Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of memory B cells after asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well understood. METHODS: We compared Spike antibody titers, pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers, and memory B cell responses among SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive Marine recruits who either reported asymptomatic or symptomatic infection. RESULTS: 36 asymptomatic participants exhibited similar Spike IgG titers, Spike IgA titers, and pseudovirus neutralization titers compared to 30 symptomatic participants. Pseudovirus neutralization and Spike IgG titers showed significant positive correlations with frequency of memory B cells. CONCLUSIONS: Among young adults, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection induced antibody and memory B cell responses comparable to mild symptomatic infection.

3.
AJPM Focus ; 1(1):100003, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1882002

ABSTRACT

Introduction Quarantining is commonly used to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, questions remain regarding what specific interventions are most effective. Methods After a 2-week home quarantine, U.S. Marine Corps recruits underwent a supervised 2-week quarantine at a hotel from August 11 to September 21, 2020. All recruits were assessed for symptoms through oral questioning and had their temperatures checked daily. Study participants answered a written clinical questionnaire and were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction shortly after arrival in quarantine and on Days 7 and 14. The results were compared with those of a previously reported Marine-supervised quarantine at a college campus from May until July 2020 utilizing the same study, laboratory, and statistical procedures. Results A total of 1,401 of 1,514 eligible recruits (92.5%) enrolled in the study, 93.1% of whom were male. At the time of enrollment, 12 of 1,401 (0.9%) participants were polymerase chain reaction positive for SARS-CoV-2, 9 of 1,376 (0.7%) were positive on Day 7, and 1 of 1,358 (0.1%) was positive on Day 14. Only 12 of 22 (54.5%) participants endorsed any symptoms on a study questionnaire, and none of the participants had an elevated temperature or endorsed symptoms during daily screening for SARS-CoV-2. Participation rate (92%) was much greater than the approximately 58.8% (1,848 of 3,143) rate observed in the previous Marine-supervised college campus quarantine, suggesting the changing attitudes of recruits during the pandemic (p<0.001). Approximately 1% of participants were quantitative polymerase chain reaction positive after self-quarantine in both studies. Conclusions Key findings include the shifting attitudes of young adults during the pandemic, the limitations of self-quarantine, and the ineffectiveness of daily temperature and symptom screening to identify SARS-CoV-2‒positive recruits.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821730, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817940

ABSTRACT

Young adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 are frequently asymptomatic or develop only mild disease. Because capturing representative mild and asymptomatic cases require active surveillance, they are less characterized than moderate or severe cases of COVID-19. However, a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic infections might shed light into the immune mechanisms associated with the control of symptoms and protection. To this aim, we have determined the temporal dynamics of the humoral immune response, as well as the serum inflammatory profile, of mild and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in a cohort of 172 initially seronegative prospectively studied United States Marine recruits, 149 of whom were subsequently found to be SARS-CoV-2 infected. The participants had blood samples taken, symptoms surveyed and PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 performed periodically for up to 105 days. We found similar dynamics in the profiles of viral load and in the generation of specific antibody responses in asymptomatic and mild symptomatic participants. A proteomic analysis using an inflammatory panel including 92 analytes revealed a pattern of three temporal waves of inflammatory and immunoregulatory mediators, and a return to baseline for most of the inflammatory markers by 35 days post-infection. We found that 23 analytes were significantly higher in those participants that reported symptoms at the time of the first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR compared with asymptomatic participants, including mostly chemokines and cytokines associated with inflammatory response or immune activation (i.e., TNF-α, TNF-ß, CXCL10, IL-8). Notably, we detected 7 analytes (IL-17C, MMP-10, FGF-19, FGF-21, FGF-23, CXCL5 and CCL23) that were higher in asymptomatic participants than in participants with symptoms; these are known to be involved in tissue repair and may be related to the control of symptoms. Overall, we found a serum proteomic signature that differentiates asymptomatic and mild symptomatic infections in young adults, including potential targets for developing new therapies and prognostic tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 10 , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 47, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805616

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract vaccination has an advantage of needle-free delivery and induction of mucosal immune response in the portal of SARS-CoV-2 entry. We utilized human parainfluenza virus type 3 vector to generate constructs expressing the full spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, its S1 subunit, or the receptor-binding domain, and tested them in hamsters as single-dose intranasal vaccines. The construct bearing full-length S induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies specific to S protein domains critical to the protein functions. Robust memory T cell responses in the lungs were also induced, which represent an additional barrier to infection and should be less sensitive than the antibody responses to mutations present in SARS-CoV-2 variants. Following SARS-CoV-2 challenge, animals were protected from the disease and detectable viral replication. Vaccination prevented induction of gene pathways associated with inflammation. These results indicate advantages of respiratory vaccination against COVID-19 and inform the design of mucosal SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779779

