Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Gut ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs impair serological responses following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We sought to assess if a third dose of a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine substantially boosted anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and protective immunity in infliximab-treated patients with IBD. DESIGN: Third dose vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody responses, breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, reinfection and persistent oropharyngeal carriage in patients with IBD treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab from the impaCt of bioLogic therApy on saRs-cov-2 Infection and immuniTY (CLARITY) IBD study. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-S RBD antibody concentrations increased in both groups following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine. However, concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, irrespective of whether their first two primary vaccine doses were ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (1856 U/mL (5.2) vs 10 728 U/mL (3.1), p<0.0001) or BNT162b2 vaccines (2164 U/mL (4.1) vs 15 116 U/mL (3.4), p<0.0001). However, no differences in anti-S RBD antibody concentrations were seen following third and fourth doses of an mRNA-based vaccine, irrespective of the combination of primary vaccinations received. Post-third dose, anti-S RBD antibody half-life estimates were shorter in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (37.0 days (95% CI 35.6 to 38.6) vs 52.0 days (95% CI 49.0 to 55.4), p<0.0001).Compared with vedolizumab-treated, infliximab-treated patients were more likely to experience SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection (HR 2.23 (95% CI 1.46 to 3.38), p=0.00018) and reinfection (HR 2.10 (95% CI 1.31 to 3.35), p=0.0019), but this effect was uncoupled from third vaccine dose anti-S RBD antibody concentrations. Reinfection occurred predominantly during the Omicron wave and were predicted by SARS-CoV-2 antinucleocapsid concentrations after the initial infection. We did not observe persistent oropharyngeal carriage of SARS-CoV-2. Hospitalisations and deaths were uncommon in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine, infliximab was associated with attenuated serological responses and more SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection and reinfection which were not predicted by the magnitude of anti-S RBD responses, indicative of vaccine escape by the Omicron variant. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.

2.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 13(4): 342-345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923274
4.
Dig Liver Dis ; 54(6): 713-721, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Risk of adverse effects and flare of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently cited reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify studies reporting the use of COVID-19 vaccine in IBD. We selected studies reporting the incidence of various adverse effects (local or systemic) and flares of IBD after COVID-19 vaccination. The pooled incidence rates for various adverse effects, stratified for the dose and the type of vaccine (adenoviral or mRNA) were estimated. RESULTS: Nine studies (16 vaccination cohorts) were included. The pooled incidence rate of overall adverse events was 0.55 (95%CI, 0.45-0.64, I2= 95%). The pooled incidence rate of local adverse events was 0.64 (0.47-0.78, I2= 100%). The pooled incidence rates of fatigue, headache, myalgia, fever and chills were 0.30 (0.21-0.40, I2= 99%), 0.23 (0.17-0.30, I2= 99%), 0.18 (0.13-0.24, I2= 99%), 0.10 (0.06-0.17, I2= 98%) and 0.15 (0.06-0.3, I2= 86%), respectively. The pooled incidence rates of severe adverse events, adverse events requiring hospitalization and flares of IBD following COVID-19 vaccination were 0.02 (0.00-0.12, I2= 97%), 0.00 (0.00-0.01, I2= 27%) and 0.01 (0.01-0.03, I2= 45%), respectively. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IBD appears to be safe with only mild adverse events. Flares of IBD and severe adverse events requiring hospitalization were infrequent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337281

