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Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 218, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503722


Type 2 diabetes is one of the most relevant risk factors for heart failure, the prevalence of which is increasing worldwide. The aim of the review is to highlight the current perspectives of the pathophysiology of heart failure as it pertains to type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the proposed mechanistic bases, explaining the myocardial damage induced by diabetes-related stressors and other risk factors, i.e., cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes. We highlight the complex pathology of individuals with type 2 diabetes, including the relationship with chronic kidney disease, metabolic alterations, and heart failure. We also discuss the current criteria used for heart failure diagnosis and the gold standard screening tools for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Currently approved pharmacological therapies with primary use in type 2 diabetes and heart failure, and the treatment-guiding role of NT-proBNP are also presented. Finally, the influence of the presence of type 2 diabetes as well as heart failure on COVID-19 severity is briefly discussed.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Management , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening/trends , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 175-182, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959153


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. The clinical presentation of this virus mainly manifests in the respiratory system but may also lead to severe complications in the cardiovascular system. The global burden of COVID-19 has led to an unprecedented need to gain further insight into patient outcomes, management, and clinical practice. This review aims to provide an overview of the current literature on heart failure (HF) hospitalizations, management, and care pathways for supporting patients during and beyond this pandemic. A literature review of five areas of interest was conducted and included: (i) HF hospitalization; (ii) recognizing the needs and supporting HF patients during COVID-19; (iii) supporting rehabilitation services; (iv) transitioning to a telehealth framework; and (v) the need for evidence. Patients with new-onset or existing HF are particularly vulnerable, but a significant reduction in HF hospital admissions has been reported. During these periods of uncertainty, the current care pathways for acute and elective cardiac patients have had to change with the relocation of HF services to protect the vulnerable and reduce transmission of COVID-19. Optimizing community HF services has the potential to reduce the pressures on secondary care during the recovery from this pandemic. Telemedicine and virtual health care are emerging technologies and overcome the risk of in-person exposure. Successful remote delivery of cardiac rehabilitation services has been reported during the pandemic. Delivery of a robust telehealth framework for HF patients will improve communication between clinician and patient. The reduction in HF admissions is a concern for the future and may result in unintended mortality. New-onset and current HF patients must understand their diagnosis and future prognosis and seek help and support using the appropriate platform when needed. Realigning HF services and the use of telemedicine and virtual health care has great potential but needs to be carefully understood to ensure engagement and approval in this population to overcome barriers and challenges.

COVID-19/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization , Critical Pathways , Humans , Telemedicine , Treatment Outcome