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 T cell responses are associated with COVID-19 recovery, and Class I- and Class II-restricted epitopes have been identified in the spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins and others. This prospective COVID-19 Health Action Response for Marines (CHARM) study enabled assessment of T cell responses against S, N and M proteins in symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected participants. At enrollment all participants were negative by qPCR; follow-up occurred biweekly and bimonthly for the next 6 weeks. Study participants who tested positive by qPCR SARS-CoV-2 test were enrolled in an immune response sub-study. FluoroSpot interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and IL2 responses following qPCR-confirmed infection at enrollment (day 0), day 7 and 14 and more than 28 days later were measured using pools of 17mer peptides covering S, N, and M proteins, or CD4+CD8 peptide pools containing predicted epitopes from multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Among 124 asymptomatic and 105 symptomatic participants, SARS-CoV-2 infection generated IFN-γ responses to the S, N and M proteins that persisted longer in asymptomatic cases. IFN-γ responses were significantly (p = 0.001) more frequent to the N pool (51.4%) than the M pool (18.9%) among asymptomatic but not symptomatic subjects. Asymptomatic IFN-γ responders to the CD4+CD8 pool responded more frequently to the S pool (55.6%) and N pool (57.1%), than the M pool (7.1%), but not symptomatic participants. The frequencies of IFN-γ responses to the S and N+M pools peaked 7 days after the positive qPCR test among asymptomatic (S pool: 22.2%; N+M pool: 28.7%) and symptomatic (S pool: 15.3%; N+M pool 21.9%) participants and dropped by >28 days. Magnitudes of post-infection IFN-γ and IL2 responses to the N+M pool were significantly correlated with IFN-γ and IL2 responses to the N and M pools. These data further support the central role of Th1-biased cell mediated immunity IFN-γ and IL2 responses, particularly to the N protein, in controlling COVID-19 symptoms, and justify T cell-based COVID-19 vaccines that include the N and S proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Asymptomatic Infections , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Military Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Pathogens ; 10(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554894

ABSTRACT

We used epidemiologic and viral genetic information to identify a case of likely reinfection in an otherwise healthy, young Marine recruit enrolled in the prospective, longitudinal COVID-19 Health Action Response for Marines (CHARM) study, and we paired these findings with serological studies. This participant had a positive RT-PCR to SARS-CoV-2 upon routine sampling on study day 7, although he was asymptomatic at that time. He cleared the infection within seven days. On study day 46, he had developed symptoms consistent with COVID-19 and tested positive by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 again. Viral whole genome sequencing was conducted from nares swabs at multiple time points. The day 7 sample was determined to be lineage B.1.340, whereas both the day 46 and day 49 samples were B.1.1. The first positive result for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM serology was collected on day 49 and for IgG on day 91. This case appears most consistent with a reinfection event. Our investigation into this case is unique in that we compared sequence data from more than just paired specimens, and we also assayed for immune response after both the initial infection and the later reinfection. These data demonstrate that individuals who have experienced an infection with SARS-CoV-2 may fail to generate effective or long-lasting immunity, similar to endemic human beta coronaviruses.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501861