ABSTRACT

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with anti-TNF therapy exhibit attenuated humoral immune responses to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The gut microbiota and its functional metabolic output, which are perturbed in IBD, play an important role in shaping host immune responses. We explored whether the gut microbiota and metabolome could explain variation in anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination responses in immunosuppressed IBD patients. Faecal and serum samples were prospectively collected from infliximab-treated patients with IBD in the CLARITY-IBD study undergoing vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Antibody responses were measured following two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine. Patients were classified as having responses above or below the geometric mean of the wider CLARITY-IBD cohort. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and bile acid profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) were performed on faecal samples. Univariate, multivariable and correlation analyses were performed to determine gut microbial and metabolomic predictors of response to vaccination. Forty-three infliximab-treated patients with IBD were recruited (30 Crohn’s disease, 12 ulcerative colitis, 1 IBD-unclassified;26 with concomitant thiopurine therapy). Eight patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seventeen patients (39.5%) had a serological response below the geometric mean. Gut microbiota diversity was lower in below average responders (p = 0.021). Bilophila abundance was associated with better serological response, while Streptococcus was associated with poorer response. The faecal metabolome was distinct between above and below average responders (OPLS-DA R 2 X 0.25, R 2 Y 0.26, Q 2 0.15;CV-ANOVA p = 0.038). Trimethylamine was associated with better response, while succinate, phenylalanine and the bile acids taurolithocholate and taurodeoxycholate were associated with poorer response. Our data suggest that there is an association between the gut microbiota and variable serological response to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients. Microbial metabolites including trimethylamine may be important in mitigating anti-TNF-induced attenuation of the immune response.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1379, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747222

ABSTRACT

Anti tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs increase the risk of serious respiratory infection and impair protective immunity following pneumococcal and influenza vaccination. Here we report SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune responses and breakthrough infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who are treated either with the anti-TNF antibody, infliximab, or with vedolizumab targeting a gut-specific anti-integrin that does not impair systemic immunity. Geometric mean [SD] anti-S RBD antibody concentrations are lower and half-lives shorter in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following two doses of BNT162b2 (566.7 U/mL [6.2] vs 4555.3 U/mL [5.4], p <0.0001; 26.8 days [95% CI 26.2 - 27.5] vs 47.6 days [45.5 - 49.8], p <0.0001); similar results are also observed with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (184.7 U/mL [5.0] vs 784.0 U/mL [3.5], p <0.0001; 35.9 days [34.9 - 36.8] vs 58.0 days [55.0 - 61.3], p value < 0.0001). One fifth of patients fail to mount a T cell response in both treatment groups. Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections are more frequent (5.8% (201/3441) vs 3.9% (66/1682), p = 0.0039) in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, and the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection is predicted by peak anti-S RBD antibody concentration after two vaccine doses. Irrespective of the treatments, higher, more sustained antibody levels are observed in patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination. Our results thus suggest that adapted vaccination schedules may be required to induce immunity in at-risk, anti-TNF-treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
7.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(7): 1456-1479.e18, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The serological responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination may be attenuated in immunocompromised individuals. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the seroconversion rates after complete vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify studies reporting response to COVID-19 vaccination in IBD. Pooled seroconversion rates after complete vaccination were calculated. Subgroup analysis for vaccine types was also performed. Pooled seroconversion rates for various drugs or classes were also estimated. The pooled rates of breakthrough infections in vaccinated IBD patients were estimated. The pooled neutralization rates after complete vaccination were also estimated. The studies reporting durability of titers were systematically assessed. RESULTS: A total of 46 studies were included. The pooled seroconversion rate for complete vaccination (31 studies, 9447 patients) was 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.97; I2 = 90%). When compared with healthy control subjects, the pooled relative risk of seroconversion was lower (0.98; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99; I2 = 39%). The pooled seroconversion rates were statistically similar among various drug classes. The pooled positivity of neutralization assays (8 studies, 771 participants) was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70-0.87; I2 = 82%). The pooled relative risk of breakthrough infections in vaccinated IBD patients was similar to vaccinated control subjects (0.60; 95% CI, 0.25-1.42; I2 = 79%). Most studies suggested that titers fall after 4 weeks of COVID-19 vaccination, and the decay was higher in patients on anti-tumor necrosis factor alone or combination with immunomodulators. An additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine elicited serological response in most nonresponders to complete vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Complete COVID-19 vaccination is associated with seroconversion in most patients with IBD. The decay in titers over time necessitates consideration of additional doses in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Vaccination
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315494

