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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-9, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites. METHODS: During October-December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates. RESULTS: We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(3): 90-95, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051137

ABSTRACT

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson), and on February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for its use as a single-dose primary vaccination in persons aged ≥18 years (1,2). On April 13, 2021, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in the use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine after reports of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), a rare condition characterized by low platelets and thrombosis, including at unusual sites such as the cerebral venous sinus (cerebral venous sinus thrombosis [CVST]), after receipt of the vaccine.* ACIP rapidly convened two emergency meetings to review reported cases of TTS, and 10 days after the pause commenced, ACIP reaffirmed its interim recommendation for use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years, but included a warning regarding rare clotting events after vaccination, primarily among women aged 18-49 years (3). In July, after review of an updated benefit-risk assessment accounting for risks of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and TTS, ACIP concluded that benefits of vaccination with Janssen COVID-19 vaccine outweighed risks. Through ongoing safety surveillance and review of reports from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), additional cases of TTS after receipt of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, including deaths, were identified. On December 16, 2021, ACIP held an emergency meeting to review updated data on TTS and an updated benefit-risk assessment. At that meeting, ACIP made a recommendation for preferential use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines over the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, including both primary and booster doses administered to prevent COVID-19, for all persons aged ≥18 years. The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine may be considered in some situations, including for persons with a contraindication to receipt of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Advisory Committees , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccination/standards , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(4): 513-522, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with adenoviral-vectored COVID-19 vaccination. It presents similarly to spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Twelve cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after vaccination with the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) have previously been described. OBJECTIVE: To describe surveillance data and reporting rates of all reported TTS cases after COVID-19 vaccination in the United States. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: United States. PATIENTS: Case patients receiving a COVID-19 vaccine from 14 December 2020 through 31 August 2021 with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (excluding isolated ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. If thrombosis was only in an extremity vein or pulmonary embolism, a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies or functional heparin-induced thrombocytopenia platelet test result was required. MEASUREMENTS: Reporting rates (cases per million vaccine doses) and descriptive epidemiology. RESULTS: A total of 57 TTS cases were confirmed after vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S (n = 54) or a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based COVID-19 vaccine (n = 3). Reporting rates for TTS were 3.83 per million vaccine doses (Ad26.COV2.S) and 0.00855 per million vaccine doses (mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines). The median age of patients with TTS after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination was 44.5 years (range, 18 to 70 years), and 69% of patients were women. Of the TTS cases after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination, 2 occurred in men older than 50 years and 1 in a woman aged 50 to 59 years. All cases after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination involved hospitalization, including 36 (67%) with intensive care unit admission. Outcomes of hospitalizations after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination included death (15%), discharge to postacute care (17%), and discharge home (68%). LIMITATIONS: Underreporting and incomplete case follow-up. CONCLUSION: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome is a rare but serious adverse event associated with Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. The different demographic characteristics of the 3 cases reported after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines and the much lower reporting rate suggest that these cases represent a background rate. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(1): ofab643, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Whether CRE resistant only to ertapenem among carbapenems (ertapenem "mono-resistant") represent a unique CRE subset with regards to risk factors, carbapenemase genes, and outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data from 9 CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites. A case was the first isolation of a carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, or K. variicola from a normally sterile site or urine in an EIP catchment area resident in 2016-2017. We compared risk factors, carbapenemase genes, antibiotic susceptibility, and mortality of ertapenem "mono-resistant" cases to "other" CRE cases (resistant to ≥1 carbapenem other than ertapenem) and analyzed risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Of 2009 cases, 1249 (62.2%) were ertapenem-mono-resistant and 760 (37.8%) were other CRE. Ertapenem-mono-resistant CRE cases were more frequently ≥80 years old (29.1% vs 19.5%; P < .0001) and female (67.9% vs 59.0%; P < .0001). Ertapenem-mono-resistant isolates were more likely to be Enterobacter cloacae complex (48.4% vs 15.4%; P < .0001) but less likely to be isolated from a normally sterile site (7.1% vs 11.7%; P < .01) or to have a carbapenemase gene (2.4% vs 47.4%; P < .0001). Ertapenem-mono-resistance was not associated with 90-day mortality in logistic regression models. Carbapenemase-positive isolates were associated with mortality (odds ratio, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.30-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: Ertapenem-mono-resistant CRE rarely have carbapenemase genes and have distinct clinical and microbiologic characteristics from other CRE. These findings may inform antibiotic choice and infection prevention practices, particularly when carbapenemase testing is not available.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggested more COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among racial and ethnic minorities. To inform public health practice, the COVID-19-associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) quantified associations between race/ethnicity, census tract socioeconomic indicators, and COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates. METHODS: Using data from COVID-NET population-based surveillance reported during March 1-April 30, 2020 along with socioeconomic and denominator data from the US Census Bureau, we calculated COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates by racial/ethnic and census tract-level socioeconomic strata. RESULTS: Among 16,000 COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 34.8% occurred among non-Hispanic White (White) persons, 36.3% among non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, and 18.2% among Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons. Age-adjusted COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate were 151.6 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 147.1-156.1) in census tracts with >15.2%-83.2% of persons living below the federal poverty level (high-poverty census tracts) and 75.5 (95% CI: 72.9-78.1) in census tracts with 0%-4.9% of persons living below the federal poverty level (low-poverty census tracts). Among White, Black, and Hispanic persons living in high-poverty census tracts, age-adjusted hospitalization rates were 120.3 (95% CI: 112.3-128.2), 252.2 (95% CI: 241.4-263.0), and 341.1 (95% CI: 317.3-365.0), respectively, compared with 58.2 (95% CI: 55.4-61.1), 304.0 (95%: 282.4-325.6), and 540.3 (95% CI: 477.0-603.6), respectively, in low-poverty census tracts. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates were highest in high-poverty census tracts, but rates among Black and Hispanic persons were high regardless of poverty level. Public health practitioners must ensure mitigation measures and vaccination campaigns address needs of racial/ethnic minority groups and people living in high-poverty census tracts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
6.
JAMA ; 325(24): 2448-2456, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929487

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia, a rare and serious condition, has been described in Europe following receipt of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford/AstraZeneca), which uses a chimpanzee adenoviral vector. A mechanism similar to autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) has been proposed. In the US, the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson), which uses a human adenoviral vector, received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on February 27, 2021. By April 12, 2021, approximately 7 million Ad26.COV2.S vaccine doses had been given in the US, and 6 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia had been identified among the recipients, resulting in a temporary national pause in vaccination with this product on April 13, 2021. Objective: To describe reports of CVST with thrombocytopenia following Ad26.COV2.S vaccine receipt. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 12 US patients with CVST and thrombocytopenia following use of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine under EUA reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from March 2 to April 21, 2021 (with follow-up reported through April 21, 2021). Exposures: Receipt of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, laboratory tests, and outcomes after CVST diagnosis obtained from VAERS reports, medical record review, and discussion with clinicians. Results: Patients' ages ranged from 18 to younger than 60 years; all were White women, reported from 11 states. Seven patients had at least 1 CVST risk factor, including obesity (n = 6), hypothyroidism (n = 1), and oral contraceptive use (n = 1); none had documented prior heparin exposure. Time from Ad26.COV2.S vaccination to symptom onset ranged from 6 to 15 days. Eleven patients initially presented with headache; 1 patient initially presented with back pain and later developed headache. Of the 12 patients with CVST, 7 also had intracerebral hemorrhage; 8 had non-CVST thromboses. After diagnosis of CVST, 6 patients initially received heparin treatment. Platelet nadir ranged from 9 ×103/µL to 127 ×103/µL. All 11 patients tested for the heparin-platelet factor 4 HIT antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening had positive results. All patients were hospitalized (10 in an intensive care unit [ICU]). As of April 21, 2021, outcomes were death (n = 3), continued ICU care (n = 3), continued non-ICU hospitalization (n = 2), and discharged home (n = 4). Conclusions and Relevance: The initial 12 US cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination represent serious events. This case series may inform clinical guidance as Ad26.COV2.S vaccination resumes in the US as well as investigations into the potential relationship between Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and CVST with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Critical Care , Fatal Outcome , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/therapy
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e792-e798, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic individuals early through serial testing is recommended to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nursing homes, both in response to an outbreak ("outbreak testing" of residents and healthcare personnel) and in facilities without outbreaks ("nonoutbreak testing" of healthcare personnel). The effectiveness of outbreak testing and isolation with or without nonoutbreak testing was evaluated. METHODS: Using published SARS-CoV-2 transmission parameters, the fraction of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions prevented through serial testing (weekly, every 3 days, or daily) and isolation of asymptomatic persons compared with symptom-based testing and isolation was evaluated through mathematical modeling using a Reed-Frost model to estimate the percentage of cases prevented (ie, "effectiveness") through either outbreak testing alone or outbreak plus nonoutbreak testing. The potential effect of simultaneous decreases (by 10%) in the effectiveness of isolating infected individuals when instituting testing strategies was also evaluated. RESULTS: Modeling suggests that outbreak testing could prevent 54% (weekly testing with 48-hour test turnaround) to 92% (daily testing with immediate results and 50% relative sensitivity) of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Adding nonoutbreak testing could prevent up to an additional 8% of SARS-CoV-2 infections (depending on test frequency and turnaround time). However, added benefits of nonoutbreak testing were mostly negated if accompanied by decreases in infection control practice. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with high-quality infection control practices, outbreak testing could be an effective approach to preventing COVID-19 in nursing homes, particularly if optimized through increased test frequency and use of tests with rapid turnaround.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1730-1735, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211679

