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1.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888176

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 changed the way families in the UK live, with as yet uncertain impacts to food choice and dietary habits. This study sought to explore food-related experiences and changes to behavior of families with children, during the pandemic. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews with parents (n = 20) and, separately, their children (n = 22;aged 8–10 years) were conducted. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for the data analysis, and four main themes emerged: commensality;elevated place of food in the home;snacking;and food shopping. Study findings highlighted several changes: some related to increased snacking and more takeaway food;others were more favorable, including spending more time together, increased home cooking, more efficient shopping practices and reduced food waste. Overall, an elevation of the place of food within the home was apparent, alongside enhanced food literacy, and some evidence of the relocalisation of food. This study contributes to the international literature on the impact of COVID-19 and national lockdowns on family lifestyle behaviors, specifically food choice and dietary habits;further research into the longer-term effects of COVID-19 on family food practices is required.

2.
Health Policy ; 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885789

ABSTRACT

Strategic purchasing is a popular and frequently proposed policy for improving the efficiency and adaptiveness of health systems. The COVID-19 pandemic shocked health systems, creating a test of the adaptability and resiliency of their key features. This research study explores (i) what role purchasing systems and agents played in the COVID-19 pandemic, (ii) if it was strategic, and (iii) how it has contributed to a resilient health system. We conducted a qualitative, comparative study of six countries in the European Union-focusing on three as in-depth case studies-to understand how and when strategic purchasers responded to seven clearly defined health system "shocks" that they all experienced during the pandemic. We found that every case country relied on the federal government to fund and respond to the pandemic. Purchasers often had very limited, and if any then only passive, roles.

3.
Journal of Family Business Strategy ; : 100504, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1882189

ABSTRACT

While evidence that contradicts a discipline’s hard core assumptions is essential to scientific progress, its accumulation is made difficult by the protective nature of the middle range theories that protect it. For this reason, progress tends to be most common in response to external shocks that expose the limitations of traditional ways of thinking. Given the impact COVID-19 has had on our collective understanding of business (family or otherwise), we propose that evidence against the hard core has reached the point where new thinking is necessary if we are to advance the field in productive ways. As the authors in this special issue demonstrate, such progress can be made by leveraging our intellectual roots in the social sciences. By looking to fields such as anthropology, sociology, jurisprudence, political science, and economics for inspiration, these authors use the current crisis as an opportunity to envision the future of family business scholarship.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 774773, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862615

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is substantially higher in men. Sex hormones may be a potential mechanism for differences in COVID-19 outcome in men and women. We hypothesized that men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have lower incidence and severity of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted an observational study of male Veterans treated in the Veterans Health Administration from February 15th to July 15th, 2020. We developed a propensity score model to predict the likelihood to undergo Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. We performed multivariable logistic regression modeling adjusted with inverse probability weighting to examine the relationship between ADT and COVID-19 incidence. We conducted logistic regression analysis among COVID-19 patients to test the association between ADT and COVID-19 severity. Results: We identified a large cohort of 246,087 VA male patients who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 3,057 men were exposed to ADT, and 36,096 men with cancer without ADT. Of these, 295 ADT patients and 2,427 cancer patients not on ADT had severe COVID-19 illness. In the primary, propensity-weighted comparison of ADT patients to cancer patients not on ADT, ADT was associated with decreased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.81-0.95]; p = 0.001). Furthermore, ADT was associated with fewer severe COVID-19 outcomes (OR 0.72 [95% CI 0.53-0.96]; p = 0.03). Conclusion: ADT is associated with reduced incidence and severity of COVID-19 amongst male Veterans. Testosterone and androgen receptor signaling may confer increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to severe COVID-19 pathophysiology in men.