ABSTRACT

To inform healthcare policy for immunosuppressed patients there is a need to define SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses. Here we report SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced antibody and T cell responses in patients treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF), a commonly used biologic in inflammatory diseases, compared to patients treated with vedolizumab, a gut-specific antibody targeting integrin a4b7 that does not impair systemic immunity. In anti-TNF recipients, the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies was reduced five-fold, and rapidly decayed towards the seroconversion threshold by 14 weeks after second dose of vaccine. In contrast, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were sustained up to 16 weeks in vedolizumab-treated patients. Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody decay was not observed in vaccinated patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. T cell responses were absent in one-fifth of anti-TNF and vedolizumab-treated patients after a second dose of either vaccine. Our data have important implications for anti-TNF recipients, including the need for vaccine prioritization, booster doses, and social distancing strategies.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313974

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated identifying individuals at higher risk of severe outcomes who should be shielded and provided with government support. We describe the initial results and validation of a web-based tool targeted at patients in the UK with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to self-stratify their risk according to a risk grid developed by an expert consensus body within gastroenterology.Methods: We designed a secure web-based survey, compliant with information governance, which was targeted directly at patients in the UK with IBD and promoted via social media. Patient-entered data were directly compared to data held by their local IBD specialist teams.Findings: Between 1st April and 3rd August 2020, we received responses from 34,078 participants with IBD from 176 UK trusts or health boards. Overall, based on these data, 25·9% of participants met the consensus criteria defined for shielding and a further 46·5% were in a moderate risk category. We assessed intra-rater reliability in 1,442 participants using the tool twice or more;most items had almost perfect agreement (kappa >0·80).We validated the patient-entered data against hospital-entered data and medical records for 2,862 patient datasets from ten hospitals. Weighted kappa was 0·59 (95% confidence interval 0·56 - 0·62). After manual resolution of discrepancies, kappa was 0·89 (95% CI 0·87 - 0·91). Of 966 patients identified as requiring shielding in the final dataset for these ten centres, 51·0% had been missed by the hospital-entered data, largely because of incomplete or discrepant information on comorbidity and current disease activity.Interpretation: We have demonstrated that patient-generated data can facilitate rapid risk stratification with respect to COVID-19 and compensate for deficiencies in hospital data. We have validated these data across repeat entry and have demonstrated their reliability compared to pre-existing secondary care data. These findings have important implications for public health and chronic disease management.Funding Statement: Galapagos Biotech Ltd;Biogen GmbH;Tillotts Pharma UK Ltd;Amgen LtdDeclaration of Interests: Author Vida Cairnes has received honoraria for speaking from Falk, Pharmacosmos, Abbvie and Tillots. I have received support to attend conferences fromPharmacosmos, Ferring, Takeda, Falk and Abbvie. I am in receipt of education funding from Crohn’s & Colitis UK. All other authors have nothing to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: The IBD Registry was the Data Controller for the COVID-19 UK IBD Risk Tool. Information Governance (IG) included the DPIA, Privacy Notices, approved information/content development for patients plus Information Sharing Agreements for hospital teams in order to allow the data to be shared. The lawful basis for data collection was under the COPI Notice issued for COVID-19.10 Information was freely provided by participants.