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of residents and staff members in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) (1). Although skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) certified by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have federal COVID-19 reporting requirements, national surveillance data are less readily available for other types of LTCFs, such as assisted living facilities (ALFs) and those providing similar residential care. However, many state and territorial health departments publicly report COVID-19 surveillance data across various types of LTCFs. These data were systematically retrieved from health department websites to characterize COVID-19 cases and deaths in ALF residents and staff members. Limited ALF COVID-19 data were available for 39 states, although reporting varied. By October 15, 2020, among 28,623 ALFs, 6,440 (22%) had at least one COVID-19 case among residents or staff members. Among the states with available data, the proportion of COVID-19 cases that were fatal was 21.2% for ALF residents, 0.3% for ALF staff members, and 2.5% overall for the general population of these states. To prevent the introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in their facilities, ALFs should 1) identify a point of contact at the local health department; 2) educate residents, families, and staff members about COVID-19; 3) have a plan for visitor and staff member restrictions; 4) encourage social (physical) distancing and the use of masks, as appropriate; 5) implement recommended infection prevention and control practices and provide access to supplies; 6) rapidly identify and properly respond to suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases in residents and staff members; and 7) conduct surveillance of COVID-19 cases and deaths, facility staffing, and supply information (2).


Subject(s)
Assisted Living Facilities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Assisted Living Facilities/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , United States/epidemiology
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1300-1304, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941409

ABSTRACT

Nursing homes are high-risk settings for outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). During the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. health departments worked to improve infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in nursing homes to prevent outbreaks and limit the spread of COVID-19 in affected facilities; however, limited resources have hampered health departments' ability to rapidly provide IPC support to all nursing homes within their jurisdictions. Since 2008, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has published health inspection results and quality ratings based on their Five-Star Quality Rating System for all CMS-certified nursing homes (3); these ratings might be associated with facility-level risk factors for COVID-19 outbreaks. On April 17, 2020, West Virginia became the first state to mandate and conduct COVID-19 testing for all nursing home residents and staff members to identify and reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in these settings (4). West Virginia's census of nursing home outbreaks was used to examine associations between CMS star ratings and COVID-19 outbreaks. Outbreaks, defined as two or more cases within 14 days (with at least one resident case), were identified in 14 (11%) of 123 nursing homes. Compared with 1-star-rated (lowest rated) nursing homes, the odds of a COVID-19 outbreak were 87% lower among 2- to 3-star-rated facilities (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.54) and 94% lower among 4- to 5-star-rated facilities (aOR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.006-0.39). Health departments could use star ratings to help identify priority nursing homes in their jurisdictions to inform the allocation of IPC resources. Efforts to mitigate outbreaks in high-risk nursing homes are necessary to reduce overall COVID-19 mortality and associated disparities. Moreover, such efforts should incorporate activities to improve the overall quality of life and care of nursing home residents and staff members and address the social and health inequities that have been recognized as a prominent feature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (5).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care/standards , Aged , COVID-19 , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Humans , Nursing Homes/standards , Pandemics , Risk Assessment/methods , United States/epidemiology , West Virginia/epidemiology
10.
J Infect Dis ; 222(Suppl 5): S429-S436, 2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about the burden of the bacterial and fungal infection syndromes related to injection drug use (IDU), robust estimates of the public health burden of these conditions are lacking. The current article reviews and compares data sources and national burden estimates for infective endocarditis (IE) and skin and soft-tissue infections related to IDU in the United States. METHODS: A literature review was conducted for estimates of skin and soft-tissue infection and endocarditis disease burden with related IDU or substance use disorder terms since 2011. A range of the burden is presented, based on different methods of obtaining national projections from available data sources or published data. RESULTS: Estimates using available data suggest the number of hospital admissions for IE related to IDU ranged from 2900 admissions in 2013 to more than 20 000 in 2017. The only source of data available to estimate the annual number of hospitalizations and emergency department visits for skin and soft-tissue infections related to IDU yielded a crude estimate of 98 000 such visits. Including people who are not hospitalized, a crude calculation suggests that 155 000-540 000 skin infections related to IDU occur annually. DISCUSSION: These estimates carry significant limitations. However, regardless of the source or method, the burden of disease appears substantial, with estimates of thousands of episodes of IE among persons with IDU and at least 100 000 persons who inject drugs (PWID) with skin and soft-tissue infections annually in the United States. Given the importance of these types of infections, more robust and reliable estimates are needed to better quantitate the occurrence and understand the impact of interventions.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Endocarditis, Bacterial/mortality , Skin Diseases, Infectious/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Infections/epidemiology , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Endocarditis, Bacterial/etiology , Humans , Skin Diseases, Infectious/etiology , Soft Tissue Infections/etiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(6): 734-736, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279665

ABSTRACT

We compared methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) captured by culture-based surveillance and MRSA septicemia hospitalizations captured by administrative coding using statewide hospital discharge data in Connecticut from 2010 to 2018. Observed discrepancies between identification methods suggest administrative coding is inappropriate for assessing trends in MRSA BSIs.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
J Hosp Infect ; 2020 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite large reductions from 2005-2012, hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (HO MRSA BSIs) continue be a major source of morbidity and mortality. AIM: To describe risk factors for and underlying sources of HO MRSA BSIs. METHODS: We investigated HO MRSA BSIs at eight high-burden short-stay acute care hospitals. A case was defined as first isolation of MRSA from a blood specimen collected in 2016 on hospital day ≥4 from a patient without an MRSA-positive blood culture in the 14 days prior. We reviewed case-patient demographics and risk factors by medical record abstraction. The potential clinical source(s) of infection were determined by consensus by a clinician panel. FINDINGS: Of the 195 eligible cases, 186 were investigated. Case-patients were predominantly male (63%); median age was 57 years (range 0-92). In the two weeks prior to the BSI, 88% of case-patients had indwelling devices, 31% underwent a surgical procedure, and 18% underwent dialysis. The most common locations of attribution were intensive care units (ICUs) (46%) and step-down units (19%). The most commonly identified non-mutually exclusive clinical sources were CVCs (46%), non-surgical wounds (17%), surgical site infections (16%), non-ventilator healthcare-associated pneumonia (13%), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (11%). CONCLUSIONS: Device-and procedure-related infections were common sources of HO MRSA BSIs. Prevention strategies focused on improving adherence to existing prevention bundles for device-and procedure-associated infections and on source control for ICU patients, patients with certain indwelling devices, and patients undergoing certain high-risk surgeries are being pursued to decrease HO MRSA BSI burden at these facilities.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(7): e37-e44, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rises in the incidence of bacterial infections, such as infective endocarditis (IE), have been reported in conjunction with the opioid crisis. However, recent trends for IE and other serious infections among persons with substance use disorders (SUDs) are unknown. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database, we identified hospitalizations from 2012 through 2017 among adults with primary discharge diagnoses of bacterial infections and secondary SUD diagnoses, using International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification Ninth and Tenth Revision codes. We calculated annual rates of infections with SUD diagnoses and evaluated temporal trends. Blood and cardiac tissue specimens were identified from IE hospitalizations to describe the microbiology distribution and temporal trends among hospitalizations with and without SUDs. RESULTS: Among 72 481 weighted IE admissions recorded, SUD diagnoses increased from 19.9% in 2012 to 39.4% in 2017 (P < .0001). Hospitalizations with SUDs increased from 1.1 to 2.1 per 100 000 persons for IE, 1.4 to 2.4 per 100 000 persons for osteomyelitis, 0.5 to 0.9 per 100 000 persons for central nervous system abscesses, and 24.4 to 32.9 per 100 000 persons for skin and soft tissue infections. For adults aged 18-44 years, IE-SUD hospitalizations more than doubled, from 1.6 in 2012 to 3.6 in 2017 per 100 000 persons. Among all IE-SUD hospitalizations, 50.3% had a Staphylococcus aureus infection, compared with 19.4% of IE hospitalizations without SUDs. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of hospitalization for serious infections among persons with SUDs are increasing, driven primarily by younger age groups. The differences in the microbiology of IE hospitalizations suggest that SUDs are changing the epidemiology of these infections.


Subject(s)
Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Epidemiol Biostat Public Health ; 16(2)2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772926

ABSTRACT

Background: The problem of variable selection for risk factor modeling is an ongoing challenge in statistical practice. Classical methods that select one subset of exploratory risk factors dominate the medical research field. However, this approach has been criticized for not taking into account the uncertainty of the model selection process itself. This limitation can be addressed by a Bayesian model averaging approach: instead of focusing on a single model and a few factors, Bayesian model averaging considers all the models with non-negligible probabilities to make inference. Methods: This paper reports on a simulation study designed to emulate a matched case-control study and compares classical versus Bayesian model averaging selection methods. We used Matthews's correlation coefficient to measure the quality of binary classifications. Both classical and Bayesian model averaging were also applied and compared for the analysis of a matched case-control study of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections after hospital discharge 2011-2013. Results: Bayesian model averaging outperformed the classical approach with much lower false positive rates and higher Matthew's correlation scores. Bayesian model averaging also produced more reliable and robust effect estimates. Conclusion: Bayesian model averaging is a conceptually simple, unified approach that produces robust results. It can be used to replace controversial P-values for case-control study in medical research.

17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(1): 1-18, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred during 2015-2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). METHODS: Data from central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), and surgical site infections (SSIs) were reported from acute-care hospitals, long-term acute-care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. This analysis included device-associated HAIs reported from adult location types, and SSIs among patients ≥18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated for each HAI type, location type, surgical category, and surgical wound closure technique. RESULTS: Overall, 5,626 facilities performed adult HAI surveillance during this period, most of which were general acute-care hospitals with <200 beds. Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), and Klebsiella spp (9%) were the 3 most frequently reported pathogens. Pathogens varied by HAI and location type, with oncology units having a distinct pathogen distribution compared to other settings. The %NS for most pathogens was significantly higher among device-associated HAIs than SSIs. In addition, pathogens from long-term acute-care hospitals had a significantly higher %NS than those from general hospital wards. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and pathogens, stratified by several factors. These data underscore the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance, particularly in vulnerable populations such as long-term acute-care hospitals and intensive care units.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Adult , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/drug effects , Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Hospitals , Humans , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , United States , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(1): 19-30, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among pediatric patients that occurred in 2015-2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). METHODS: Antimicrobial resistance data were analyzed for pathogens implicated in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). This analysis was restricted to device-associated HAIs reported from pediatric patient care locations and SSIs among patients <18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by HAI type, location type, and surgical category. RESULTS: Overall, 2,545 facilities performed surveillance of pediatric HAIs in the NHSN during this period. Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Escherichia coli (12%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (12%) were the 3 most commonly reported pathogens associated with pediatric HAIs. Pathogens and the %NS varied by HAI type, location type, and/or surgical category. Among CLABSIs, the %NS was generally lowest in neonatal intensive care units and highest in pediatric oncology units. Staphylococcus spp were particularly common among orthopedic, neurosurgical, and cardiac SSIs; however, E. coli was more common in abdominal SSIs. Overall, antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was less prevalent in pediatric HAIs than in adult HAIs. CONCLUSION: This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns among pediatric HAIs. These data highlight the need for continued antimicrobial resistance tracking among pediatric patients and should encourage the pediatric healthcare community to use such data when establishing policies for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , United States/epidemiology
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(26): 583-586, 2019 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269011

ABSTRACT

During 2014-2017, CDC Emerging Infections Program surveillance data reported that the occurrence of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections associated with injection drug use doubled among persons aged 18-49 years residing in Monroe County in western New York.* Unpublished surveillance data also indicate that an increasing proportion of all Candida spp. bloodstream infections in Monroe County and invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in 15 New York counties are also occurring among persons who inject drugs. In addition, across six surveillance sites nationwide, the proportion of invasive MRSA infections that occurred in persons who inject drugs increased from 4.1% of invasive MRSA cases in 2011 to 9.2% in 2016 (1). To better understand the types and frequency of these infections and identify prevention opportunities, CDC and public health partners conducted a rapid assessment of bacterial and fungal infections among persons who inject drugs in western New York. The goals were to assess which bacterial and fungal pathogens most often cause infections in persons who inject drugs, what proportion of persons who inject use opioids, and of these, how many were offered medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Medication-assisted treatment, which includes use of medications such as buprenorphine, methadone, and naltrexone, reduces cravings and has been reported to lower the risk for overdose death and all-cause mortality in persons who use opioids (2,3). In this assessment, nearly all persons with infections who injected drugs used opioids (97%), but half of inpatients (22 of 44) and 12 of 13 patients seen only in the emergency department (ED) were not offered medication-assisted treatment. The most commonly identified pathogen was S. aureus (80%), which is frequently found on skin. Health care visits for bacterial and fungal infections associated with injection opioid use are an opportunity to treat the underlying opioid use disorder with medication-assisted treatment. Routine care for patients who continue to inject should include advice on hand hygiene and not injecting into skin that has not been cleaned or to use any equipment contaminated by reuse, saliva, soil, or water (4,5).


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(6): 1021-1028, 2020 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health and infection control prevention and surveillance efforts in the United States have primarily focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We describe the public health importance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) in selected communities. METHODS: We analyzed Emerging Infections Program surveillance data for invasive S. aureus (SA) infections (isolated from a normally sterile body site) in 8 counties in 5 states during 2016. Cases were considered healthcare-associated if culture was obtained >3 days after hospital admission; if associated with dialysis, hospitalization, surgery, or long-term care facility (LTCF) residence within 1 year prior; or if a central venous catheter was present ≤2 days prior. Incidence per 100 000 census population was calculated, and a multivariate logistic regression model with random intercepts was used to compare MSSA risk factors with those of MRSA. RESULTS: Invasive MSSA incidence (31.3/100 000) was 1.8 times higher than MRSA (17.5/100 000). Persons with MSSA were more likely than those with MRSA to have no underlying medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-3.39) and less likely to have prior hospitalization (aOR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82) or LTCF residence (aOR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.29-0.47). MSSA accounted for 59.7% of healthcare-associated cases and 60.1% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Although MRSA tended to be more closely associated with healthcare exposures, invasive MSSA is a substantial public health problem in the areas studied. Public health and infection control prevention efforts should consider MSSA prevention in addition to MRSA.


Subject(s)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Humans , Methicillin , Public Health , Renal Dialysis , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , United States/epidemiology
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