7.
Prev Med Rep ; 27: 101787, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773702

ABSTRACT

When vaccines are limited, prior research has suggested it is most protective to distribute vaccines to the most central individuals - those who are most likely to spread the disease. But surveying the population's social network is a costly and time-consuming endeavour, often not completed before vaccination must begin. This paper validates a local targeting method for distributing vaccines. That is, ask randomly chosen individuals to nominate for vaccination the person they are in contact with who has the most disease-spreading contacts. Even better, ask that person to nominate the next person for vaccination, and so on. To validate this approach, we simulate the spread of COVID-19 along empirical contact networks collected in two high schools, in the United States and France, pre-COVID. These weighted networks are built by recording whenever students are in close spatial proximity and facing one another. We show here that nomination of most popular contacts performs significantly better than random vaccination, and on par with strategies which assume a full survey of the population. These results are robust over a range of realistic disease-spread parameters, as well as a larger synthetic contact network of 3000 individuals.

8.
JCI Insight ; 7(9)2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765225

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSome clinical features of severe COVID-19 represent blood vessel damage induced by activation of host immune responses initiated by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized autoantibodies against angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor expressed on vascular endothelium, are generated during COVID-19 and are of mechanistic importance.MethodsIn an opportunity sample of 118 COVID-19 inpatients, autoantibodies recognizing ACE2 were detected by ELISA. Binding properties of anti-ACE2 IgM were analyzed via biolayer interferometry. Effects of anti-ACE2 IgM on complement activation and endothelial function were demonstrated in a tissue-engineered pulmonary microvessel model.ResultsAnti-ACE2 IgM (not IgG) autoantibodies were associated with severe COVID-19 and found in 18/66 (27.2%) patients with severe disease compared with 2/52 (3.8%) of patients with moderate disease (OR 9.38, 95% CI 2.38-42.0; P = 0.0009). Anti-ACE2 IgM autoantibodies were rare (2/50) in non-COVID-19 ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Unexpectedly, ACE2-reactive IgM autoantibodies in COVID-19 did not undergo class-switching to IgG and had apparent KD values of 5.6-21.7 nM, indicating they are T cell independent. Anti-ACE2 IgMs activated complement and initiated complement-binding and functional changes in endothelial cells in microvessels, suggesting they contribute to the angiocentric pathology of COVID-19.ConclusionWe identify anti-ACE2 IgM as a mechanism-based biomarker strongly associated with severe clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has therapeutic implications.FUNDINGBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Gates Philanthropy Partners, Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation, and Jerome L. Greene Foundation; NIH R01 AR073208, R01 AR069569, Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (5K12GM123914-03), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R21HL145216, and Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE1746891).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2048560, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764458

ABSTRACT

As of 05/28/2021, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) had caused 3.9 million infections in the United States (US) pediatric population since its discovery in December of 2019. The development and expansion of vaccination has markedly changed the shape of the epidemic. In this qualitative study, we report on pediatric hematology/oncology provider views on the COVID-19 vaccine prior to approval in the adolescent population <16 years of age. Results from interviews with 20 providers across the state of Indiana showed that most were supportive of the COVID-19 vaccine for healthy adults. However, the majority also expressed a need to see more data on the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccinations in pediatric hematology/oncology populations. While they recognized the public health importance of vaccination, their duty to protect their patients led to a need for more specific safety and efficacy data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Nurse Practitioners , Physicians , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination
10.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 70(4, Supplement):S80-S81, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1734586
11.
Health Policy ; 126(5): 408-417, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734409

