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2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 837719, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834486

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is a highly contagious disease affecting both the higher and lower portions of the respiratory tract. This disease reached over 265 million people and has been responsible for over 5.25 million deaths worldwide. Skeletal muscle quality and total mass seem to be predictive of COVID-19 outcome. This systematic review aimed at providing a critical analysis of the studies published so far reporting on skeletal muscle mass in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of examining the eventual association between muscle status and disease severity. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether skeletal muscle quantity, quality and function were related to disease severity. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported according to the guidelines of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guide. From a total of 1,056 references found, 480 were selected after removing duplicates. Finally, only 7 met the specified inclusion criteria. The results of this meta-analysis showed that skeletal muscle quality, rather than quantity, was associated with COVID-19 severity, as confirmed by lower skeletal muscle density and lower handgrip strength in patients with severe disease. Muscle function assessment can thus be a valuable tool with prognostic value in COVID-19.

3.
Front Nutr ; 8: 784429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596024

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: We evaluated adipose tissue-derived hormones, body composition, serum metabolic profile, levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and the association of these parameters with the clinical outcome in patients with COVID-19. We sought to examine whether obesity, sex, and age influence the adipose tissue endocrine response to the disease. Methods: This prospective study investigated 145 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Patients were categorized based on their body mass index (BMI), sex and age, and were also classified regarding their outcome after hospitalization as: (a) Non-ICU: patients hospitalized who did not receive intensive care; (b) ICU-survivor: patients admitted to the intensive care unit and discharged; (c) ICU-death: patients who died. Blood samples were collected by the hospital staff between the first and third day of hospitalization. Serum leptin, adiponectin and BDNF concentrations, triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were performed following the manufacturer's guidelines. Results: We demonstrate that BDNF levels predict intensive care (IC) need (p < 0.01). This association was found to be stronger in patients >60y (p = 0.026). Neither leptin nor adiponectin concentration was associated with IC requirement or with patient's outcome, while the BDNF/adiponectin ratio was closely associated with worsened outcomes (p < 0.01). BDNF concentration was similar between sexes, however tended to be lower in male patients (p = 0.023). In older patients, BDNF concentration was lower than that of younger patients (p = 0.020). These age and sex-specific differences should be considered when employing these potential markers for prognosis assessment. While appetite and body composition regulating hormones secreted by the white adipose tissue are not reliable predictors of disease severity, the ratio BDNF/adiponectin was indicative of patient status. Conclusion: Thus, we propose that serum BDNF content and BDNF/adiponectin ratio may serve as tools predicting worsened prognosis in COVID-19, especially for male patients.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580742

ABSTRACT

Background: This proposal aims to explain some of the gaps in scientific knowledge on the natural history of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with a specific focus on immune, inflammatory, and metabolic markers, in parallel with temporal assessment of clinical and mental health in patients with COVID-19. The study will explore the temporal modulatory effects of physical activity and body composition on individual trajectories. This approach will provide a better understanding of the survival mechanisms provided by the immunomodulatory role of physical fitness. Methods: We will conduct a prospective observational cohort study including adult patients previously infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus who have expressed a mild to moderate COVID-19 infection. Procedures will be conducted for all participants at baseline, six weeks after vaccination, and again at 12 months. At each visit, a venous blood sample will be collected for immune phenotypic characterization and biochemistry assays (inflammatory and metabolic parameters). Also, body composition, physical activity level, cardiovascular and pulmonary function, peripheral and respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and mental health will be evaluated. Using the baseline information, participants will be grouped based on physical activity levels (sedentary versus active), body composition (normal weight versus overweight or obese), and SARS-CoV-2 status (positive versus negative). A sub-study will provide mechanistic evidence using an in-vitro assay based on well-trained individuals and age-matched sedentary controls who are negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whole blood will be stimulated using recombinant human coronavirus to determine the cytokine profile. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy well-trained participants will be collected and treated with homologous serum (from the main study; samples collected before and after the vaccine) and recombinant coronavirus (inactive virus). The metabolism of PBMCs will be analyzed using Respirometry (Seahorse). Data will be analyzed using multilevel repeated-measures ANOVA. Conclusions: The data generated will help us answer three main questions: (1) Does the innate immune system of physically active individuals respond better to viral infections compared with that of sedentary people? (2) which functional and metabolic mechanisms explain the differences in responses in participants with different physical fitness levels? and (3) do these mechanisms have long-term positive modulatory effects on mental and cardiovascular health? Trial registration number: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-5dqvkv3. Registered on 21 September 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Exercise , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate demographic, anthropometric and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study of surviving pediatric post-COVID-19 patients (n=53) and pediatric subjects without laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 included as controls (n=52) was performed. RESULTS: The median duration between COVID-19 diagnosis (n=53) and follow-up was 4.4 months (0.8-10.7). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) patients reported at least one persistent symptom at the longitudinal follow-up visit and 12/53 (23%) had long COVID-19, with at least one symptom lasting for >12 weeks. The most frequently reported symptoms at the longitudinal follow-up visit were headache (19%), severe recurrent headache (9%), tiredness (9%), dyspnea (8%), and concentration difficulty (4%). At the longitudinal follow-up visit, the frequencies of anemia (11% versus 0%, p=0.030), lymphopenia (42% versus 18%, p=0.020), C-reactive protein level of >30 mg/L (35% versus 0%, p=0.0001), and D-dimer level of >1000 ng/mL (43% versus 6%, p=0.0004) significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Chest X-ray abnormalities (11% versus 2%, p=0.178) and cardiac alterations on echocardiogram (33% versus 22%, p=0.462) were similar at both visits. Comparison of characteristic data between patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit and controls showed similar age (p=0.962), proportion of male sex (p=0.907), ethnicity (p=0.566), family minimum monthly wage (p=0.664), body mass index (p=0.601), and pediatric pre-existing chronic conditions (p=1.000). The Pediatric Quality of Live Inventory 4.0 scores, median physical score (69 [0-100] versus 81 [34-100], p=0.012), and school score (60 [15-100] versus 70 [15-95], p=0.028) were significantly lower in pediatric patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 showed a longitudinal impact on HRQoL parameters, particularly in physical/school domains, reinforcing the need for a prospective multidisciplinary approach for these patients. These data highlight the importance of closer monitoring of children and adolescents by the clinical team after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Latin America , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e051706, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290077

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 may lead to persistent and potentially incapacitating clinical manifestations (post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC)). Using easy-to-apply questionnaires and scales (often by telephone interviewing), several studies evaluated samples of COVID-19 inpatients from 4 weeks to several months after discharge. However, studies conducting systematic multidisciplinary assessments of PASC manifestations are scarce, with thorough in-person objective evaluations restricted to modestly sized subsamples presenting greatest disease severity. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will conduct a prospective observational study of surviving individuals (above 18 years of age) from a cohort of over 3000 subjects with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated as inpatients at the largest academic health centre in Sao Paulo, Brazil (Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo). All eligible subjects will be consecutively invited to undergo a 1-2-day series of multidisciplinary assessments at 2 time-points, respectively, at 6-9 months and 12-15 months after discharge. Assessment schedules will include detailed multidomain questionnaires applied by medical research staff, self-report scales, objective evaluations of cardiopulmonary functioning, physical functionality and olfactory status, standardised neurological, psychiatric and cognitive examinations, as well as diagnostic laboratory, muscle ultrasound and chest imaging exams. Remaining material from blood tests will be incorporated by a local biobank for use in future investigations on inflammatory markers, genomics, transcriptomics, peptidomics and metabolomics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All components of this programme have been approved by local research ethics committees. We aim to provide insights into the frequency and severity of chronic/post-COVID multiorgan symptoms, as well as their interrelationships and associations with acute disease features, sociodemographic variables and environmental exposures. Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Additionally, we aim to provide a data repository to allow future pathophysiological investigations relating clinical PASC features to biomarker data extracted from blood samples. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: RBR-8z7v5wc; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic
7.
Adv Nutr ; 12(3): 682-692, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796785

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease that has reached pandemic status by rapidly spreading worldwide. Elderly individuals and patients with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension show a higher risk of hospitalization, severe disease, and mortality by acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. These patients frequently show exacerbated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines associated with an overreaction of the immune system, the so-called cytokine storm. Host nutritional status plays a pivotal role in the outcome of a variety of different infectious diseases. It is known that the immune system is highly affected by malnutrition, leading to decreased immune responses with consequent augmented risk of infection and disease severity. Body composition, especially low lean mass and high adiposity, has consistently been linked to worsened prognosis in many different diseases. In this review, evidence concerning the impact of nutritional status on viral infection outcomes is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aged , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Malnutrition/complications , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
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