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1.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1488-1499, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest antiviral effects of povidone-iodine against the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. This narrative review aims to examine the antiviral mechanisms of povidone-iodine, efficacy of povidone-iodine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and safety of povidone-iodine to human epithelial cells and thyroid function. METHODS: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for articles containing the keywords "povidone-iodine", "SARS-CoV-2" and "COVID-19" from database inception till 3 June 2021. RESULTS: Despite in vitro data supporting the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects of povidone-iodine, findings from clinical studies revealed differences in treatment response depending on study settings (healthy vs. hospitalized individuals), treatment target (nasal vs. oral vs. pharynx), method of administration (oral rinse vs. gargle vs. throat spray) and choice of samples used to measure study endpoints (nasopharyngeal vs. saliva). One large-scale clinical trial demonstrated reduction in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants who administered povidone-iodine 3 times daily during an active outbreak. Povidone-iodine is also used to disinfect the oro-pharyngeal space prior to dental or otolaryngology procedures. Although existing data suggest minimal impact of povidone-iodine on thyroid function, high-quality safety data are presently lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Povidone-iodine application to the oropharyngeal space could complement existing non-pharmacological interventions to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in high exposure settings.Key messagesAccumulating data suggest antiviral effects of povidone-iodine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Findings from clinical studies reveal differences in treatment response depending on study settings, treatment target, method of administration and choice of samples used to measure study endpoints. One large-scale clinical trial observed reduction in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants who administered povidone-iodine 3 times daily during an active outbreak.Povidone-iodine application to the oropharyngeal space could complement existing non-pharmacological interventions to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in high exposure settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Povidone-Iodine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Public Health Rev ; 43: 1604572, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715090

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Hospital outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 infection are dreaded but preventable catastrophes. We review the literature to examine the pattern of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in hospitals and identify potential vulnerabilities to mitigate the risk of infection. Methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Scopus) were searched from inception to July 27, 2021 for publications reporting SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in hospital. Relevant articles and grey literature reports were hand-searched. Results: Twenty-seven articles that described 35 SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were included. Despite epidemiological investigations, the primary case could not be identified in 37% of outbreaks. Healthcare workers accounted for 40% of primary cases (doctors 17%, followed by ancillary staff 11%). Mortality among infected patients was approximately 15%. By contrast, none of the infected HCWs died. Several concerning patterns were identified, including infections involving ancillary staff and healthcare worker infections from the community and household contacts. Conclusion: Continuous efforts to train-retrain and enforce correct personal protective equipment use and regular routine screening tests (especially among ancillary staff) are necessary to stem future hospital outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(12): 877-879, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1668097
4.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(6): 855-861, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest blood biomarkers could inform stroke etiology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of multiple blood biomarkers in elucidating stroke etiology with a focus on new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardioembolism. METHODS: Between January and December 2017, information on clinical and laboratory parameters and stroke characteristics was prospectively collected from ischemic stroke patients recruited from the National University Hospital, Singapore. Multiple blood biomarkers (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], d-dimer, S100ß, neuron-specific enolase, vitamin D, cortisol, interleukin-6, insulin, uric acid, and albumin) were measured in plasma. These variables were compared with stroke etiology and the risk of new-onset AF and cardioembolism using multivariable regression methods. RESULTS: Of the 515 ischemic stroke patients (mean age 61 years; 71% men), 44 (8.5%) were diagnosed with new-onset AF, and 75 (14.5%) had cardioembolism. The combination of 2 laboratory parameters (total cholesterol ≤169 mg/dL; triglycerides ≤44.5 mg/dL) and 3 biomarkers (NT-proBNP ≥294 pg/mL; S100ß ≥64 pg/mL; cortisol ≥471 nmol/l) identified patients with new-onset AF (negative predictive value [NPV] 90%; positive predictive value [PPV] 73%; area under curve [AUC] 85%). The combination of 2 laboratory parameters (total cholesterol ≤169 mg/dL; triglycerides ≤44.5 mg/dL) and 2 biomarkers (NT-proBNP ≥507 pg/mL; S100ß ≥65 pg/mL) identified those with cardioembolism (NPV 86%; PPV 78%; AUC 87%). Adding clinical predictors did not improve the performance of these models. CONCLUSION: Blood biomarkers could identify patients with increased likelihood of cardioembolism and direct the search for occult AF.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Embolism/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/blood , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Embolism/blood , Embolism/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 596-603, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641018

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly evolving and affecting healthcare systems across the world. Singapore has escalated its alert level to Disease Outbreak Response System Condition (DORSCON) Orange, signifying severe disease with community spread. We aimed to study the overall volume of AIS cases and the delivery of hyperacute stroke services during DORSCON Orange. This was a single-centre, observational cohort study performed at a comprehensive stroke centre responsible for AIS cases in the western region of Singapore, as well as providing care for COVID-19 patients. All AIS patients reviewed as an acute stroke activation in the Emergency Department (ED) from November 2019 to April 2020 were included. System processes timings, treatment and clinical outcome variables were collected. We studied 350 AIS activation patients admitted through the ED, 206 (58.9%) pre- and 144 during DORSCON Orange. Across the study period, number of stroke activations showed significant decline (p = 0.004, 95% CI 6.513 to - 2.287), as the number of COVID-19 cases increased exponentially, whilst proportion of activations receiving acute recanalization therapy remained stable (p = 0.519, 95% CI - 1.605 to 2.702). Amongst AIS patients that received acute recanalization therapy, early neurological outcomes in terms of change in median NIHSS at 24 h (-4 versus -4, p = 0.685) were largely similar between the pre- and during DORSCON orange periods. The number of stroke activations decreased while the proportion receiving acute recanalization therapy remained stable in the current COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Comprehensive Health Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Singapore/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome , Workflow
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