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 led to significant and dynamic shifts in power relations within and between governments, teaching us how governments make health policies and how health crises affect government. We focus on centralization and decentralization within and between governments: within government, meaning the extent to which the head of government controls policy; and between governments, meaning the extent to which the central government pre-empts or controls local and regional government. Political science literature suggests that shifting patterns of centralization and decentralization can be explained by leading politicians' efforts to gain credit for popular actions and outcomes and deflect blame for unpopular ones. We test this hypothesis in two ways: by coding the Health Systems Response Monitor's data on government responses, and through case studies of the governance of COVID-19 in Austria, Czechia and France. We find that credit and blame do substantially explain the timing and direction of changes in centralization and decentralization. In the first wave, spring 2020, heads of government centralized and raised their profile in order to gain credit for decisive action, but they subsequently tried to decentralize in order to avoid blame for repeated restrictions on life or surges of infection. These findings should shape advice on governance for pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Humans , Local Government , Pandemics , Politics
13.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 35, 2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether we could use influenza data to develop prediction models for COVID-19 to increase the speed at which prediction models can reliably be developed and validated early in a pandemic. We developed COVID-19 Estimated Risk (COVER) scores that quantify a patient's risk of hospital admission with pneumonia (COVER-H), hospitalization with pneumonia requiring intensive services or death (COVER-I), or fatality (COVER-F) in the 30-days following COVID-19 diagnosis using historical data from patients with influenza or flu-like symptoms and tested this in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We analyzed a federated network of electronic medical records and administrative claims data from 14 data sources and 6 countries containing data collected on or before 4/27/2020. We used a 2-step process to develop 3 scores using historical data from patients with influenza or flu-like symptoms any time prior to 2020. The first step was to create a data-driven model using LASSO regularized logistic regression, the covariates of which were used to develop aggregate covariates for the second step where the COVER scores were developed using a smaller set of features. These 3 COVER scores were then externally validated on patients with 1) influenza or flu-like symptoms and 2) confirmed or suspected COVID-19 diagnosis across 5 databases from South Korea, Spain, and the United States. Outcomes included i) hospitalization with pneumonia, ii) hospitalization with pneumonia requiring intensive services or death, and iii) death in the 30 days after index date. RESULTS: Overall, 44,507 COVID-19 patients were included for model validation. We identified 7 predictors (history of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, kidney disease) which combined with age and sex discriminated which patients would experience any of our three outcomes. The models achieved good performance in influenza and COVID-19 cohorts. For COVID-19 the AUC ranges were, COVER-H: 0.69-0.81, COVER-I: 0.73-0.91, and COVER-F: 0.72-0.90. Calibration varied across the validations with some of the COVID-19 validations being less well calibrated than the influenza validations. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrated the utility of using a proxy disease to develop a prediction model. The 3 COVER models with 9-predictors that were developed using influenza data perform well for COVID-19 patients for predicting hospitalization, intensive services, and fatality. The scores showed good discriminatory performance which transferred well to the COVID-19 population. There was some miscalibration in the COVID-19 validations, which is potentially due to the difference in symptom severity between the two diseases. A possible solution for this is to recalibrate the models in each location before use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
14.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326899

ABSTRACT

A new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, Omicron (B.1.1.529), has been identified based on genomic sequencing and epidemiological data in South Africa. Presumptive Omicron cases in South Africa have grown extremely rapidly, despite high prior exposure and moderate vaccination coverage. The available evidence suggests that Omicron spread is at least in part due to evasion of this immune protection, though Omicron may also exhibit higher intrinsic transmissibility. Using detailed laboratory and epidemiological data from South Africa, we estimate the constraints on these two characteristics of the new variant and their relationship. Our estimates and associated uncertainties provide essential information to inform projection and scenario modeling analyses, which are crucial planning tools for governments around the world.

15.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326897

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in southern Africa has been characterised by three distinct waves. The first was associated with a mix of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, whilst the second and third waves were driven by the Beta and Delta variants respectively1–3. In November 2021, genomic surveillance teams in South Africa and Botswana detected a new SARS-CoV-2 variant associated with a rapid resurgence of infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Within three days of the first genome being uploaded, it was designated a variant of concern (Omicron) by the World Health Organization and, within three weeks, had been identified in 87 countries. The Omicron variant is exceptional for carrying over 30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein, predicted to influence antibody neutralization and spike function4. Here, we describe the genomic profile and early transmission dynamics of Omicron, highlighting the rapid spread in regions with high levels of population immunity.

