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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987895

ABSTRACT

Recently, numerous cases of monkeypox were reported from several non-endemic countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania, suggesting an unusual and alarming public health issue, particularly considering that the disease is not directly related to human or animal travels. Attention is currently being drawn to this phenomenon since more than 70% of the global population is no longer vaccinated against smallpox. Indeed, the smallpox vaccination also confers some indirect degree of protection against other poxviruses, including monkeypox. We performed a narrative review to describe the existing literature with regard to monkeypox using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. This review aims to provide updated evidence of findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of monkeypox, also considering the concurrent zoonotic pandemic caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 668, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uganda accounts for 5% of all malaria cases and deaths reported globally and, in endemic countries, pregnancy is a risk factor for both acquisition of P. falciparum infection and development of severe malaria. In recent years, malaria control has been threatened by COVID-19 pandemic and by the emergence, in Northern Uganda, of both resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. METHODS: In this facility-based, prospective, observational study, pregnant women will be recruited at antenatal-care visits and followed-up until delivery. Collected data will explore the incidence of asymptomatic parasitemia and malaria-related outcomes, as well as the attitudes towards malaria prevention, administration of intermittent preventive treatment, healthcare seeking behavior and use of insecticide-treated nets. A subpopulation of women diagnosed with malaria will be recruited and their blood samples will be analyzed for detection of genetic markers of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Also, to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on malaria care among pregnant women, a retrospective, interrupted-time series will be conducted on at the study sites for the period January 2018 to December 2021. DISCUSSION: The present study will explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of malaria and malaria-related adverse outcomes, along with the prevalence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. To our knowledge, this is the first study aiming to explore the combined effect of these factors on a cohort of pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov public website on 26th April, 2022. CLINICALTRIALS: gov Identifier: NCT05348746.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Pyrimethamine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Sulfadoxine/therapeutic use , Uganda/epidemiology
3.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100560, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706398

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but many develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, D- dimers, interleukin-6, and ferritin among patients not receiving non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation during the SAVE-MORE study, offers predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days comparable to that of a suPAR concentration of ≥6 ng/mL (area under receiver operator characteristic curve 0.81 for both). The SCOPE score is validated in two similar independent cohorts. A SCOPE score of 6 or more is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Information ; 13(2):76, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1674676

ABSTRACT

The health emergency linked to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted problems in the health management of chronic patients due to their risk of infection, suggesting the need of new methods to monitor patients. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represent a paradigm of chronic patients where an e-health-based remote monitoring could have a significant impact in maintaining an adequate standard of care. The key objective of the study is to provide both an efficient operating model to “follow”the patient, capture the evolution of their disease, and establish proximity and relief through a remote collaborative model. These dimensions are collected through a dedicated mobile application that triggers questionnaires on the basis of decision-making algorithms, tagging patients and sending alerts to staff in order to tailor interventions. All outcomes and alerts are monitored and processed through an innovative e-Clinical platform. The processing of the collected data aims into learning and evaluating predictive models for the possible upcoming alerts on the basis of past data, using machine learning algorithms. The models will be clinically validated as the study collects more data, and, if successful, the resulting multidimensional vector of past attributes will act as a digital composite biomarker capable of predicting HIV-related alerts. Design: All PLWH > 18 sears old and stable disease followed at the outpatient services of a university hospital (n = 1500) will be enrolled in the interventional study. The study is ongoing, and patients are currently being recruited. Preliminary results are yielding monthly data to facilitate learning of predictive models for the alerts of interest. Such models are learnt for one or two months of history of the questionnaire data. In this manuscript, the protocol—including the rationale, detailed technical aspects underlying the study, and some preliminary results—are described. Conclusions: The management of HIV-infected patients in the pandemic era represents a challenge for future patient management beyond the pandemic period. The application of artificial intelligence and machine learning systems as described in this study could enable remote patient management that takes into account the real needs of the patient and the monitoring of the most relevant aspects of PLWH management today.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636790

ABSTRACT

Cefiderocol use in A. baumannii pneumonia still represents an important matter of debate. The aim of this study is to describe 13 cases of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) pneumonia treated with cefiderocol in real-life practice. We retrospectively included patients with CRAB pneumonia hospitalized at Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli Hospital treated with cefiderocol either in the general ward or the intensive care unit. A total of 11 patients out of 13 had ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by CRAB, and 12/13 patients had polymicrobial infection. We found a 30-day success rate of 54%. Cefiderocol may have a role when facing severe XDR A. baumannii pneumonia. Future studies are warranted to better define its place in therapy in CRAB infections.

6.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481016

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent threat to public health and global development; in this scenario, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic has caused a major disruption of healthcare systems and practices. A narrative review was conducted on articles focusing on the impact of COVID-19 on multidrug-resistant gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. We found that, worldwide, multiple studies reported an unexpected high incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus, carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and C. auris among COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. In this setting, inappropriate antimicrobial exposure, environmental contamination, and discontinuation of infection control measures may have driven selection and diffusion of drug-resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/epidemiology
7.
Respir Med ; 187: 106571, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347816

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, clinical, radiological and histopathological features consistent with viral-induced organizing pneumonia (OP) have been reported as hallmark characteristics of the disease. Here, we describe the case of ten patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with methylprednisolone 1mg/kg for showing clinical and radiological features suggestive of OP at least 20 days after symptom onset and despite standard treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Aged , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
8.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115434

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people, fostering and unprecedent effort in vaccine development and distribution. Healthcare workers (HCW) play a key role in vaccine promotion and patient guidance, and it is likely that hesitancy among this population will have a major impact on the adoption of a successful immunization policy. To investigate HCW attitudes towards anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccination, we developed an anonymous online cross-sectional survey. 1723 Italian HCW responded. Overall, 1155 (67%) intended to be vaccinated, while 443 (26%) were not sure and 125 (7%) declared refusal. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with hesitancy were using Facebook as the main information source and being a non-physician HCW, while predictors of acceptance included younger age, being in close contact with high-risk groups and having received flu vaccination during the 2019-2020 season. Reasons for hesitancy included lack of trust in vaccine safety (85%) and receiving little (78%) or conflicting (69%) information about vaccines. According to our results, adequate investment in vaccine education for healthcare personnel appears to be urgently needed, prioritizing non-physicians and information quality spread through social media. We hope that our data could help governments and policy-makers to target communication in the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238414, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742541

ABSTRACT

In the face of the rapid evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare professionals on the frontline are in urgent need of frequent updates in the accomplishment of their practice. Hence, clinicians started to search for prompt, valid information on sources that are parallel to academic journals. Aim of this work is to investigate the extent of this phenomenon. We administered an anonymous online cross-sectional survey to 645 Italian clinicians. Target of the survey were all medical figures potentially involved in the management of COVID-19 cases. 369 questionnaires were returned. 19.5% (n = 72) of respondents were younger than 30 years-old; 49,3% (n = 182) worked in Infectious Diseases, Internal Medicine or Respiratory Medicine departments, 11.5% (n = 42) in Intensive Care Unit and 7.4% (n = 27) were general practitioner. 70% (n = 261) of respondents reported that their use of social media to seek medical information increased during the pandemic. 39.3% (n = 145) consistently consulted Facebook groups and 53.1% (n = 196) Whatsapp chats. 47% (n = 174) of respondents reported that information shared on social media had a consistent impact on their daily practice. In the present study, we found no difference in social media usage between age groups or medical specialties. Given the urgent need for scientific update during the present pandemic, these findings may help understanding how clinicians access new evidences and implement them in their daily practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Information Exchange/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Information Dissemination , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Diffusion of Innovation , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology
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