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1.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 2: 100027, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331027

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of the association between coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and preterm or early term birth among racially and ethnically diverse populations and people with chronic medical conditions is limited. METHODS: We determined the association between COVID-19 and preterm (PTB) birth among live births documented by California Vital Statistics birth certificates between July 2020 and January 2021 (n=240,147). We used best obstetric estimate of gestational age to classify births as very preterm (VPTB, <32 weeks), PTB (< 37 weeks), early term (37 and 38 weeks), and term (39-44 weeks), as each confer independent risks to infant health and development. Separately, we calculated the joint effects of COVID-19 diagnosis, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity on PTB and VPTB. FINDINGS: COVID-19 diagnoses on birth certificates increased for all racial/ethnic groups between July 2020 and January 2021 and were highest for American Indian/Alaska Native (12.9%), Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (11.4%), and Latinx (10.3%) birthing people. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of VPTB (aRR 1.6, 95% CI [1.4, 1.9]), PTB (aRR 1.4, 95% CI [1.3, 1.4]), and early term birth (aRR 1.1, 95% CI [1.1, 1.2]). There was no effect modification of the overall association by race/ethnicity or insurance status. COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with elevated risk of PTB in people with hypertension, diabetes, and/or obesity. INTERPRETATION: In a large population-based study, COVID-19 diagnosis increased the risk of VPTB, PTB, and early term birth, particularly among people with medical comorbidities. Considering increased circulation of COVID-19 variants, preventative measures, including vaccination, should be prioritized for birthing persons. FUNDING: UCSF-Kaiser Department of Research Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health Program (BIRCWH) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) [K12 HD052163] and the California Preterm Birth Initiative, funded by Marc and Lynn Benioff.

2.
Health Equity ; 4(1): 330-333, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710151

ABSTRACT

Growing discourse around maternity care during the pandemic offers an opportunity to reflect on how this crisis has amplified inequities in health care. We argue that policies upholding the rights of birthing people, and policies decreasing the risk of COVID-19 transmission are not mutually exclusive. The explicit lack of standardization of evidence-based maternity care, whether expressed in clinical protocols or institutional policy, has disproportionately impacted marginalized communities. If these factors remain unexamined, then it would seem that equity is not the priority, but retaining power and control is. We advocate for a comprehensive understanding of how this pandemic has revealed our deepest failures.

3.
Reproductive Medicine ; 1(2):91-107, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-670667

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread and worsen in many parts of the world. As the pandemic grows, it is especially important to understand how the virus and the pandemic are affecting pregnant women and infants. While early data suggested that being infected with the virus did not increase the risk of adverse pregnancy or infant outcomes, as more information has emerged, it has become clear that risks for some adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes are increased (e.g., preterm birth, cesarean section, respiratory distress, and hospitalization). The Healthy Outcomes of Pregnancy for Everyone in the time of novel coronavirus disease-19 (HOPE COVID-19) study is a multi-year, prospective investigation designed to better understand how the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 impact adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The study also examines how the pandemic exacerbates existing hardships such as social isolation, economic destabilization, job loss, housing instability, and/or family member sickness or death among minoritized and marginalized communities. Specifically, the study examines how pandemic-related hardships impact clinical outcomes and characterizes the experiences of Black, Latinx and low-income groups compared to those in other race/ethnicity and socioeconomic stratum. The study includes two nested cohorts. The survey only cohort will enroll 7500 women over a two-year period. The survey+testing cohort will enroll 2500 women over this same time period. Participants in both cohorts complete short surveys daily using a mobile phone application about COVID-19-related symptoms (e.g., fever and cough) and complete longer surveys once during each trimester and at 6–8 weeks and 6, 12 and 18 months after delivery that focus on the health and well-being of mothers and, after birth, of infants. Participants in the survey+testing cohort also have testing for SARS-CoV-2 and related antibodies during pregnancy and after birth as well as testing that looks at inflammation and for the presence of other infections like Influenza and Rhinovirus. Study results are expected to be reported on a rolling basis and will include quarterly reporting for participants and public health partners as well as more traditional scientific reporting.

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