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1.
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1926544

ABSTRACT

Inhalational therapy, today, happens to be the mainstay of treatment in obstructive airway diseases (OADs), such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is also in the present, used in a variety of other pulmonary and even non-pulmonary disorders. Hand-held inhalation devices may often be difficult to use, particularly for children, elderly, debilitated or distressed patients. Nebulization therapy emerges as a good option in these cases besides being useful in the home care, emergency room and critical care settings. With so many advancements taking place in nebulizer technology;availability of a plethora of drug formulations for this purpose, and the widening scope of this therapy, even beyond the lungs;medical practitioners, respiratory therapists, and other health care personnel face the challenge of choosing appropriate inhalation devices and drug formulations, besides their rational application and use in different clinical situations. Adequate maintenance of nebulizer equipment including disinfection and storage are the other relevant issues requiring guidance. Injudicious and improper use of nebulizers and their poor maintenance can sometimes lead to serious health hazards, nosocomial infections, transmission of infection and other adverse outcomes. Thus, it is imperative to have a national guideline on nebulization practices to bridge the knowledge gaps amongst various health care personnel involved in nebulization practice. It will also serve as an educational and scientific resource for healthcare professionals, as well as promote future research by identifying neglected and ignored areas in this field. Such comprehensive guidelines on this subject have not been available in the country and the only available proper international guidelines were released in 1997, and have not been updated for a noticeably long period of over two decades, though many changes and advancements have taken place in this technology in the recent past. Much of nebulization practices in the present may not be evidence-based and even some of these, the way they are currently used, may be ineffective or even harmful. Recognizing the knowledge deficit and paucity of guidelines on the usage of nebulizers in acute, in-patient, out-patient and domiciliary settings in India, to address many other related issues, and to standardize nebulization practices, National College of Chest Physicians (India), constituted a National task force consisting of eminent experts in the field of Pulmonary Medicine, from different backgrounds and different parts of the country, to review the available evidence from medical literature on the scientific principles and clinical practices of nebulization therapy and to formulate evidence-based guidelines for it. This guideline is based on all possible literature that could be explored with the best available evidence and incorporating expert opinions. To support the guideline with high-quality evidence, a systematic search of the electronic databases was performed to identify the relevant studies/position papers/consensus reports/recommendations published. Rating of the level of the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation was done using the GRADE system. Six topics were identified, each given to one group of experts (advisors, chairpersons, convenor and members), and as such six groups (A-F) were formed and the consensus recommendations of each group was included as a section in the guidelines (Sections I to VI). The topics included were: A. Introduction, basic principles and technical aspects of nebulization, types of equipment, their choice, use, and maintenance B. Nebulization therapy in obstructive airway diseases C. Nebulization therapy in the intensive care unit D. Use of various drugs (other than bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids) by nebulized route and miscellaneous uses of nebulization therapy E. Domiciliary/Home/Maintenance nebulization therapy;public & health care workers education, and F. Nebulization therapy in COVID-19 pandemic and in patients of he contagious viral respiratory infections (included later considering the crisis created due to COVID-19 pandemic). Various issues in different sections have been discussed in the form of questions based on the existing knowledge, followed by point-wise evidence statements and recommendations have been provided.

2.
Mycopathologia ; : 1-8, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898051

ABSTRACT

Background In experimental models, the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in endothelial cells played a role in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. However, the role of GRP78 in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has not been studied. We hypothesized that serum GRP78 levels are elevated in subjects with CAM. Objective To compare the serum GRP78 levels in subjects with CAM and COVID-19 controls without mucormycosis. Design And Setting We performed a hospital-based, case–control study between 1 April 2021 and 31 May 2021. Participants We enrolled 24 subjects each of CAM and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis. We also measured serum GRP78 levels in ten healthy controls. Exposure The primary exposure studied was serum GRP78 concentration, estimated using a commercially available ELISA kit in stored serum samples. Results We found the mean ± standard deviation (SD) serum GRP78 levels significantly higher (p = 0.0001) among the CAM (374.3 ± 127.3 pg/mL) than the COVID-19 (246.4 ± 67.0 pg/mL) controls. The proportion of subjects with an abnormal GRP78 level (> mean [184.8 pg/mL] plus two SD [23.2 pg/mL] of GRP78 from healthy participants) was 87.5% and 45.8% in the CAM group and COVID-19 controls, respectively. Serum GRP78 level was independently associated with CAM (odds ratio 1.011;95% confidence interval [1.002–1.019]) after adjusting for diabetes mellitus and hypoxemia during acute COVID-19. Conclusion Serum GRP78 levels were significantly higher in CAM than in COVID-19 controls. Further studies are required to the role of GRP78 in the pathogenesis of CAM. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11046-022-00645-6.

