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1.
N Engl J Med ; 387(5): 397-407, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New approaches for the prevention and elimination of malaria, a leading cause of illness and death among infants and young children globally, are needed. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of L9LS, a next-generation antimalarial monoclonal antibody, and its protective efficacy against controlled human malaria infection in healthy adults who had never had malaria or received a vaccine for malaria. The participants received L9LS either intravenously or subcutaneously at a dose of 1 mg, 5 mg, or 20 mg per kilogram of body weight. Within 2 to 6 weeks after the administration of L9LS, both the participants who received L9LS and the control participants underwent controlled human malaria infection in which they were exposed to mosquitoes carrying Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain). RESULTS: No safety concerns were identified. L9LS had an estimated half-life of 56 days, and it had dose linearity, with the highest mean (±SD) maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of 914.2±146.5 µg per milliliter observed in participants who had received 20 mg per kilogram intravenously and the lowest mean Cmax of 41.5±4.7 µg per milliliter observed in those who had received 1 mg per kilogram intravenously; the mean Cmax was 164.8±31.1 in the participants who had received 5 mg per kilogram intravenously and 68.9±22.3 in those who had received 5 mg per kilogram subcutaneously. A total of 17 L9LS recipients and 6 control participants underwent controlled human malaria infection. Of the 17 participants who received a single dose of L9LS, 15 (88%) were protected after controlled human malaria infection. Parasitemia did not develop in any of the participants who received 5 or 20 mg per kilogram of intravenous L9LS. Parasitemia developed in 1 of 5 participants who received 1 mg per kilogram intravenously, 1 of 5 participants who received 5 mg per kilogram subcutaneously, and all 6 control participants through 21 days after the controlled human malaria infection. Protection conferred by L9LS was seen at serum concentrations as low as 9.2 µg per milliliter. CONCLUSIONS: In this small trial, L9LS administered intravenously or subcutaneously protected recipients against malaria after controlled infection, without evident safety concerns. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; VRC 614 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05019729.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Malaria , Administration, Cutaneous , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Parasitemia/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum
2.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736810

ABSTRACT

The monoclonal antibody CIS43 targets the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) and prevents malaria infection in humans for up to 9 mo following a single intravenous administration. To enhance the potency and clinical utility of CIS43, we used iterative site-saturation mutagenesis and DNA shuffling to screen precise gene-variant yeast display libraries for improved PfCSP antigen recognition. We identified several mutations that improved recognition, predominately in framework regions, and combined these to produce a panel of antibody variants. The most improved antibody, CIS43_Var10, had three mutations and showed approximately sixfold enhanced protective potency in vivo compared to CIS43. Co-crystal and cryo-electron microscopy structures of CIS43_Var10 with the peptide epitope or with PfCSP, respectively, revealed functional roles for each of these mutations. The unbiased site-directed mutagenesis and screening pipeline described here represent a powerful approach to enhance protective potency and to enable broader clinical use of antimalarial antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria Vaccines , Antibodies, Protozoan , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Plasmodium falciparum , Protozoan Proteins , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
3.
Cell Rep ; 38(7): 110367, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172158

ABSTRACT

L9 is a potent human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that preferentially binds two adjacent NVDP minor repeats and cross-reacts with NANP major repeats of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) on malaria-infective sporozoites. Understanding this mAb's ontogeny and mechanisms of binding PfCSP will facilitate vaccine development. Here, we isolate mAbs clonally related to L9 and show that this B cell lineage has baseline NVDP affinity and evolves to acquire NANP reactivity. Pairing the L9 kappa light chain (L9κ) with clonally related heavy chains results in chimeric mAbs that cross-link two NVDPs, cross-react with NANP, and more potently neutralize sporozoites in vivo compared with their original light chain. Structural analyses reveal that the chimeric mAbs bound minor repeats in a type-1 ß-turn seen in other repeat-specific antibodies. These data highlight the importance of L9κ in binding NVDP on PfCSP to neutralize sporozoites and suggest that PfCSP-based immunogens might be improved by presenting ≥2 NVDPs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/metabolism , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid , Adolescent , Adult , Amino Acid Motifs , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Cell Lineage , Culicidae/parasitology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protein Binding , Young Adult
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010161, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025969

ABSTRACT

The global response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now facing new challenges such as vaccine inequity and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Preclinical models of disease, in particular animal models, are essential to investigate VOC pathogenesis, vaccine correlates of protection and postexposure therapies. Here, we provide an update from the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 modeling expert group (WHO-COM) assembled by WHO, regarding advances in preclinical models. In particular, we discuss how animal model research is playing a key role to evaluate VOC virulence, transmission and immune escape, and how animal models are being refined to recapitulate COVID-19 demographic variables such as comorbidities and age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Cell ; 185(1): 113-130.e15, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921774