10.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(4): 342-352, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects that therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have on immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are not yet fully known. Therefore, we sought to determine whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses were altered in patients with IBD on commonly used immunosuppressive drugs. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, case-control study (VIP), we recruited adults with IBD treated with one of six different immunosuppressive treatment regimens (thiopurines, infliximab, a thiopurine plus infliximab, ustekinumab, vedolizumab, or tofacitinib) and healthy control participants from nine centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and had received two doses of COVID-19 vaccines (either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [Oxford-AstraZeneca], BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech], or mRNA1273 [Moderna]) 6-12 weeks apart (according to scheduling adopted in the UK). We measured antibody responses 53-92 days after a second vaccine dose using the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations in participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, adjusted by age and vaccine type, and was analysed by use of multivariable linear regression models. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN13495664, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between May 31 and Nov 24, 2021, we recruited 483 participants, including patients with IBD being treated with thiopurines (n=78), infliximab (n=63), a thiopurine plus infliximab (n=72), ustekinumab (n=57), vedolizumab (n=62), or tofacitinib (n=30), and 121 healthy controls. We included 370 participants without evidence of previous infection in our primary analysis. Geometric mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (156·8 U/mL [geometric SD 5·7]; p<0·0001), infliximab plus thiopurine (111·1 U/mL [5·7]; p<0·0001), or tofacitinib (429·5 U/mL [3·1]; p=0·0012) compared with controls (1578·3 U/mL [3·7]). There were no significant differences in antibody concentrations between patients treated with thiopurine monotherapy (1019·8 U/mL [4·3]; p=0·74), ustekinumab (582·4 U/mL [4·6]; p=0·11), or vedolizumab (954·0 U/mL [4·1]; p=0·50) and healthy controls. In multivariable modelling, lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations were independently associated with infliximab (geometric mean ratio 0·12, 95% CI 0·08-0·17; p<0·0001) and tofacitinib (0·43, 0·23-0·81; p=0·0095), but not with ustekinumab (0·69, 0·41-1·19; p=0·18), thiopurines (0·89, 0·64-1·24; p=0·50), or vedolizumab (1·16, 0·74-1·83; p=0·51). mRNA vaccines (3·68, 2·80-4·84; p<0·0001; vs adenovirus vector vaccines) were independently associated with higher antibody concentrations and older age per decade (0·79, 0·72-0·87; p<0·0001) with lower antibody concentrations. INTERPRETATION: For patients with IBD, the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines varies according to immunosuppressive drug exposure, and is attenuated in recipients of infliximab, infliximab plus thiopurines, and tofacitinib. Scheduling of third primary, or booster, doses could be personalised on the basis of an individual's treatment, and patients taking anti-tumour necrosis factor and tofacitinib should be prioritised. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662311