3.
Mycopathologia ; 187(4): 355-362, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In experimental models, the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in endothelial cells played a role in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. However, the role of GRP78 in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has not been studied. We hypothesized that serum GRP78 levels are elevated in subjects with CAM. OBJECTIVE: To compare the serum GRP78 levels in subjects with CAM and COVID-19 controls without mucormycosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a hospital-based, case-control study between 1 April 2021 and 31 May 2021. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 24 subjects each of CAM and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis. We also measured serum GRP78 levels in ten healthy controls. EXPOSURE: The primary exposure studied was serum GRP78 concentration, estimated using a commercially available ELISA kit in stored serum samples. RESULTS: We found the mean ± standard deviation (SD) serum GRP78 levels significantly higher (p = 0.0001) among the CAM (374.3 ± 127.3 pg/mL) than the COVID-19 (246.4 ± 67.0 pg/mL) controls. The proportion of subjects with an abnormal GRP78 level (> mean [184.8 pg/mL] plus two SD [23.2 pg/mL] of GRP78 from healthy participants) was 87.5% and 45.8% in the CAM group and COVID-19 controls, respectively. Serum GRP78 level was independently associated with CAM (odds ratio 1.011; 95% confidence interval [1.002-1.019]) after adjusting for diabetes mellitus and hypoxemia during acute COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Serum GRP78 levels were significantly higher in CAM than in COVID-19 controls. Further studies are required to the role of GRP78 in the pathogenesis of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mucormycosis/pathology
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051971, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation changes associated with COVID-19 suggest the presence of a hypercoagulable state with pulmonary microthrombosis and thromboembolic complications. We assessed the dynamic association of COVID-19-related coagulation abnormalities with respiratory failure and mortality. DESIGN: Single-centre, prospective cohort study with descriptive analysis and logistic regression. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital, North India. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between August 2020 and November 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared the coagulation abnormalities using standard coagulation tests like prothrombin time, D-dimer, platelet count, etc and point-of-care global coagulation test, Sonoclot (glass beaded(gb) and heparinase-treated(h)). Incidence of thromboembolic or bleeding events and presence of endogenous heparinoids were assessed. Cox proportional Hazards test was used to assess the predictors of 28-day mortality. MEASUREMENT: All patients underwent Sonoclot (glass beaded) test at admission apart from the routine investigations. In patients at risk of thromboembolic or bleeding phenomena, paired tests were performed at day 1 and 3 with Sonoclot. Activated clotting time (ACT) <110 s and peak amplitude >75 units were used as the cut-off for hypercoagulable state. Presence of heparin-like effect (HLE) was defined by a correction of ACT ≥40 s in h-Sonoclot. RESULTS: Of 215 patients admitted to ICU, we included 74 treatment naive subjects. A procoagulant profile was seen in 45.5% (n=5), 32.4% (n=11) and 20.7% (n=6) in low-flow, high-flow and invasive ventilation groups. Paired Sonoclot assays in a subgroup of 33 patients demonstrated the presence of HLE in 17 (51.5%) and 20 (62.5%) at day 1 and 3, respectively. HLE (day 1) was noted in 59% of those who bled during the disease course. Mortality was observed only in the invasive ventilation group (16, 55.2%) with overall mortality of 21.6%. HLE predicted the need for mechanical ventilation (HR 1.2 CI 1.04 to 1.4 p=0.00). On multivariate analysis, the presence of HLE (HR 1.01; CI 1.006 to 1.030; p=0.025), increased C reactive protein (HR 1.040; CI 1.020 to 1.090; p=0.014), decreased platelet function (HR 0.901; CI 0.702 to 1.100 p=0.045) predicted mortality at 28days. CONCLUSION: HLE contributed to hypocoagulable effect and associated with the need for invasive ventilation and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04668404; ClinicalTrials.gov.in. Available from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04668404.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemorrhage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Prospective Studies
6.
Lung India ; 39(3): 292-300, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810865

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old man presented with fever and breathlessness during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. He was diagnosed to have severe COVID-19 pneumonia. He was treated with oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, and glucocorticoids. He improved over 5 weeks and was shifted out of the intensive care unit. Subsequently, he experienced worsening during hospitalization with refractory hypoxemia and shock and finally succumbed to his illness. An autopsy was performed. Herein, we have presented a clinical discussion on the possible causes of the patient's fatal outcome followed by the autopsy findings.

7.
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319337

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: A procoagulant state with pulmonary micro-thrombosis has been described in COVID-19, which contributes to pathophysiology of respiratory failure along with diffuse alveolar damage. Cytokine storm and systemic inflammation in COVID-19 generates endogenous heparinoids from the endothelium which leads to secondary organ failures. We prospectively studied the dynamic association of the coagulation abnormalities with respiratory failure and mortality in patients with COVID-19.Methods: We did a prospective observational study in adults aged between 18-80 years with COVID 19 pneumonia requiring intensive care (ICU) admissions in a tertiary care hospital in North India. All patients received standard medical therapy based on best available evidence. Patients were categorized based on the oxygen support therapy into low flow, high flow and invasive ventilation groups. In patients considered to be at risk of thromboembolic or bleeding phenomena, paired coagulation tests were performed at days 1 and 3 with, Sonoclot ® (glass beaded and heparinase-treated). All patients were consecutively followed for inflammatory markers, ventilator requirements and survival. Activated clotting time (ACT) <110s and peak amplitude > 75 units were used as the cut-off for hypercoagulable state. The heparin like effect (HLE) was considered by a correction of ≥ 40 s in hACT (heparinized treated ACT). The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04668404).Results: A total of 2324 patients with COVID-19 were screened from August 2020 to November 2020. Two hundred and fifteen patients requiring ICU admission were assessed and 74 patients with a median age of 54(42-67) years were enrolled. A procoagulant profile was seen in 45.5%, 32.4% and 20.7% in low-flow, high-flow, and invasive ventilation. Paired Sonoclot ® assays in 33 patients demonstrated HLE in 17 (51.5%) and 20 (62.5%) at days 1 and 3 respectively. In multivariate analysis, the presence of HLE (HR 1.02;CI 1.08-1.6;p < 0.05), C-reactive protein (HR 1.2;CI 1.1-1.4;p=0.014)] and platelet function (HR 0.9;CI 0.7-1.1 p < 0.05) predicted mortality. The presence of HLE at day 1 predicted the need for invasive ventilation (HR 1.4;CI 1.01-1.5;p <0.05). An ACT > 131 s, clot rate < 27.5 units/min and CRP > 96.7 mg/l at admission predicted mortality.Conclusions: HLE contributes to hypocoagulable effect, need for invasive ventilation and mortality in patients with COVID-19.Trial Registration: The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04668404).Funding Statement: NoneDeclaration of Interests: NoneEthics Approval Statement: Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (PGI/IEC/2020/000997 dated 24 August 2020)

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309836

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care personnel (HCP) are at an increased risk of acquiring COVID infection during this pandemic especially in developing countries like India, where they work in resource restricted healthcare settings and return to homes, unfit for safe self-isolation. Thus, many HCP were reluctant to accept COVID-19 duty as they were apprehensive about their safety and concerned about carrying the infection home to their families.Methods: We describe a novel multidimensional HCP-centric evidence-based, dynamic policy to address the expressed concerns of HCPs. The hospital was divided into three zones: high, medium, and low risk zones. In the high risk and medium risk zones, we organized pre-duty holistic training, provided on-duty support, ensured post duty HCP welfare, and send them all home after they tested negative for COVID-19. To minimize transmission, we provided appropriate PPE, ensured its proper use, kept all communication paperless. To reduce morbidity, we recruited only willing low risk HCP, aged <50 years, with no co-morbidities to perform duty in high risk zones. Social distancing, hand hygiene and universal masking were advocated in the low risk zone.Findings: Between 31st March-20th July 2020, we clinically screened 5553 outpatients, of whom 3012 (54.2%) were COVID suspects and they were kept in the medium risk zone. Among them, 346(11.4%) were COVID+ve (57.2% male) and managed in the high-risk zone of whom 19(5.4%) died. One ( 0.08%) of the 1224 HCP in high-risk zone tested positive;6(0.62%) of the 960 HCP in medium risk zone and 23(0.18%) of the 12600 HCP in the low risk zone. All the 30 COVID +ve HCP have since recovered and none were critically ill.This multidimensional HCP centric policy resulted in very low transmission rates <1%, low morbidity, high satisfaction rates with training (92%), the PPE provided(90.8%), medical and psychosocial support received (79%) and with improved acceptance of COVID duty with over 54.7% now volunteering for re-deployment.Interpretation: A multidimensional HCP centric policy was effective in ensuring safety, satisfaction, and welfare of HCP in a resource poor setting and resulted in a willing workforce to fight the pandemic.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical clearance for reporting the results of our HCP protocol and feedback was taken from the Institutional Ethics Committee (Letter No INT/IEC/2020/SPL997;Dated 25.07.2020) and the need for individual informed consent was waived. This retrospective study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and ICMR guidelines.

14.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 120-127, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether dysregulated iron metabolism is associated with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) remains unknown. Herein, we compare the serum iron indices in COVID-19 subjects with and without mucormycosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study enrolling COVID-19 participants with and without mucormycosis. We compared the baseline serum iron indices (iron, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron-binding capacity and percentage transferrin saturation) between CAM cases and COVID-19 controls. Additionally, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess whether any iron indices are associated with CAM. RESULTS: We enrolled 28 CAM cases (mean age 53.6 years old; 78.6% men) and 26 controls (mean age 57.2 years old; 73.1% men). Rhino-orbital (±cerebral) mucormycosis (85.7%) was the most clinical presentation. Diabetes mellitus was more frequent in the cases than controls (75% vs. 42.3%; p = .015). Hypoxaemia during COVID-19 illness was more common in controls than cases. The mean serum iron values (33 vs. 45 µg/dl, p = .03) and TIBC (166.6 vs. 201.6 µg/dl, p = .003) were significantly lower in CAM cases than controls. On multivariate analysis, we found a lower TIBC (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99) and diabetes mellitus (OR 5.23; 95% CI, 1.21-22.68) to be independently associated with CAM after adjusting for serum iron, ferritin and glucocorticoid therapy. The case fatality rate of CAM was 73.9%. The iron indices were not significantly different between CAM survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The CAM is associated with lower TIBC levels than COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis, suggesting dysregulated iron metabolism in its pathogenesis. Further studies are required to confirm our preliminary observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , Iron/blood , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480463

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The proportion of COVID-19 patients having active pulmonary tuberculosis, and its impact on COVID-19 related patient outcomes, is not clear. We conducted this systematic review to evaluate the proportion of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis among COVID-19 patients, and to assess if comorbid pulmonary tuberculosis worsens clinical outcomes in these patients. METHODS: We queried the PubMed and Embase databases for studies providing data on (a) proportion of COVID-19 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis or (b) severe disease, hospitalization, or mortality among COVID-19 patients with and without active pulmonary tuberculosis. We calculated the proportion of tuberculosis patients, and the relative risk (RR) for each reported outcome of interest. We used random-effects models to summarize our data. RESULTS: We retrieved 3,375 citations, and included 43 studies, in our review. The pooled estimate for proportion of active pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.07% (95% CI 0.81%-1.36%). COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis had a higher risk of mortality (summary RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.56-2.39, from 17 studies) and for severe COVID-19 disease (summary RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.02, from 20 studies), but not for hospitalization (summary RR 1.86, 95% CI 0.91-3.81, from four studies), as compared to COVID-19 patients without tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: Active pulmonary tuberculosis is relatively common among COVID-19 patients and increases the risk of severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-related mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Humans , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/virology
16.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1912-1923, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted this systematic review to evaluate whether asthma increases the risk of severe disease and adverse outcomes among subjects with COVID-19. METHODS: We queried the PubMed and Embase databases for studies indexed through December 2020. We included studies providing data on severe disease, hospitalization, ICU care, need for mechanical ventilation, or mortality among subjects with COVID-19 with and without asthma. We calculated the relative risk for each reported outcome of interest and used random effects modeling to summarize the data. RESULTS: We retrieved 1,832 citations, and included 90 studies, in our review. Most publications reported data retrieved from electronic records of retrospective subject cohorts. Only 25 studies were judged to be of high quality. Subjects with asthma and COVID-19 had a marginally higher risk of hospitalization (summary relative risk 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.24) but not for severe disease (summary relative risk 1.17, 95% CI 0.62-2.20), ICU admission (summary relative risk 1.13, 95% CI 0.96-1.32), mechanical ventilation (summary relative risk 1.05, 95% CI 0.85-1.29), or mortality (summary relative risk 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04) as compared to subjects with COVID-19 without asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid asthma increases risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization but not severe disease or other adverse outcomes in subjects with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Asthma/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 591-605, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367962