16.
BioScience ; 72(2):111-111, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1684529

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its repeated surges have thrown a wrench into the organization and format of scientific meetings. Societies have long struggled to modernize the scientific meeting, but the COVID crisis has forced stodgy scientific societies to adapt at speeds much greater than what they are accustomed to. The meeting at the convention center had strict COVID vaccination protocols, and the city of New Orleans required proof of vaccination to enter restaurants. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of BioScience is the property of Oxford University Press / USA and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 47(8): 583-590, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672307

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Delphi expert panel consensus. OBJECTIVE: To obtain expert consensus on best practices for appropriate telemedicine utilization in spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several studies have shown high patient satisfaction associated with telemedicine during the COVID-19 peak pandemic period as well as after easing of restrictions. As this technology will most likely continue to be employed, there is a need to define appropriate utilization. METHODS: An expert panel consisting of 27 spine surgeons from various countries was assembled in February 2021. A two-round consensus-based Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements on various aspects of telemedicine (separated as video visits or audio visits) including themes, such as patient location and impact of patient diagnosis, on assessment of new patients. Topics with ≥75% agreement were categorized as having achieved a consensus. RESULTS: The expert panel reviewed a total of 59 statements. Of these, 32 achieved consensus. The panel had consensus that video visits could be utilized regardless of patient location and that video visits are appropriate for evaluating as well as indicating for surgery multiple common spine pathologies, such as lumbar stenosis, lumbar radiculopathy, and cervical radiculopathy. Finally, the panel had consensus that video visits could be appropriate for a variety of visit types including early, midterm, longer term postoperative follow-up, follow-up for imaging review, and follow-up after an intervention (i.e., physical therapy, injection). CONCLUSION: Although telemedicine was initially introduced out of necessity, this technology most likely will remain due to evidence of high patient satisfaction and significant cost savings. This study was able to provide a framework for appropriate telemedicine utilization in spine surgery from a panel of experts. However, several questions remain for future research, such as whether or not an in-person consultation is necessary prior to surgery and which physical exam maneuvers are appropriate for telemedicine.Level of Evidence: 4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Humans , Patient Satisfaction
19.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 45(1): 81-94, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665393

ABSTRACT

Behavioral emergencies in the United States have been increasing, with some studies reporting a doubling in the number of people experiencing symptoms related to mental health conditions, although overall visits to US emergency departments (EDs) decreased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic caused many people to avoid health care facilities, including EDs, even if they may have otherwise sought emergency care, and was associated with increases in new behavioral health diagnoses. Measures to limit the spread of COVID-19 led to people limiting their in-person contact with others, likely exacerbating preexisting mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22270337

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPrior observation has shown differences in COVID-19 hospitalization rates between SARS-CoV-2 variants, but limited information describes differences in hospitalization outcomes. MethodsPatients admitted to 5 hospitals with COVID-19 were included if they had hypoxia, tachypnea, tachycardia, or fever, and data to describe SARS-CoV-2 variant, either from whole genome sequencing, or inference when local surveillance showed [≥]95% dominance of a single variant. The average effect of SARS-CoV-2 variant on 14-day risk of severe disease, defined by need for advanced respiratory support, or death was evaluated using models weighted on propensity scores derived from baseline clinical features. ResultsSevere disease or death within 14 days occurred for 950 of 3,365 (28%) unvaccinated patients and 178 of 808 (22%) patients with history of vaccination or prior COVID-19. Among unvaccinated patients, the relative risk of 14-day severe disease or death for Delta variant compared to ancestral lineages was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.55). Compared to Delta variant, this risk for Omicron patients was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62-0.97) and compared to ancestral lineages was 1.04 (95% CI 0.84-1.24). Among Omicron and Delta infections, patients with history of vaccination or prior COVID-19 had one-half the 14-day risk of severe disease or death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46, IQR 0.34-0.62) but no significant outcome difference between Delta and Omicron infections. ConclusionsAlthough the risk of severe disease or death for unvaccinated patients with Omicron was lower than Delta, it was similar to ancestral lineages. Severe outcomes were less common in vaccinated patients, but there was no difference between Delta and Omicron infections.

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