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) traditionally requires inpatient hospital management for intravenous therapies and/or colectomy. Ambulatory ASUC care has not yet been evaluated in large cohorts. AIMS: We used data from PROTECT, a UK multicentre observational COVID-19 inflammatory bowel disease study, to report the extent, safety and effectiveness of ASUC ambulatory pathways. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years old) meeting Truelove and Witts criteria between 1 January 2019-1 June 2019 and 1 March 2020-30 June 2020 were recruited to PROTECT. We used demographic, disease phenotype, treatment outcomes and 3-month follow-up data. Primary outcome was rate of colectomy during the index ASUC episode. Secondary outcomes included corticosteroid response, time to and rate of rescue or primary induction therapy, response to rescue or primary induction therapy, time to colectomy, mortality, duration of inpatient treatment and hospital readmission and colectomy within 3 months of index flare. We compared outcomes in three cohorts: (1) patients treated entirely in inpatient setting; ambulatory patients subdivided into; (2) patients managed as ambulatory from diagnosis and (3) patients hospitalised and subsequently discharged to ambulatory care for continued intravenous steroids. RESULTS: 37% (22/60) participating hospitals used ambulatory pathways. Of 764 eligible patients, 695 (91%) patients received entirely inpatient care, 15 (2%) patients were managed as ambulatory from diagnosis and 54 (7%) patients were discharged to ambulatory pathways. Aside from younger age in patients treated as ambulatory from diagnosis, no significant differences in disease or patient phenotype were observed. The rate of colectomy (15.0% (104/695) vs 13.3% (2/15) vs 13.0% (7/54), respectively, p=0.96) and secondary outcomes were similar among all three cohorts. Stool culture and flexible sigmoidoscopy were less frequently performed in ambulatory cohorts. Forty per cent of patients treated as ambulatory from diagnosis required subsequent hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: In a post hoc analysis of one of the largest ASUC cohorts collected to date, we report an emerging UK ambulatory practice which challenges treatment paradigms. However, our analysis remains underpowered to detect key outcome measures and further studies exploring clinical and cost-effectiveness as well as patient and physician acceptability are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04411784.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care , Cohort Studies , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Age is a major prognostic factor for COVID-19 outcomes. The effect of IBD activity on COVID-19 is unclear. We examined the relationship between IBD activity and COVID-19 severity according to age. METHODS: We included IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19, reported to SECURE-IBD between March 13, 2020-August 3, 2021. Clinical IBD activity was measured by Physician Global Assessment (PGA). COVID-19-related outcomes were 1) ICU, ventilation, or death, and 2) hospitalization. Using generalized estimating equations, we determined adjusted odds ratios (aOR, 95% CI) for moderate and severe PGA vs. clinical remission/mild PGA, controlling for demographics, medications, and COVID-19 diagnosis period. We performed stratified analyses by age (≤50 vs. >50 years. RESULTS: Among 6,078 patients, adverse COVID-19 outcomes were more common with active IBD: ICU/ventilation/death in 3.6% (175/4898) of remission/mild, 4.9% (45/920) of moderate, 8.8% (23/260) of severe (p<0.001); hospitalization in 13% (649/4898) of remission/mild, 19% (178/920) of moderate, 38% (100/260) of severe (p<0.001). Stratified by decade, effect sizes were larger for younger patients. In patients ≤50 years, severe PGA was independently associated with ICU/ventilation/death (aOR 3.27 [1.15-9.30]) and hospitalization (aOR 4.62 [2.83-7.55]). In contrast, severe PGA was not independently associated with COVID-19 outcomes in those older than 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically active IBD may be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, particularly in younger patients. IBD disease control, including through medication compliance, and strategies to mitigate the risk of COVID-19 infection amongst patients with active IBD (e.g., distancing, immunization) are key to limit adverse COVID-19 outcomes.

14.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(3): 389-397, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infliximab attenuates serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whether this is a class effect, or if anti-tumour necrosis factor [anti-TNF] level influences serological responses, remains unknown. METHODS: Seroprevalence and the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody responses were measured in surplus serum from 11 422 (53.3% [6084] male; median age 36.8 years) patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, stored at six therapeutic drug monitoring laboratories between January 29 and September 30, 2020. Data were linked to nationally held SARS-CoV-2 PCR results to July 11, 2021. RESULTS: Rates of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar across treatment groups. Seroprevalence rates were lower in infliximab- and adalimumab- than vedolizumab-treated patients (infliximab: 3.0% [178/5893], adalimumab: 3.0% [152/5074], vedolizumab: 6.7% [25/375], p = 0.003). The magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was similar in infliximab- vs adalimumab-treated patients (median 4.30 cut-off index [COI] [1.94-9.96] vs 5.02 [2.18-18.70], p = 0.164), but higher in vedolizumab-treated patients (median 21.60 COI [4.39-68.10, p < 0.004). Compared to patients with detectable infliximab and adalimumab drug levels, patients with undetectable drug levels [<0.8 mg/L] were more likely to be seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. One-third of patients who had PCR testing prior to antibody testing failed to seroconvert, all were treated with anti-TNF. Subsequent positive PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 was seen in 7.9% [12/152] of patients after a median time of 183.5 days [129.8-235.3], without differences between drugs. CONCLUSION: Anti-TNF treatment is associated with lower SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid seroprevalence and antibody reactivity when compared to vedolizumab-treated patients. Higher seropositivity rates in patients with undetectable anti-TNF levels support a causal relationship, although confounding factors, such as combination therapy with a immunomodulator, may have influenced the results.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adalimumab , Adult , Antibody Formation , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
15.
Gut ; 70(5): 865-875, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections. DESIGN: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020. RESULTS: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Serologic Tests , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(1): 102927, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The treatment for COVID-19 often utilizes immune-modulating drugs. These drugs are also used in immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). We performed a systematic review about seroconversion after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IMIDs and impact of various drugs on seroconversion rates. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies reporting seroconversion rates following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IMIDs. We calculated the pooled seroconversion rates after a single or two doses of vaccination, pooled seroconversion rates in patients with specific IMIDs, and rates in patients on various drugs/drug classes. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. The pooled seroconversion rates after two doses of mRNA vaccination were higher (83.1, 95%CI: 74.9-89.0, I2 = 90%) as compared to a single dose (69.3, 52.4-82.3, I2 = 95%). The odds of seroconversion were lower in IMIDs as compared to healthy controls (0.05, 0.02-0.13, I2 = 21%). The seroconversion rates in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (95.2, 95%CI: 92.6-96.9, I2 = 0%), spondyloarthropathy (95.6, 95% CI: 83.4-98.9, I2 = 35%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (90.7, 95%CI: 85.4-94.2, I2 = 0%) were higher as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (79.5, 95% CI: 65.1-88.9, I2 = 85%), and vasculitis (70.5, 95% CI: 52.9-83.5, I2 = 51%). The seroconversion rates following double dose of mRNA were excellent (>90%) in those on anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF), anti-integrin (vedolizumab), anti-IL 17 (secukinumab), anti-IL6 (Tocilizumab) and anti-IL12/23 (Ustekinumab) therapies but attenuated (<70%) in patients on anti-CD20 (Rituximab) or anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA-4) therapies (Abatacept). The seroconversion rates were good (70-90%) with steroids, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil and leflunomide. Combination of anti-TNF with immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-meracptopurine, methotrexate) resulted in an attenuated vaccine response as compared to anti-TNF monotherapy. CONCLUSION: Seroconversion rates after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are lower in patients with IMIDs. Certain therapies (anti-TNF, anti-integrin, anti-IL 17, anti-IL6, anti-12/23) do not impact seroconversion rates while others (anti-CD20, anti-CTLA-4) result in poorer responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Vaccination
19.
Gut ; 70(10): 1884-1893, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Delayed second dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination trades maximal effectiveness for a lower level of immunity across more of the population. We investigated whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab have attenuated serological responses to a single dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. DESIGN: Antibody responses and seroconversion rates in infliximab-treated patients (n=865) were compared with a cohort treated with vedolizumab (n=428), a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody. Our primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody assay 3-10 weeks after vaccination, in patients without evidence of prior infection. Secondary outcomes were seroconversion rates (defined by a cut-off of 15 U/mL), and antibody responses following past infection or a second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following BNT162b2 (6.0 U/mL (5.9) vs 28.8 U/mL (5.4) p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (4.7 U/mL (4.9)) vs 13.8 U/mL (5.9) p<0.0001) vaccines. In our multivariable models, antibody concentrations were lower in infliximab-treated compared with vedolizumab-treated patients who received the BNT162b2 (fold change (FC) 0.29 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.40), p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (FC 0.39 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.51), p<0.0001) vaccines. In both models, age ≥60 years, immunomodulator use, Crohn's disease and smoking were associated with lower, while non-white ethnicity was associated with higher, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations. Seroconversion rates after a single dose of either vaccine were higher in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. CONCLUSION: Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to a single dose of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 infection, or a second dose of vaccine, led to seroconversion in most patients. Delayed second dosing should be avoided in patients treated with infliximab. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
20.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(3): 218-224, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195586

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global health crisis and mass vaccination programmes provide the best opportunity for controlling transmission and protecting populations. Despite the impressive clinical trial results of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines, important unanswered questions remain, especially in patients with pre-existing conditions. In this position statement endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) section and IBD Clinical Research Group, we consider SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy in patients with IBD. The risks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are anticipated to be very low, and we strongly support SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD. Based on data from previous studies with other vaccines, there are conceptual concerns that protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be diminished in some patients with IBD, such as those taking anti-TNF drugs. However, the benefits of vaccination, even in patients treated with anti-TNF drugs, are likely to outweigh these theoretical concerns. Key areas for further research are discussed, including vaccine hesitancy and its effect in the IBD community, the effect of immunosuppression on vaccine efficacy, and the search for predictive biomarkers of vaccine success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Gastroenterology/methods , Gastroenterology/trends , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United Kingdom , Vaccination/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL