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1.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 378, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019970

ABSTRACT

Holly Jarman and colleagues discuss why scientific advice must be separate from government decisions and evaluate the autonomy and transparency of the UK’s system

2.
Can J Public Health ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2010553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study contributes to empirical evidence by examining the impact of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic on modifiable risk factors (MRF) and whether these patterns differ according to level of material deprivation among people living in Alberta. METHODS: Using data from a repeated cross-sectional provincial health survey (Alberta Community Health Survey (ACHS): 2018-2021), we conducted logistic regression analyses examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on meeting national guidelines on four MRFs (tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol use) (n=11,249). We compared population-level changes in MRFs from one year before the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2019-February 2020) to one year during the pandemic (March 2020-February 2021) in Alberta. We also assessed whether these trends differed by a measure of material deprivation. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, the fully adjusted odds of meeting recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=0.42) decreased during the pandemic. Individuals experiencing high material deprivation had lower odds of meeting recommended guidelines for physical activity (OR=0.65) and higher odds of not being current tobacco users (OR=1.36) during the pandemic versus during the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSION: At a population level, analyses from the ACHS showed minimal impacts of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic on MRFs, besides fruit and vegetable consumption. Yet, stratifying results showed statistically significant differences in pandemic impacts on MRFs by level of material deprivation. Therefore, understanding the influence of material deprivation on MRFs during the pandemic is key to tailoring future public health interventions promoting health and preventing cancer and chronic disease.

3.
Environment systems & decisions ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998412

ABSTRACT

Rural areas face well known and distinctive health care challenges that can limit their resilience in the face of health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. These include problems of sparsity and consequent limited health care provisioning;poverty, inequalities, and distinctive economic structures that limit access to health care;and underlying population health risks and inequalities that can increase vulnerability. Nonetheless, not all rural areas face the same problems, and non-rural areas can have challenges. To be useful in influencing policy, a tool to identify more and less resilient areas is necessary. This Commentary reviews key forms of risk and constructs a county-level index of resilience for the United States which helps to identify countries with limited resilience. Further, it argues that health care resilience should be conceptualized in terms of broader regions than counties since health care facilities’ referral regions are larger than individual counties;resilience needs to be understood at that level. The index, read at the level of counties and referral regions, can contribute to identification of immediate problems as well as targets for longer term investment and policy response.

4.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(8): e718-e720, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967556

ABSTRACT

Worldwide responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have shown that it is possible for politicians to come together across departmental boundaries. To this end, in many countries, heads of government and their health ministers work closely with all other ministries, departments, and sectors, including social affairs, internal affairs, foreign affairs, research and education, transport, agriculture, business, and state aid. In this Viewpoint, we ask if and how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can support intersectoral collaboration to promote health, since governments have already committed to achieving them. We contend that SDGs can do so, ultimately advancing health while offering co-benefits across society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sustainable Development
5.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(8): 1468-1479, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960247

ABSTRACT

Serological testing for acute infection or prior exposure is critical for patient management and coordination of public health decisions during outbreaks. Current methods have several limitations, including variable performance, relatively low analytical and clinical sensitivity, and poor detection due to antigenic drift. Serological methods for SARS-CoV-2 detection for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic suffer from several of these limitations and serves as a reminder of the critical need for new technologies. Here, we describe the use of ultrabright fluorescent reagents, Plasmonic Fluors, coupled with antigen arrays that address a subset of these limitations. We demonstrate its application using patient samples in SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. In our multiplexed assay, SARS-CoV-2 antigens were spotted into 48-plex arrays within a single well of a 96-well plate and used to evaluate remnant laboratory samples of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Signal-readout was performed with Auragent Bioscience's Empower microplate reader, and microarray analysis software. Sample volumes of 1 µL were used. High sensitivity of the Plasmonic Fluors combined with the array format enabled us to profile patient serological response to eight distinct SARS-CoV-2 antigens and evaluate responses to IgG, IgM, and IgA. Sensitivities for SARS-CoV-2 antigens during the symptomatic state ranged between 72.5 and 95.0%, specificity between 62.5 and 100%, and the resulting area under the curve values between 0.76 and 0.97. Together, these results highlight the increased sensitivity for low sample volumes and multiplex capability. These characteristics make Plasmonic Fluor-enhanced antigen arrays an attractive technology for serological studies for the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936651, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 continues to place a tremendous burden on the healthcare system, with most deaths resulting from respiratory failure. Management strategies have varied, but the mortality rate for mechanically ventilated patients remains high. Conventional management with ARDSnet ventilation can improve outcomes but alternative and adjunct treatments continue to be explored. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), a modality now rarely used in adult critical care medicine, may offer an alternative treatment option by maximizing lung protection and limiting oxygen toxicity in critically ill patients failing conventional ventilator strategies. CASE REPORT We present 3 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis due to COVID-19 who all improved clinically after transitioning from conventional ventilation to HFOV. Two patients developed refractory hypoxemia with hemodynamic instability and multiple organ failure requiring vasopressor support and renal replacement therapy. After failing to improve with all available therapies, both patients stabilized and ultimately improved after being placed on HFOV. The third patient developed severe volutrauma/barotrauma despite extreme lung protection and ARDSnet ventilation. He showed improvement in oxygenation and signs of lung trauma slowly improved after initiating HFOV. All 3 patients were ultimately liberated from mechanical ventilation and discharged from the hospital to return to functional independence. CONCLUSIONS Our experience suggests that HFOV offers advantages in the management of certain critically ill patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia and might be considered in cases refractory to standard management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , High-Frequency Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , High-Frequency Ventilation/adverse effects , High-Frequency Ventilation/methods , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical differences between critical illness from influenza infection versus coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well characterized in pediatric patients. METHODS: We compared U.S. children (8 months to 17 years) admitted to the intensive care or high acuity unit with influenza (17 hospitals, 12/19/2019-3/9/2020) or COVID-19 (52 hospitals, 3/15/2020-12/31/2020). We compared demographics, underlying conditions, clinical presentation, severity, and outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we assessed the odds of death or requiring life-support for influenza versus COVID-19 after adjustment for age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and underlying conditions including obesity. RESULTS: Children with influenza (n = 179) were younger than those with COVID-19 (n = 381; median 5.2 vs. 13.8 years), less likely to be non-Hispanic black (14.5% vs. 27.6%) or Hispanic (24.0% vs. 36.2%), and less likely to have ≥1 underlying condition (66.4% vs. 78.5%) or be obese (21.4% vs. 42.2%). They were similarly likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation (both 30.2%), vasopressor support (19.6% and 19.9%), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.2% and 2.9%). Four children with influenza (2.2%) and 11 children with COVID-19 (2.9%) died. The odds of death or requiring life-support in children with influenza vs. COVID-19 were similar (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI: 0.78-2.15; P = 0.32]). Median duration of hospital stay was shorter for influenza than COVID-19 (5 versus 7 days). CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in demographics and clinical characteristics of children with influenza or COVID-19, the frequency of life-threatening complications was similar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention measures to reduce transmission and disease severity of influenza and COVID-19.

8.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 74, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890276

ABSTRACT

Given the growing number of prediction algorithms developed to predict COVID-19 mortality, we evaluated the transportability of a mortality prediction algorithm using a multi-national network of healthcare systems. We predicted COVID-19 mortality using baseline commonly measured laboratory values and standard demographic and clinical covariates across healthcare systems, countries, and continents. Specifically, we trained a Cox regression model with nine measured laboratory test values, standard demographics at admission, and comorbidity burden pre-admission. These models were compared at site, country, and continent level. Of the 39,969 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (68.6% male), 5717 (14.3%) died. In the Cox model, age, albumin, AST, creatine, CRP, and white blood cell count are most predictive of mortality. The baseline covariates are more predictive of mortality during the early days of COVID-19 hospitalization. Models trained at healthcare systems with larger cohort size largely retain good transportability performance when porting to different sites. The combination of routine laboratory test values at admission along with basic demographic features can predict mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Importantly, this potentially deployable model differs from prior work by demonstrating not only consistent performance but also reliable transportability across healthcare systems in the US and Europe, highlighting the generalizability of this model and the overall approach.