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-1273 vaccine is effective against SARS-CoV-2 and was granted emergency use authorization by the FDA. Clinical studies, however, cannot provide the controlled response to infection and complex immunological insight that are only possible with preclinical studies. Hamsters are the only model that reliably exhibits severe SARS-CoV-2 disease similar to that in hospitalized patients, making them pertinent for vaccine evaluation. We demonstrate that prime or prime-boost administration of mRNA-1273 in hamsters elicited robust neutralizing antibodies, ameliorated weight loss, suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in the airways, and better protected against disease at the highest prime-boost dose. Unlike in mice and nonhuman primates, low-level virus replication in mRNA-1273-vaccinated hamsters coincided with an anamnestic response. Single-cell RNA sequencing of lung tissue permitted high-resolution analysis that is not possible in vaccinated humans. mRNA-1273 prevented inflammatory cell infiltration and the reduction of lymphocyte proportions, but enabled antiviral responses conducive to lung homeostasis. Surprisingly, infection triggered transcriptome programs in some types of immune cells from vaccinated hamsters that were shared, albeit attenuated, with mock-vaccinated hamsters. Our results support the use of mRNA-1273 in a 2-dose schedule and provide insight into the potential responses within the lungs of vaccinated humans who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis , Virus Replication
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): 712-720, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether young adults who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk of subsequent infection is uncertain. We investigated the risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection among young adults seropositive for a previous infection. METHODS: This analysis was performed as part of the prospective COVID-19 Health Action Response for Marines study (CHARM). CHARM included predominantly male US Marine recruits, aged 18-20 years, following a 2-week unsupervised quarantine at home. After the home quarantine period, upon arrival at a Marine-supervised 2-week quarantine facility (college campus or hotel), participants were enrolled and were assessed for baseline SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity, defined as a dilution of 1:150 or more on receptor-binding domain and full-length spike protein ELISA. Participants also completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic information, risk factors, reporting of 14 specific COVID-19-related symptoms or any other unspecified symptom, and brief medical history. SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by PCR at weeks 0, 1, and 2 of quarantine and participants completed a follow-up questionnaire, which included questions about the same COVID-19-related symptoms since the last study visit. Participants were excluded at this stage if they had a positive PCR test during quarantine. Participants who had three negative swab PCR results during quarantine and a baseline serum serology test at the beginning of the supervised quarantine that identified them as seronegative or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 then went on to basic training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot-Parris Island. Three PCR tests were done at weeks 2, 4, and 6 in both seropositive and seronegative groups, along with the follow-up symptom questionnaire and baseline neutralising antibody titres on all subsequently infected seropositive and selected seropositive uninfected participants (prospective study period). FINDINGS: Between May 11, 2020, and Nov 2, 2020, we enrolled 3249 participants, of whom 3168 (98%) continued into the 2-week quarantine period. 3076 (95%) participants, 2825 (92%) of whom were men, were then followed up during the prospective study period after quarantine for 6 weeks. Among 189 seropositive participants, 19 (10%) had at least one positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-week follow-up (1·1 cases per person-year). In contrast, 1079 (48%) of 2247 seronegative participants tested positive (6·2 cases per person-year). The incidence rate ratio was 0·18 (95% CI 0·11-0·28; p<0·001). Among seropositive recruits, infection was more likely with lower baseline full-length spike protein IgG titres than in those with higher baseline full-length spike protein IgG titres (hazard ratio 0·45 [95% CI 0·32-0·65]; p<0·001). Infected seropositive participants had viral loads that were about 10-times lower than those of infected seronegative participants (ORF1ab gene cycle threshold difference 3·95 [95% CI 1·23-6·67]; p=0·004). Among seropositive participants, baseline neutralising titres were detected in 45 (83%) of 54 uninfected and in six (32%) of 19 infected participants during the 6 weeks of observation (ID50 difference p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Seropositive young adults had about one-fifth the risk of subsequent infection compared with seronegative individuals. Although antibodies induced by initial infection are largely protective, they do not guarantee effective SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation activity or immunity against subsequent infection. These findings might be relevant for optimisation of mass vaccination strategies. FUNDING: Defense Health Agency and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quarantine , Risk Assessment , Young Adult
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681586, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285292

ABSTRACT

We investigated serological responses following a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in spring 2020 on a US Marine recruit training base. 147 participants that were isolated during an outbreak of respiratory illness were enrolled in this study, with visits approximately 6 and 10 weeks post-outbreak (PO). This cohort is comprised of young healthy adults, ages 18-26, with a high rate of asymptomatic infection or mild symptoms, and therefore differs from previously reported longitudinal studies on humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, which often focus on more diverse age populations and worse clinical presentation. 80.9% (119/147) of the participants presented with circulating IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) at 6 weeks PO, of whom 97.3% (111/114) remained positive, with significantly decreased levels, at 10 weeks PO. Neutralizing activity was detected in all sera from SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive participants tested (n=38) at 6 and 10 weeks PO, without significant loss between time points. IgG and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD, S1, S2, and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, as well neutralization activity, were generally comparable between those participants that had asymptomatic infection or mild disease. A multiplex assay including S proteins from SARS-CoV-2 and related zoonotic and human endemic betacoronaviruses revealed a positive correlation for polyclonal cross-reactivity to S after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, young adults that experienced asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection developed comparable humoral responses, with no decrease in neutralizing activity at least up to 10 weeks after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Military Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibody Formation , Asymptomatic Diseases , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Immunol ; 206(12): 2785-2790, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248085

