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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335278

ABSTRACT

Low-volume antibody assays can be used to track SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in settings where active testing for virus is limited and remote sampling is optimal. We developed 12 ELISAs detecting total or antibody isotypes to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid, spike protein or its receptor binding domain (RBD), 3 anti-RBD isotype specific luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assays and a novel Spike-RBD bridging LIPS total-antibody assay. We utilised pre-pandemic (n=984) and confirmed/suspected recent COVID-19 sera taken pre-vaccination rollout in 2020 (n=269). Assays measuring total antibody discriminated best between pre-pandemic and COVID-19 sera and were selected for diagnostic evaluation. In the blind evaluation, two of these assays (Spike Pan ELISA and Spike-RBD Bridging LIPS assay) demonstrated >97% specificity and >92% sensitivity for samples from COVID- 19 patients taken >21 days post symptom onset or PCR test. These assays offered better sensitivity for the detection of COVID-19 cases than a commercial assay which requires 100-fold larger serum volumes. This study demonstrates that low-volume in- house antibody assays can provide good diagnostic performance, and highlights the importance of using well-characterised samples and controls for all stages of assay development and evaluation. These cost-effective assays may be particularly useful for seroprevalence studies in low and middle-income countries.

2.
Med (N Y) ; 2(2): 149-163.e4, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody responses to virus reflect exposure and potential protection. METHODS: We developed a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04039945), in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03316261), and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data. FINDINGS: Dual-antibody positivity was detected in none of the 3,887 children in 2019 (100% specificity) and 73 of 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals (97.3% sensitivity). Antibody surveillance in children during 2020 resulted in frequencies of 0.08% in January to March, 0.61% in April, 0.74% in May, 1.13% in June, and 0.91% in July. Antibody prevalence from April 2020 was 6-fold higher than the incidence of authority-reported cases (156 per 100,000 children), showed marked variation between the seven Bavarian regions (p < 0.0001), and was not associated with age or sex. Transmission in children with virus-positive family members was 35%. 47% of positive children were asymptomatic. No association with type 1 diabetes autoimmunity was observed. Antibody frequency in newborns was 0.47%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the value of population-based screening programs for pandemic monitoring. FUNDING: The work was supported by funding from the BMBF (FKZ01KX1818).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2670, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225507

ABSTRACT

Understanding how antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 evolve during infection may provide important insight into therapeutic approaches and vaccination for COVID-19. Here we profile the antibody responses of 162 COVID-19 symptomatic patients in the COVID-BioB cohort followed longitudinally for up to eight months from symptom onset to find SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, as well as antibodies either recognizing SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and nucleoprotein, or specific for S2 antigen of seasonal beta-coronaviruses and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 flu virus. The presence of neutralizing antibodies within the first weeks from symptoms onset correlates with time to a negative swab result (p = 0.002), while the lack of neutralizing capacity correlates with an increased risk of a fatal outcome (p = 0.008). Neutralizing antibody titers progressively drop after 5-8 weeks but are still detectable up to 8 months in the majority of recovered patients regardless of age or co-morbidities, with IgG to spike antigens providing the best correlate of neutralization. Antibody responses to seasonal coronaviruses are temporarily boosted, and parallel those to SARS-CoV-2 without dampening the specific response or worsening disease progression. Our results thus suggest compromised immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike to be a major trait of COVID-19 patients with critical conditions, and thereby inform on the planning of COVID-19 patient care and therapy prioritization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survival Rate
4.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6366-6378, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSerological assays are of critical importance to investigate correlates of response and protection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), to define previous exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in populations, and to verify the development of an adaptive immune response in infected individuals.METHODSWe studied 509 patients confirmed to have COVID-19 from the San Raffaele Hospital of Milan and 480 samples of prepandemic organ donor sera collected in 2010-2012. Using fluid-phase luciferase immune precipitation (LIPS) assays, we characterized IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies to the spike receptor binding domain (RBD), S1+S2, nucleocapsid, and ORF6 to ORF10 of SARS-CoV-2, to the HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 betacoronaviruses spike S2, and the H1N1Ca2009 flu virus hemagglutinin. Sequential samples at 1 and 3 months after hospital discharge were also tested for SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies in 95 patients.RESULTSAntibodies developed rapidly against multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens in 95% of patients by 4 weeks after symptom onset and IgG to the RBD increased until the third month of follow-up. We observed a major synchronous expansion of antibodies to the HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 spike S2. A likely coinfection with influenza was neither linked to a more severe presentation of the disease nor to a worse outcome. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD was predictive of survival.CONCLUSIONThe measurement of antibodies to selected epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 antigens can offer a more accurate assessment of the humoral response in patients and its impact on survival. The presence of partially cross-reactive antibodies with other betacoronaviruses is likely to impact on serological assay specificity and interpretation.TRIAL REGISTRATIONCOVID-19 Patients Characterization, Biobank, Treatment Response and Outcome Predictor (COVID-BioB). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04318366.FUNDINGIRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele and Università Vita Salute San Raffaele.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): 1472-1481, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054860

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Demonstrating the ability to mount a neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of diabetes is crucial to understand COVID-19 pathogenesis, reinfection potential, and vaccine development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics and durability of neutralizing antibody (Nab) response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the presence of hyperglycemia. METHODS: Using a lentiviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay to measure Nabs, we characterized 150 patients randomly selected from a cohort of 509 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We analyzed Nab response according to the presence of diabetes or hyperglycemia, at the time of hospitalization and during the postdischarge follow-up: 1-, 3-, and 6-month outpatient visits. RESULTS: Among 150 randomly selected patients 40 (26.6%) had diabetes. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 8.9, P < .001), glucose levels (HR 1.25 × 1.1 mmol/L, P < .001), and glucose variability (HR 1.17 × 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. The neutralizing activity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with diabetes was superimposable, as for kinetics and extent, to that of patients without diabetes. It was similar across glucose levels and correlated with the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Positivity for Nabs at the time of hospital admission conferred protection on mortality, both in the presence (HR 0.28, P = .046) or absence of diabetes (HR 0.26, P = .030). The longevity of the Nab response was not affected by diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes and hyperglycemia do not affect the kinetics and durability of the neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. These findings provide the rational to include patients with diabetes in the early phase of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/complications
6.
Diabetologia ; 63(12): 2548-2558, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840591

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to characterise the humoral response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with diabetes. Demonstrating the ability to mount an appropriate antibody response in the presence of hyperglycaemia is relevant for the comprehension of mechanisms related to the observed worse clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with diabetes and for the development of any future vaccination campaign to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using a highly specific and sensitive measurement of antibodies by fluid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation assays, we characterised the IgG, IgM and IgA response against multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 509 patients with documented diagnosis of COVID-19, prospectively followed at our institution. We analysed clinical outcomes and antibody titres according to the presence of hyperglycaemia, i.e., either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, at the time of, or during, hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, 139 (27.3%) had diabetes: 90 (17.7%) had diabetes diagnosed prior to the hospital admission (comorbid diabetes) while 49 (9.6%) had diabetes diagnosed at the time of admission (newly diagnosed). Diabetes was associated with increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and hypercoagulopathy, as well as leucocytosis and neutrophilia. Diabetes was independently associated with risk of death (HR 2.32 [95% CI 1.44, 3.75], p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other relevant comorbidities. Moreover, a strong association between higher glucose levels and risk of death was documented irrespective of diabetes diagnosis (HR 1.14 × 1.1 mmol/l [95% CI 1.08, 1.21], p < 0.001). The humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes was present and superimposable, as for timing and antibody titres, to that of non-diabetic patients, with marginal differences, and was not influenced by glucose levels. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) was predictive of survival rate, both in the presence or absence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The observed increased severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with hyperglycaemia was not the result of an impaired humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. RBD IgG positivity was associated with a remarkable protective effect, allowing for a cautious optimism about the efficacy of future vaccines against SARs-COV-2 in people with diabetes. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
7.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 226, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832483

ABSTRACT

Learning from the lengthy fight against HIV-1, influenza, and Ebola virus infection, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), directed at conserved regions of surface proteins crucial to virus entry (Env, hemagglutinin, and GP, respectively), are an essential resource for passive as well as active immunization. Rare in their emergence and antigen recognition mode, bnAbs are active toward a large set of different viral strains. Isolation, characterization and production of bnAbs lead to their possible use in passive immunotherapy and form the basis for an educated effort in the development of vaccines for universal coverage. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies targeting the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) may lead to antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, possibly hampering the field of vaccine development. This perspective points to the identification of conserved regions in the spike of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV through investigation, dissection and recombinant production of isolated moieties. These spike moieties should be capable of independent folding and allow the detection as well as the elicitation of bnAbs, thus setting the basis for an effective passive immunotherapy and the development of a universal vaccine against human epidemic coronaviruses (HCoVs). SARS, MERS and, most of all, COVID-19 demonstrate that humanity is the target of HCoV, preparedness for future hits is thus no longer an option.

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