ABSTRACT

mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Delta wanes over time; however, there are limited data on the impact of durability of immune responses on protection. Here, we immunized rhesus macaques and assessed immune responses over 1 year in blood and upper and lower airways. Serum neutralizing titers to Delta were 280 and 34 reciprocal ID50 at weeks 6 (peak) and 48 (challenge), respectively. Antibody-binding titers also decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Four days after Delta challenge, the virus was unculturable in BAL, and subgenomic RNA declined by ∼3-log10 compared with control animals. In nasal swabs, sgRNA was reduced by 1-log10, and the virus remained culturable. Anamnestic antibodies (590-fold increased titer) but not T cell responses were detected in BAL by day 4 post-challenge. mRNA-1273-mediated protection in the lungs is durable but delayed and potentially dependent on anamnestic antibody responses. Rapid and sustained protection in upper and lower airways may eventually require a boost.

6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010133, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871332

ABSTRACT

Combinations of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different epitopes on the same antigen synergistically neutralize many viruses. However, there are limited studies assessing whether combining human mAbs against distinct regions of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) enhances in vivo protection against malaria compared to each mAb alone or whether passive transfer of PfCSP mAbs would improve protection following vaccination against PfCSP. Here, we isolated a panel of human mAbs against the subdominant C-terminal domain of PfCSP (C-CSP) from a volunteer immunized with radiation-attenuated Pf sporozoites. These C-CSP-specific mAbs had limited binding to sporozoites in vitro that was increased by combination with neutralizing human "repeat" mAbs against the NPDP/NVDP/NANP tetrapeptides in the central repeat region of PfCSP. Nevertheless, passive transfer of repeat- and C-CSP-specific mAb combinations did not provide enhanced protection against in vivo sporozoite challenge compared to repeat mAbs alone. Furthermore, combining potent repeat-specific mAbs (CIS43, L9, and 317) that respectively target the three tetrapeptides (NPDP/NVDP/NANP) did not provide additional protection against in vivo sporozoite challenge. However, administration of either CIS43, L9, or 317 (but not C-CSP-specific mAbs) to mice that had been immunized with R21, a PfCSP-based virus-like particle vaccine that induces polyclonal antibodies against the repeat region and C-CSP, provided enhanced protection against sporozoite challenge when compared to vaccine or mAbs alone. Collectively, this study shows that while combining mAbs against the repeat and C-terminal regions of PfCSP provide no additional protection in vivo, repeat mAbs do provide increased protection when combined with vaccine-induced polyclonal antibodies. These data should inform the implementation of PfCSP human mAbs alone or following vaccination to prevent malaria infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Mice , Sporozoites/immunology
7.
Nat Immunol ; 22(12): 1515-1523, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811542

ABSTRACT

Development of an effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine has suffered from an incomplete understanding of the correlates of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Intravenous (i.v.) vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) provides nearly complete protection against TB in rhesus macaques, but the antibody response it elicits remains incompletely defined. Here we show that i.v. BCG drives superior antibody responses in the plasma and the lungs of rhesus macaques compared to traditional intradermal BCG administration. While i.v. BCG broadly expands antibody titers and functions, IgM titers in the plasma and lungs of immunized macaques are among the strongest markers of reduced bacterial burden. IgM was also enriched in macaques that received protective vaccination with an attenuated strain of Mtb. Finally, an Mtb-specific IgM monoclonal antibody reduced Mtb survival in vitro. Collectively, these data highlight the potential importance of IgM responses as a marker and mediator of protection against TB.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Vaccination , Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Biomarkers/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Macaca mulatta , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/microbiology
8.
Immunity ; 54(12): 2859-2876.e7, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788599

ABSTRACT

Repeat antigens, such as the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP), use both sequence degeneracy and structural diversity to evade the immune response. A few PfCSP-directed antibodies have been identified that are effective at preventing malaria infection, including CIS43, but how these repeat-targeting antibodies might be improved has been unclear. Here, we engineered a humanized mouse model in which B cells expressed inferred human germline CIS43 (iGL-CIS43) B cell receptors and used both vaccination and bioinformatic analysis to obtain variant CIS43 antibodies with improved protective capacity. One such antibody, iGL-CIS43.D3, was significantly more potent than the current best-in-class PfCSP-directed antibody. We found that vaccination with a junctional epitope peptide was more effective than full-length PfCSP at recruiting iGL-CIS43 B cells to germinal centers. Structure-function analysis revealed multiple somatic hypermutations that combinatorically improved protection. This mouse model can thus be used to understand vaccine immunogens and to develop highly potent anti-malarial antibodies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/physiology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Adoptive Transfer , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes/genetics , Genetic Engineering , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, SCID , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vaccination
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(11): e1010042, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748617