ABSTRACT

Protective immunity against COVID-19 likely depends on the production of SARS-CoV-2-specific plasma cells and memory B cells postinfection or postvaccination. Previous work has found that germinal center reactions are disrupted in severe COVID-19. This may adversely affect long-term immunity against reinfection. Consistent with an extrafollicular B cell response, patients with severe COVID-19 have elevated frequencies of clonally expanded, class-switched, unmutated plasmablasts. However, it is unclear whether B cell populations in individuals with mild COVID-19 are similarly skewed. In this study, we use single-cell RNA sequencing of B cells to show that in contrast to patients with severe COVID-19, subjects with mildly symptomatic COVID-19 have B cell repertoires enriched for clonally diverse, somatically hypermutated memory B cells ∼30 d after the onset of symptoms. This provides evidence that B cell responses are less disrupted in mild COVID-19 and result in the production of memory B cells.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Hum Pathol ; 114: 110-119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213257

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although viral infection is known to trigger inflammatory processes contributing to tissue injury and organ failure, it is unclear whether direct viral damage is needed to sustain cellular injury. An understanding of pathogenic mechanisms has been handicapped by the absence of optimized methods to visualize the presence and distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in damaged tissues. We first developed a positive control cell line (Vero E6) to validate SARS-CoV-2 detection assays. We then evaluated multiple organs (lungs, kidneys, heart, liver, brain, intestines, lymph nodes, and spleen) from fourteen COVID-19 autopsy cases using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the spike and the nucleoprotein proteins, and RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) for the spike protein mRNA. Tissue detection assays were compared with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based detection. SARS-CoV-2 was histologically detected in the Vero E6 positive cell line control, 1 of 14 (7%) lungs, and none (0%) of the other 59 organs. There was perfect concordance between the IHC and RNA ISH results. qPCR confirmed high viral load in the SARS-CoV-2 ISH-positive lung tissue, and absent or low viral load in all ISH-negative tissues. In patients who die of COVID-19-related organ failure, SARS-CoV-2 is largely not detectable using tissue-based assays. Even in lungs showing widespread injury, SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA or proteins were detected in only a small minority of cases. This observation supports the concept that viral infection is primarily a trigger for multiple-organ pathogenic proinflammatory responses. Direct viral tissue damage is a transient phenomenon that is generally not sustained throughout disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Liver/chemistry , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Vero Cells/virology , Viral Load/methods
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1188-1192, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059926

ABSTRACT

In a study of US Marine recruits, seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG was 9.0%. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black participants and participants from states affected earlier in the pandemic had higher seropositivity rates. These results suggest the need for targeted public health strategies among young adults at increased risk for infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Health , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Selection , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Military Health/ethnology , Military Health/statistics & numerical data , Military Health Services , Personnel Selection/methods , Personnel Selection/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
N Engl J Med ; 383(25): 2407-2416, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of public health measures to control the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not been well studied in young adults. METHODS: We investigated SARS-CoV-2 infections among U.S. Marine Corps recruits who underwent a 2-week quarantine at home followed by a second supervised 2-week quarantine at a closed college campus that involved mask wearing, social distancing, and daily temperature and symptom monitoring. Study volunteers were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by means of quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) assay of nares swab specimens obtained between the time of arrival and the second day of supervised quarantine and on days 7 and 14. Recruits who did not volunteer for the study underwent qPCR testing only on day 14, at the end of the quarantine period. We performed phylogenetic analysis of viral genomes obtained from infected study volunteers to identify clusters and to assess the epidemiologic features of infections. RESULTS: A total of 1848 recruits volunteered to participate in the study; within 2 days after arrival on campus, 16 (0.9%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 15 of whom were asymptomatic. An additional 35 participants (1.9%) tested positive on day 7 or on day 14. Five of the 51 participants (9.8%) who tested positive at any time had symptoms in the week before a positive qPCR test. Of the recruits who declined to participate in the study, 26 (1.7%) of the 1554 recruits with available qPCR results tested positive on day 14. No SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified through clinical qPCR testing performed as a result of daily symptom monitoring. Analysis of 36 SARS-CoV-2 genomes obtained from 32 participants revealed six transmission clusters among 18 participants. Epidemiologic analysis supported multiple local transmission events, including transmission between roommates and among recruits within the same platoon. CONCLUSIONS: Among Marine Corps recruits, approximately 2% who had previously had negative results for SARS-CoV-2 at the beginning of supervised quarantine, and less than 2% of recruits with unknown previous status, tested positive by day 14. Most recruits who tested positive were asymptomatic, and no infections were detected through daily symptom monitoring. Transmission clusters occurred within platoons. (Funded by the Defense Health Agency and others.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Military Personnel , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Phylogeny , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South Carolina/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL