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1.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(4): 101608, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLH) under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: We examined the incidence of T2DM, associated factors and mean time to outcome in PLH under cART. METHOD: Data for this multicenter cohort study were obtained from PLH aged over 18, who started cART in 13 Brazilian sites from 2003 to 2013. Factors associated with incident T2DM were evaluated by Cox multiple regression models. RESULTS: A total of 6724 patients (30,997.93 person-years) were followed from January 2003 to December 2016. A T2DM incidence rate of 17.3/1000 person-years (95%CI 15.8-18.8) was observed. Incidence of isolated hypertriglyceridemia and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were 84.3 (95%CI 81.1-87.6) and 14.5/1000 person-years (95%CI 13.2-15.9), respectively. Mean time to T2DM onset was 10.5 years (95%CI 10.3-10.6). Variables associated with incident T2DM were age 40-50 [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.7, 95%CI 1.4-2.1] and ≥ 50 years (HR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1); obesity (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.6-2.8); abnormal triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.51-2.2). IFG predicted T2DM (HR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7-2.5) and occurred on average 3.3 years before diabetes onset. Exposure to stavudine for ≥ 2 years was independently associated with incident T2DM [HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.0-2.2). CONCLUSION: Brazilian PLH under cART are at significant risk of developing T2DM and share risk factors for diabetes onset with the general population, such as older age, obesity, and having metabolic abnormalities at baseline. Moreover, stavudine use was independently associated with incident T2DM. Identifying PLH at a higher risk of T2DM can help caretakers trigger health promotion and establish specific targets for implementation of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
2.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality among hospitalized patients and incurs high costs. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can trigger both inflammatory and thrombotic processes, and these complications can lead to a poorer prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the association and temporal trends of D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), hospital mortality, and costs among inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: Data were extracted from electronic patient records and laboratory databases. Crude and adjusted associations for age, sex, number of comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at admission, and D-dimer or CRP logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, COVID-19 was documented in 3,254 inpatients. The D-dimer level ≥4,000 ng/mL fibrinogen equivalent unit (FEU) mortality odds ratio (OR) was 4.48 (adjusted OR: 1.97). The CRP level ≥220 mg/dL OR for death was 7.73 (adjusted OR: 3.93). The D-dimer level ≥4,000 ng/mL FEU VTE OR was 3.96 (adjusted OR: 3.26). The CRP level ≥220 mg/dL OR for VTE was 2.71 (adjusted OR: 1.92). All these analyses were statistically significant (p<0.001). Stratified hospital costs demonstrated a dose-response pattern. Adjusted D-dimer and CRP levels were associated with higher mortality and doubled hospital costs. In the first week, elevated D-dimer levels predicted VTE occurrence and systemic inflammatory harm, while CRP was a hospital mortality predictor. CONCLUSION: D-dimer and CRP levels were associated with higher hospital mortality and a higher incidence of VTE. D-dimer was more strongly associated with VTE, although its discriminative ability was poor, while CRP was a stronger predictor of hospital mortality. Their use outside the usual indications should not be modified and should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Immunologic/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(6): 570-574, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893643

ABSTRACT

As of August 30, 2020, Brazil ranked second among countries with the highest number of COVID-19 cases, with the city of São Paulo as the national epidemic epicenter. Local public healthcare institutions were challenged to respond to a fast-growing hospital demand, reengineering care provision to optimize clinical outcomes and minimize intra-hospital coronavirus infection. In this paper we describe how the largest public hospital complex in Latin America faced this unprecedented burden, managing severe COVID-19 cases while sustaining specialized care to patients with other conditions. In our strategic plan a 900-bed hospital was exclusively designated for COVID-19 care and continuity of care to those not infected with coronavirus ensured in other inpatient facilities. After 152 days, 4241 patients with severe COVID-19 were hospitalized, 70% of whom have already been discharged, whereas the remaining Institutes of the complex successfully maintained high complexity inpatient and urgent/emergency care to non-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitals, Public , Pneumonia, Viral , Brazil , Cities , Continuity of Patient Care , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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