9.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888176

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 changed the way families in the UK live, with as yet uncertain impacts to food choice and dietary habits. This study sought to explore food-related experiences and changes to behavior of families with children, during the pandemic. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews with parents (n = 20) and, separately, their children (n = 22;aged 8–10 years) were conducted. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for the data analysis, and four main themes emerged: commensality;elevated place of food in the home;snacking;and food shopping. Study findings highlighted several changes: some related to increased snacking and more takeaway food;others were more favorable, including spending more time together, increased home cooking, more efficient shopping practices and reduced food waste. Overall, an elevation of the place of food within the home was apparent, alongside enhanced food literacy, and some evidence of the relocalisation of food. This study contributes to the international literature on the impact of COVID-19 and national lockdowns on family lifestyle behaviors, specifically food choice and dietary habits;further research into the longer-term effects of COVID-19 on family food practices is required.

10.
Health Policy ; 126(9): 853-864, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885789

ABSTRACT

Strategic purchasing is a popular and frequently proposed policy for improving the efficiency and adaptiveness of health systems. The COVID-19 pandemic shocked health systems, creating a test of the adaptability and resiliency of their key features. This research study explores (i) what role purchasing systems and agents played in the COVID-19 pandemic, (ii) if it was strategic, and (iii) how it has contributed to a resilient health system. We conducted a qualitative, comparative study of six countries in the European Union-focusing on three as in-depth case studies-to understand how and when strategic purchasers responded to seven clearly defined health system "shocks" that they all experienced during the pandemic. We found that every case country relied on the federal government to fund and respond to the pandemic. Purchasers often had very limited, and if any then only passive, roles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Europe/epidemiology , Government Programs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Qualitative Research
11.
Journal of Family Business Strategy ; : 100504, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1882189

ABSTRACT

While evidence that contradicts a discipline’s hard core assumptions is essential to scientific progress, its accumulation is made difficult by the protective nature of the middle range theories that protect it. For this reason, progress tends to be most common in response to external shocks that expose the limitations of traditional ways of thinking. Given the impact COVID-19 has had on our collective understanding of business (family or otherwise), we propose that evidence against the hard core has reached the point where new thinking is necessary if we are to advance the field in productive ways. As the authors in this special issue demonstrate, such progress can be made by leveraging our intellectual roots in the social sciences. By looking to fields such as anthropology, sociology, jurisprudence, political science, and economics for inspiration, these authors use the current crisis as an opportunity to envision the future of family business scholarship.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 774773, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862615

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is substantially higher in men. Sex hormones may be a potential mechanism for differences in COVID-19 outcome in men and women. We hypothesized that men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have lower incidence and severity of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted an observational study of male Veterans treated in the Veterans Health Administration from February 15th to July 15th, 2020. We developed a propensity score model to predict the likelihood to undergo Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. We performed multivariable logistic regression modeling adjusted with inverse probability weighting to examine the relationship between ADT and COVID-19 incidence. We conducted logistic regression analysis among COVID-19 patients to test the association between ADT and COVID-19 severity. Results: We identified a large cohort of 246,087 VA male patients who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 3,057 men were exposed to ADT, and 36,096 men with cancer without ADT. Of these, 295 ADT patients and 2,427 cancer patients not on ADT had severe COVID-19 illness. In the primary, propensity-weighted comparison of ADT patients to cancer patients not on ADT, ADT was associated with decreased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.81-0.95]; p = 0.001). Furthermore, ADT was associated with fewer severe COVID-19 outcomes (OR 0.72 [95% CI 0.53-0.96]; p = 0.03). Conclusion: ADT is associated with reduced incidence and severity of COVID-19 amongst male Veterans. Testosterone and androgen receptor signaling may confer increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to severe COVID-19 pathophysiology in men.

16.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5:209, 2020.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1776675

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in an unprecedented research response, demonstrating exceptional examples of rapid research and collaboration. There is however a need for greater coordination, with limited resources and the shifting global nature of the pandemic resulting in a proliferation of research projects underpowered and unable to achieve their aims. Methods: The UK Collaborative on Development Research (UKCDR) and Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness (GloPID-R), two funder coordination groups have collaborated to develop a live database of funded research projects across the world relating to COVID-19. Drawing data continually from their members and further global funding bodies, as of 15 (th) July 2021 the database contains 12,419 projects, funded by 255 funders, taking place across 149 countries representing an investment of at least $4.9 billion. To our knowledge it is one of the most comprehensive databases. The database is aligned to the World Health Organisation and GloPID-R Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus. It is being used by the WHO, governments and multi-lateral policy makers, research funders and researchers. This living mapping review aims to supplement the database by providing an open accessible and frequently updated resource summarising the characteristics of the COVID-19 funded research portfolio. Both descriptive and thematic analysis will be presented and updated frequently to aid interpretation of the global COVID-19 funded research portfolio. Results: In this version five analysis we provide an updated detailed descriptive analysis of the database (three months after version four) and focus our thematic analysis on research gaps, research areas in need of coordination, study populations and research locations (with a focus on resource-limited countries). Conclusions: As the global funding response to COVID-19 plateaus, this living mapping review helps both funders and researchers to prioritise resources to areas where there is continued unmet research need.

17.
Prev Med Rep ; 27: 101787, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773702

ABSTRACT

When vaccines are limited, prior research has suggested it is most protective to distribute vaccines to the most central individuals - those who are most likely to spread the disease. But surveying the population's social network is a costly and time-consuming endeavour, often not completed before vaccination must begin. This paper validates a local targeting method for distributing vaccines. That is, ask randomly chosen individuals to nominate for vaccination the person they are in contact with who has the most disease-spreading contacts. Even better, ask that person to nominate the next person for vaccination, and so on. To validate this approach, we simulate the spread of COVID-19 along empirical contact networks collected in two high schools, in the United States and France, pre-COVID. These weighted networks are built by recording whenever students are in close spatial proximity and facing one another. We show here that nomination of most popular contacts performs significantly better than random vaccination, and on par with strategies which assume a full survey of the population. These results are robust over a range of realistic disease-spread parameters, as well as a larger synthetic contact network of 3000 individuals.

18.
JCI Insight ; 7(9)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765225

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSome clinical features of severe COVID-19 represent blood vessel damage induced by activation of host immune responses initiated by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized autoantibodies against angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor expressed on vascular endothelium, are generated during COVID-19 and are of mechanistic importance.MethodsIn an opportunity sample of 118 COVID-19 inpatients, autoantibodies recognizing ACE2 were detected by ELISA. Binding properties of anti-ACE2 IgM were analyzed via biolayer interferometry. Effects of anti-ACE2 IgM on complement activation and endothelial function were demonstrated in a tissue-engineered pulmonary microvessel model.ResultsAnti-ACE2 IgM (not IgG) autoantibodies were associated with severe COVID-19 and found in 18/66 (27.2%) patients with severe disease compared with 2/52 (3.8%) of patients with moderate disease (OR 9.38, 95% CI 2.38-42.0; P = 0.0009). Anti-ACE2 IgM autoantibodies were rare (2/50) in non-COVID-19 ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Unexpectedly, ACE2-reactive IgM autoantibodies in COVID-19 did not undergo class-switching to IgG and had apparent KD values of 5.6-21.7 nM, indicating they are T cell independent. Anti-ACE2 IgMs activated complement and initiated complement-binding and functional changes in endothelial cells in microvessels, suggesting they contribute to the angiocentric pathology of COVID-19.ConclusionWe identify anti-ACE2 IgM as a mechanism-based biomarker strongly associated with severe clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has therapeutic implications.FUNDINGBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Gates Philanthropy Partners, Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation, and Jerome L. Greene Foundation; NIH R01 AR073208, R01 AR069569, Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (5K12GM123914-03), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R21HL145216, and Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE1746891).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2048560, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764458

ABSTRACT

As of 05/28/2021, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) had caused 3.9 million infections in the United States (US) pediatric population since its discovery in December of 2019. The development and expansion of vaccination has markedly changed the shape of the epidemic. In this qualitative study, we report on pediatric hematology/oncology provider views on the COVID-19 vaccine prior to approval in the adolescent population <16 years of age. Results from interviews with 20 providers across the state of Indiana showed that most were supportive of the COVID-19 vaccine for healthy adults. However, the majority also expressed a need to see more data on the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccinations in pediatric hematology/oncology populations. While they recognized the public health importance of vaccination, their duty to protect their patients led to a need for more specific safety and efficacy data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Nurse Practitioners , Physicians , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination
20.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 70(4, Supplement):S80-S81, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1734586
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