 49 patients, 17 (35%) received lung transplants and 32 (65%) remained on ECMO for >28 days. The probability of weaning patients from ECMO was highest within the first 10 days (60%);beyond 40 days, it was 5.1% (Fig. A). The probability of successfully weaning patients from ECMO significantly decreased over time and ECMO support greater than 28 days (Yuden index, Hazard ratio: 1.09, 95% CI;1.00-1.03) was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Additionally, both survival to hospital discharge (p<0.001, Fig. B) and post-discharge survival (p<0.001, Fig. C) were significantly greater in those who were weaned from ECMO prior to 28 days than those who were weaned after 28 days. In those who could not be weaned from ECMO, lung transplantation (HR:0.47, p<0.01, 95% CI 0.17-0.94), ECMO duration (HR:1.09, p=0.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) and higher BUN levels (HR:1.02, p<0.01, 95% CI 1.01- 1.46) prior to ECMO initiation were independent predictors of survival. ECMO support of greater than 8 days was associated with a statistically significant increase in mortality compared to those who received fewer than 8 days of support (Yuden index, HR 1.96, CI 1.06-5.51). Furthermore, the projected survival of patients on ECMO support for greater than 8 days was substantially worse than those requiring fewer than 8 days of support (Fig. C and D). Conclusion: This study suggests that survival and accompanying lung recovery is more probable in patients who require a short duration of ECMO support whereas those who require longer durations, particularly exceeding 28 days, is associated with a lower rate of survival. (Figure Presented).

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