ABSTRACT

Rare and potent monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) on infective sporozoites (SPZ) preferentially bind the PfCSP junctional tetrapeptide NPDP or NVDP minor repeats while cross-reacting with NANP central repeats in vitro. The extent to which each of these epitopes is required for protection in vivo is unknown. Here, we assessed whether junction-, minor repeat- and central repeat-preferring human mAbs (CIS43, L9 and 317 respectively) bound and protected against in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei (Pb) SPZ expressing either PfCSP with the junction and minor repeats knocked out (KO), or PbCSP with the junction and minor repeats knocked in (KI). In vivo protection studies showed that the junction and minor repeats are necessary and sufficient for CIS43 and L9 to neutralize KO and KI SPZ, respectively. In contrast, 317 required major repeats for in vivo protection. These data establish that human mAbs can prevent malaria infection by targeting three different protective epitopes (NPDP, NVDP, NANP) in the PfCSP repeat region. This report will inform vaccine development and the use of mAbs to passively prevent malaria.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Sporozoites/immunology , Animals , Female , Liver/immunology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/parasitology , Liver/pathology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sporozoites/growth & development
10.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729558

ABSTRACT

mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Delta wanes over time; however, there are limited data on the impact of durability of immune responses on protection. We immunized rhesus macaques at weeks 0 and 4 and assessed immune responses over one year in blood, upper and lower airways. Serum neutralizing titers to Delta were 280 and 34 reciprocal ID 50 at weeks 6 (peak) and 48 (challenge), respectively. Antibody binding titers also decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Four days after challenge, virus was unculturable in BAL and subgenomic RNA declined ∼3-log 10 compared to control animals. In nasal swabs, sgRNA declined 1-log 10 and virus remained culturable. Anamnestic antibody responses (590-fold increase) but not T cell responses were detected in BAL by day 4 post-challenge. mRNA-1273-mediated protection in the lungs is durable but delayed and potentially dependent on anamnestic antibody responses. Rapid and sustained protection in upper and lower airways may eventually require a boost.

11.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 129, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711815

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) requires adequate coverage of vaccine protection. We evaluated whether a SARS-CoV-2 spike ferritin nanoparticle vaccine (SpFN), adjuvanted with the Army Liposomal Formulation QS21 (ALFQ), conferred protection against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), and Beta (B.1.351) VOCs in Syrian golden hamsters. SpFN-ALFQ was administered as either single or double-vaccination (0 and 4 week) regimens, using a high (10 µg) or low (0.2 µg) dose. Animals were intranasally challenged at week 11. Binding antibody responses were comparable between high- and low-dose groups. Neutralizing antibody titers were equivalent against WA1, B.1.1.7, and B.1.351 variants following two high dose vaccinations. Dose-dependent SpFN-ALFQ vaccination protected against SARS-CoV-2-induced disease and viral replication following intranasal B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 challenge, as evidenced by reduced weight loss, lung pathology, and lung and nasal turbinate viral burden. These data support the development of SpFN-ALFQ as a broadly protective, next-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

12.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1636-1645, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518679

ABSTRACT

The radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) vaccine provides protection against P. falciparum infection in malaria-naïve adults. Preclinical studies show that T cell-mediated immunity is required for protection and is readily induced in humans after vaccination. However, previous malaria exposure can limit immune responses and vaccine efficacy (VE) in adults. We hypothesized that infants with less previous exposure to malaria would have improved immunity and protection. We conducted a multi-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 336 infants aged 5-12 months to determine the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and efficacy of the PfSPZ Vaccine in infants in a high-transmission malaria setting in western Kenya ( NCT02687373 ). Groups of 84 infants each received 4.5 × 105, 9.0 × 105 or 1.8 × 106 PfSPZ Vaccine or saline three times at 8-week intervals. The vaccine was well tolerated; 52 (20.6%) children in the vaccine groups and 20 (23.8%) in the placebo group experienced related solicited adverse events (AEs) within 28 d postvaccination and most were mild. There was 1 grade 3-related solicited AE in the vaccine group (0.4%) and 2 in the placebo group (2.4%). Seizures were more common in the highest-dose group (14.3%) compared to 6.0% of controls, with most being attributed to malaria. There was no significant protection against P. falciparum infection in any dose group at 6 months (VE in the 9.0 × 105 dose group = -6.5%, P = 0.598, the primary statistical end point of the study). VE against clinical malaria 3 months after the last dose in the highest-dose group was 45.8% (P = 0.027), an exploratory end point. There was a dose-dependent increase in antibody responses that correlated with VE at 6 months in the lowest- and highest-dose groups. T cell responses were undetectable across all dose groups. Detection of Vδ2+Vγ9+ T cells, which have been correlated with induction of PfSPZ Vaccine T cell immunity and protection in adults, were infrequent. These data suggest that PfSPZ Vaccine-induced T cell immunity is age-dependent and may be influenced by Vδ2+Vγ9+ T cell frequency. Since there was no significant VE at 6 months in these infants, these vaccine regimens will likely not be pursued further in this age group.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines/administration & dosage , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Adult , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , Malaria Vaccines/adverse effects , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum/pathogenicity , Sporozoites/drug effects , Sporozoites/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects
13.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(9): 1188-1198, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400835

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest and concern will continue to emerge for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic. To map mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein that affect binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, we applied in vitro evolution to affinity-mature the RBD. Multiple rounds of random mutagenic libraries of the RBD were sorted against decreasing concentrations of ACE2, resulting in the selection of higher affinity RBD binders. We found that mutations present in more transmissible viruses (S477N, E484K and N501Y) were preferentially selected in our high-throughput screen. Evolved RBD mutants include prominently the amino acid substitutions found in the RBDs of B.1.620, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B1.351 (Beta) and P.1 (Gamma) variants. Moreover, the incidence of RBD mutations in the population as presented in the GISAID database (April 2021) is positively correlated with increased binding affinity to ACE2. Further in vitro evolution increased binding by 1,000-fold and identified mutations that may be more infectious if they evolve in the circulating viral population, for example, Q498R is epistatic to N501Y. We show that our high-affinity variant RBD-62 can be used as a drug to inhibit infection with SARS-CoV-2 and variants Alpha, Beta and Gamma in vitro. In a model of SARS-CoV-2 challenge in hamster, RBD-62 significantly reduced clinical disease when administered before or after infection. A 2.9 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the high-affinity complex of RBD-62 and ACE2, including all rapidly spreading mutations, provides a structural basis for future drug and vaccine development and for in silico evaluation of known antibodies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Cricetinae , Drug Design , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 803-814, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Additional interventions are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by malaria. METHODS: We conducted a two-part, phase 1 clinical trial to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS, an antimalarial monoclonal antibody with an extended half-life, and its efficacy against infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Part A of the trial assessed the safety, initial side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS in healthy adults who had never had malaria. Participants received CIS43LS subcutaneously or intravenously at one of three escalating dose levels. A subgroup of participants from Part A continued to Part B, and some received a second CIS43LS infusion. Additional participants were enrolled in Part B and received CIS43LS intravenously. To assess the protective efficacy of CIS43LS, some participants underwent controlled human malaria infection in which they were exposed to mosquitoes carrying P. falciparum sporozoites 4 to 36 weeks after administration of CIS43LS. RESULTS: A total of 25 participants received CIS43LS at a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 20 mg per kilogram, or 40 mg per kilogram, and 4 of the 25 participants received a second dose (20 mg per kilogram regardless of initial dose). No safety concerns were identified. We observed dose-dependent increases in CIS43LS serum concentrations, with a half-life of 56 days. None of the 9 participants who received CIS43LS, as compared with 5 of 6 control participants who did not receive CIS43LS, had parasitemia according to polymerase-chain-reaction testing through 21 days after controlled human malaria infection. Two participants who received 40 mg per kilogram of CIS43LS and underwent controlled human malaria infection approximately 36 weeks later had no parasitemia, with serum concentrations of CIS43LS of 46 and 57 µg per milliliter at the time of controlled human malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults who had never had malaria infection or vaccination, administration of the long-acting monoclonal antibody CIS43LS prevented malaria after controlled infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; VRC 612 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04206332.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous/adverse effects , Injections, Subcutaneous/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification
15.
J Control Release ; 337: 168-178, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280415

ABSTRACT

Conventional cancer vaccines based on soluble vaccines and traditional adjuvants have produced suboptimal therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. Thus, there is an urgent need for vaccine technologies that can generate potent T cell responses with strong anti-tumor efficacy. We have previously reported the development of synthetic high-density protein (sHDL) nanodiscs for efficient lymph node (LN)-targeted co-delivery of antigen peptides and CpG oligonucleotides (a Toll-like receptor-9 agonist). Here, we performed a comparative study in mice and non-human primates (NHPs) to identify an ideal vaccine platform for induction of CD8+ T cell responses. In particular, we compared the efficacy of CpG class B, CpG class C, and polyICLC (a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog, a TLR-3 agonist), each formulated with antigen-carrying sHDL nanodiscs. Here, we report that sHDL-Ag admixed with polyICLC elicited robust Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice, and when used in combination with α-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, sHDL-Ag + polyICLC eliminated large established (~100 mm3) MC-38 tumors in mice. Moreover, sHDL-Gag + polyICLC induced robust Simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific, polyfunctional CD8+ T cell responses in rhesus macaques and could further amplify the efficacy of recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine. Notably, while both sHDL-Ag-CpG-B and sHDL-Ag-CpG-C generated strong Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice, their results were mixed in NHPs. Overall, sHDL combined with polyICLC offers a strong platform to induce CD8+ T cells for vaccine applications.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cancer Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Vaccines, Synthetic
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(599)2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162751

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibodies play a critical role in protection against mucosal pathogens. However, the role of serum IgA in immunity to nonmucosal pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum, is poorly characterized, despite being the second most abundant isotype in blood after IgG. Here, we investigated the circulating IgA response in humans to P. falciparum sporozoites that are injected into the skin by mosquitoes and migrate to the liver via the bloodstream to initiate malaria infection. We found that circulating IgA was induced in three independent sporozoite-exposed cohorts: individuals living in an endemic region in Mali, malaria-naïve individuals immunized intravenously with three large doses of irradiated sporozoites, and malaria-naïve individuals exposed to a single controlled mosquito bite infection. Mechanistically, we found evidence in an animal model that IgA responses were induced by sporozoites at dermal inoculation sites. From malaria-resistant individuals, we isolated several IgA monoclonal antibodies that reduced liver parasite burden in mice. One antibody, MAD2-6, bound to a conserved epitope in the amino terminus of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, the dominant protein on the sporozoite surface. Crystal structures of this antibody revealed a unique mode of binding whereby two Fabs simultaneously bound either side of the target peptide. This study reveals a role for circulating IgA in malaria and identifies the amino terminus of the circumsporozoite protein as a target of functional antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Protozoan , Immunoglobulin A , Malaria , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Malaria/immunology , Mice , Plasmodium falciparum , Protozoan Proteins , Sporozoites
17.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159328

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) requires adequate coverage of vaccine protection. We evaluated whether a spike ferritin nanoparticle vaccine (SpFN), adjuvanted with the Army Liposomal Formulation QS21 (ALFQ), conferred protection against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 VOCs in Syrian golden hamsters. SpFN-ALFQ was administered as either single or double-vaccination (0 and 4 week) regimens, using a high (10 µg) or low (0.2 µg) immunogen dose. Animals were intranasally challenged at week 11. Binding antibody responses were comparable between high- and low-dose groups. Neutralizing antibody titers were equivalent against WA1, B.1.1.7, and B.1.351 variants following two high dose two vaccinations. SpFN-ALFQ vaccination protected against SARS-CoV-2-induced disease and viral replication following intranasal B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 challenge, as evidenced by reduced weight loss, lung pathology, and lung and nasal turbinate viral burden. These data support the development of SpFN-ALFQ as a broadly protective, next-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

18.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019795

ABSTRACT

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Dimerization , Epitopes/immunology , Glycosylation , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Macaca mulatta , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/chemistry , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Vaccines/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803622

ABSTRACT

The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, includes the central repeat and C-terminal domains of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). We have recently isolated human antibodies that target the junctional region between the N-terminal and repeat domains that are not included in RTS,S. Due to the fact that these antibodies protect against malaria challenge in mice, their epitopes could be effective vaccine targets. Here, we developed immunogens displaying PfCSP junctional epitopes by genetic fusion to either the N-terminus or B domain loop of the E2 protein from chikungunya (CHIK) alphavirus and produced CHIK virus-like particles (CHIK-VLPs). The structural integrity of these junctional-epitope-CHIK-VLP immunogens was confirmed by negative-stain electron microscopy. Immunization of these CHIK-VLP immunogens reduced parasite liver load by up to 95% in a mouse model of malaria infection and elicited better protection than when displayed on keyhole limpet hemocyanin, a commonly used immunogenic carrier. Protection correlated with PfCSP serum titer. Of note, different junctional sequences elicited qualitatively different reactivities to overlapping PfCSP peptides. Overall, these results show that the junctional epitopes of PfCSP can induce protective responses when displayed on CHIK-VLP immunogens and provide a basis for the development of a next generation malaria vaccine to expand the breadth of anti-PfCSP immunity.

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