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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-596, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967340

ABSTRACT

Background: While vaccines against COVID-19 are effective in healthy individuals, we reported significantly lower serologic responses to BNT162b2 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α agents. As this was apparent already 4 weeks post vaccination, vaccine longevity is concerning. Aim: to assess long-term serologic responses to BNT162b2 in patients with IBD stratified according to medical treatment. Methods: A prospective, observational multi-center Israeli study. Patients with IBD (anti-TNFα treated versus non-anti-TNFα treated) and healthy controls (HC) were followed from before the 1st BNT162b2 dose until 6 months after vaccination. COVID-19 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antibodies (Abs) concentrations were analyzed by ELISA, followed by neutralization studies. Specific anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) memory Bcells response, serologic responses against variants of concern (VOCs), Beta, Gamma and Delta, immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte cell subsets were evaluated as well. Safety was assessed using questionnaires, clinical and laboratory data. Results: Of 193 subjects, 130 had IBD (45 and 85 in the anti-TNFa and non-anti-TNFα groups, respectively), 63 HC. Serologic response assessed 176 (median) days (IQR 166-186) and compared to 4 weeks after 1st dose significantly declined in all three groups, but was lowest in the anti- TNFα group: 6 months anti-S Abs titer geometric means: 193 (95%CI: 128-292), 703 (520- 951), and 1253 (1023-1534) in anti-TNFα, non- anti-TNFα and HC groups, respectively, p<0.001, Figure 1. This was further supported by neutralization and inhibition studies. Importantly, significantly decreased memory B-cell response towards RBD was detected only in the anti-TNFα group, with the most significant reduction in response to Beta VOC (p<0.0008 and p<0.0001, vs. non-anti-TNFα and HC, respectively). Older age was an additional predictor of lower serologic response. Immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte cell subsets were comparable between the study groups. Infection rate reflected by anti-N Abs was ~1% in all groups. Safety was comparable in all groups. Conclusion: The 6-months serologic response to BNT162b2 vaccine, evaluated prospectively, decreased in all subjects, most prominently in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα. Importantly, the latter also had the sharpest decline in serologies, the lowest functional activity and lowest RBD specific memory B-cells. Older age is an additional predictor of decreased serologic response. Altogether, waning of COVID-19 serologic and functional response over 6 months, specifically in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα, supports the need for an early third vaccine dose. (Figure Presented)

2.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333523

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Case series without control groups suggest that Covid-19 may cause ischemic stroke, but whether Covid-19 is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke than would be expected from a viral respiratory infection is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of ischemic stroke between patients with Covid-19 and patients with influenza, a respiratory viral illness previously linked to stroke. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two academic hospitals in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: We included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 from March 4, 2020 through May 2, 2020. Our comparison cohort included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with influenza A or B from January 1, 2016 through May 31, 2018 (calendar years spanning moderate and severe influenza seasons). Exposures: Covid-19 infection confirmed by evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the nasopharynx by polymerase chain reaction, and laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B. Main Outcomes and Measures: A panel of neurologists adjudicated the primary outcome of acute ischemic stroke and its clinical characteristics, etiological mechanisms, and outcomes. We used logistic regression to compare the proportion of Covid-19 patients with ischemic stroke versus the proportion among patients with influenza. RESULTS: Among 2,132 patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19, 31 patients (1.5%;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-2.1%) had an acute ischemic stroke. The median age of patients with stroke was 69 years (interquartile range, 66-78) and 58% were men. Stroke was the reason for hospital presentation in 8 (26%) cases. For our comparison cohort, we identified 1,516 patients with influenza, of whom 0.2% (95% CI, 0.0-0.6%) had an acute ischemic stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and race, the likelihood of stroke was significantly higher with Covid-19 than with influenza infection (odds ratio, 7.5;95% CI, 2.3-24.9). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Approximately 1.5% of patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 experienced ischemic stroke, a rate 7.5-fold higher than in patients with influenza. Future studies should investigate the thrombotic mechanisms in Covid-19 in order to determine optimal strategies to prevent disabling complications like ischemic stroke.

3.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i337-i338, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722324

ABSTRACT

Background: While vaccines against COVID-19 are effective in healthy individuals, we reported significantly lower serologic responses to BNT162b2 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α agents. As this was apparent already, 4 weeks post vaccination, vaccine longevity is concerning. Aim: to assess long-term serologic responses to BNT162b2 in patients with IBD stratified according to medical treatment. Methods: A prospective, observational multi-center Israeli study. Patients with IBD (anti-TNFα treated versus non-anti-TNFα treated) and healthy controls (HC) were followed from before the, 1st BNT162b2 dose until, 6 months after vaccination. COVID-19 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antibodies (Abs) concentrations were analyzed by ELISA, followed by neutralization studies. Specific anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) memory B-cells response, serologic responses against variants of concern (VOCs), Beta, Gamma and Delta, immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte cell subsets were evaluated as well. Safety was assessed using questionnaires, clinical and laboratory data. Results: Of, 193 subjects, 130 had IBD (45 and, 85 in the anti-TNFα and non-anti-TNFα groups, respectively), 63 HC. Serologic response assessed, 176 (median) days (IQR, 166-186) and compared to, 4 weeks after, 1st dose significantly declined in all three groups, but was lowest in the anti- TNFα group:, 6 months anti-S Abs titer geometric means:, 193 (95%CI:, 128-292), 703 (520-951), and, 1253 (1023-1534) in anti-TNFα, nonanti- TNFα and HC groups, respectively, p<0.001, Figure, 1. This was further supported by neutralization and inhibition studies. Importantly, significantly decreased memory B-cell response towards RBD was detected only in the anti-TNFα group, with the most significant reduction in response to Beta VOC (p<0.0008 and p<0.0001, vs. non-anti-TNFα and HC, respectively). Older age was an additional predictor of lower serologic response. Immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte cell subsets were comparable between the study groups. Infection rate reflected by anti-N Abs was ∼1% in all groups. Safety was comparable in all groups. Conclusion: The, 6-months serologic response to BNT162b2 vaccine, evaluated prospectively, decreased in all subjects, most prominently in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα. Importantly, the latter also had the sharpest decline in serologies, the lowest functional activity and lowest RBD specific memory B-cells. Older age is an additional predictor of decreased serologic response. Altogether, waning of COVID- 19 serologic and functional response over, 6 months, specifically in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα, supports the need for an early third vaccine dose. (Figure Presented).

4.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407555
6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277384

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently the third leading cause of death in the United States. During the Spring of 2020, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA experienced a surge of COVID-19 ICU cases. Many of these patients developed acute renal failure (ARF) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) with hemodialysis (HD) or continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) which taxed our hospital's supply of equipment and staff. The goal of our study was to identify predictors of mortality in ICU patients requiring RRT in the setting of COVID-19, should rationing of ICU care became necessary. Methods: Between March 2020 and April 2020, we prospectively collected data on patients admitted to the Lahey ICUs with severe COVID-19 who required RRT and assessed patient characteristics and mortality. Results: Thirty ICU patients were identified with severe COVID-19 requiring RRT. Twenty-seven patients (90%) required acute initiation of CVVH, while three (10%) only utilized intermittent HD during their hospitalization. Only ten (33%) survived their hospitalization. No significant difference was found between survivors and patients who died with respect to age, comorbidities (BMI, CKD, HTN, DM, alcohol use, heart disease, malignancy, COPD, asthma) or baseline creatinine. All 30 patients (100%) required mechanical ventilation (MV) and 25 (83%) developed shock requiring vasopressors prior to initiation of RRT. Seventy percent of survivors (7/10) had been on either an ACE-inhibitor (ACEI) or an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) prior to hospitalization, compared to only 20% (4/20) who died (p=0.0147) Survivors were treated with hydroxychloroquine (HC) significantly more frequently (10/10 vs 8/20;p=0.0016) and treated with systemic corticosteroids (CS) significantly less frequently (5/10 vs 20/20;p=0.0018) than those who died. There was no difference in survival between those who received Vancomycin or Tocilizumab and those who did not. The median hospital stay was significantly longer for survivors (46 days) than for those who died (19 days;p =0.0003). Conclusion: The need for RRT in ICU patients with COVID-19 was associated with significant mortality (66%) and a significant need for MV (100%) and vasopressors (83%). The use of an ACEI or ARB prior to admission was significantly associated with improved survival, the use of CS was associated with higher mortality, and the use of HC was associated with improved survival. These latter findings go against current theories of COVID pathophysiology and may be a result of the small number of patients in our study.

7.
Stroke ; 52(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234411

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reductions in hospital visits for stroke have been seen during the COVID-19 pandemic, partly reflecting perceived risks of in-hospital care. We recently implemented an evidence-based protocol for outpatient rapid evaluation of transient and minor, non-disabling stroke symptoms for patients seeking care 24 hours after symptom onset. We present our early experience through the pandemic. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients evaluated in the RESCUE-TIA (Rapid Evaluation of minor Stroke and CerebrovascUlar Events including TIA) clinic from December 2019- August 2020. The clinic sees patients with TIA symptoms or with fixed, non-disabling deficits seeking care > 24 hours after symptom onset. We introduced telemedicine in March 2020. Magnetic resonance brain and vascular imaging is available within 24 hours of visit. We summarized patient characteristics and quality data with standard descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 21 patients were seen in the RESCUE-TIA clinic, including 15 patients during the height of the pandemic in NY;67% were seen by telemedicine. The median age was 75 years (interquartile range [IQR], 61-82), and 71% were women. The median NIH Stroke Score for patients with minor stroke was 0 (IQR, 0-1), and the median ABCD score for TIA patients was 3 (IQR, 2-3). Median time from symptom onset to evaluation was 3 days (IQR, 2.5-17.5). Median time from evaluation to laboratory diagnostics was 8 hours (IQR, 2-21), and to completion of imaging was 1 day (IQR, 0-5). Outpatient telemetry commenced in a median of 5 days (IQR, 1-9), and echocardiography was completed in a median of 8 days (IQR, 0-10). One patient was referred to the emergency room for a carotid occlusion. Final diagnoses were TIA (n=12), ischemic stroke (n=5), transient global amnesia (n=2), migraine (n=1), and non-aneurysmal, distal subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=1). Secondary prevention was initiated or optimized in 94% of TIA and stroke patients. Recurrent TIA occurred in 1 patient after 67 days, and ischemic stroke occurred in 1 patient 55 days after TIA. Conclusion: Timely outpatient evaluation of patients with recent TIA and minor, non-disabling stroke is feasible and may be useful during the pandemic, especially during emergency room crowding.

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