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to an enormous increase in cases worldwide in a short time. The potential shortage might call for the reuse of personal protective equipment especially N95 masks. In this review, the methods available for decontamination of N95 masks have been compared to highlight the advantages and efficacies of different methods. Studies conducted to evaluate the biocidal efficacy, effect on filtration efficacy of the decontamination method, and maintenance of structural integrity of masks, were reviewed. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapour were the most commonly evaluated interventions and showed good germicidal activity without significant deleterious effects on mask performance. Vapourous H2O2 was the best method as it maintained NIOSH (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) recommendations of the mask on re-use and additionally, one mask could be decontaminated and reused 30 times. Ethylene oxide (EtO) preserved the maximum filtration efficacy and flow resistance. Chemical and heat-based methods had the advantages of being cost-effective and feasible but affected the structural integrity and fit of the masks. For the decontamination of N95 masks, among the heat-based methods steam was found to be the best for low middle-income countries setting. H2O2-based methods, UVGI, and EtO all exhibited both adequate biocidal efficacies and functionality (fit testing and structural integrity). Further studies on logistics, healthcare worker acceptability of reuse, and actual efficacy of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection should be carried out to validate the use of decontamination in the real-life settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Equipment Reuse , Decontamination , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2
18.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242237

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated whether Mycobacterium w (Mw), an immunomodulator, would improve clinical outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted an exploratory, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of hospitalised subjects with severe COVID-19 (pulmonary infiltrates and oxygen saturation ≤94% on room air) conducted at four tertiary care centres in India. Patients were randomised 1:1 to receive either 0.3 mL·day-1 of Mw intradermally or a matching placebo for three consecutive days. The primary outcome of the study was the distribution of clinical status assessed on a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from discharged (category 1) to death (category 7) on study days 14, 21, and 28. The co-primary outcome was a change in SOFA (sequential organ failure assessment) score on days 7 and 14 compared to the baseline. The secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality, time to clinical recovery, time to reverse transcription PCR negativity, adverse events, and others. RESULTS: We included 42 subjects (22 Mw, 20 placebo). On days 14 (OR 30.4 (95% CI 3.3-276.4)) and 21 (OR 14.9 (95% CI 1.8-128.4)), subjects in the Mw arm had a better clinical status distribution than placebo. There was no difference in the SOFA score change on days 7 and 14 between the two groups. We did not find any difference in the mortality, or other secondary outcomes. We observed no adverse events related to the use of Mw. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Mw results in better clinical status distribution on days 14 and 21 compared to placebo in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

19.
Lung India ; 38(Supplement): S105-S115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123963

ABSTRACT

During the times of the ongoing COVID pandemic, aerosol-generating procedures such as bronchoscopy have the potential of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to the healthcare workers. The decision to perform bronchoscopy during the COVID pandemic should be taken judiciously. Over the years, the indications for bronchoscopy in the clinical practice have expanded. Experts at the Indian Association for Bronchology perceived the need to develop a concise statement that would assist a bronchoscopist in performing bronchoscopy during the COVID pandemic safely. The current Indian Association for Bronchology Consensus Statement provides specific guidelines including triaging, indications, bronchoscopy area, use of personal protective equipment, patient preparation, sedation and anesthesia, patient monitoring, bronchoscopy technique, sample collection and handling, bronchoscope disinfection, and environmental disinfection concerning the coronavirus disease-2019 situation. The suggestions provided herewith should be adopted in addition to the national bronchoscopy guidelines that were published recently. This statement summarizes the essential aspects to be considered for the performance of bronchoscopy in COVID pandemic, to ensure safety for both for patients and healthcare personnel.

20.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043837, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at an increased risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection especially in resource-restricted healthcare settings, and return to homes unfit for self-isolation, making them apprehensive about COVID-19 duty and transmission risk to their families. We aimed at implementing a novel multidimensional HCP-centric evidence-based, dynamic policy with the objectives to reduce risk of HCP infection, ensure welfare and safety of the HCP and to improve willingness to accept and return to duty. SETTING: Our tertiary care university hospital, with 12 600 HCP, was divided into high-risk, medium-risk and low-risk zones. In the high-risk and medium-risk zones, we organised training, logistic support, postduty HCP welfare and collected feedback, and sent them home after they tested negative for COVID-19. We supervised use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and kept communication paperless. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited willing low-risk HCP, aged <50 years, with no comorbidities to work in COVID-19 zones. Social distancing, hand hygiene and universal masking were advocated in the low-risk zone. RESULTS: Between 31 March and 20 July 2020, we clinically screened 5553 outpatients, of whom 3012 (54.2%) were COVID-19 suspects managed in the medium-risk zone. Among them, 346 (11.4%) tested COVID-19 positive (57.2% male) and were managed in the high-risk zone with 19 (5.4%) deaths. One (0.08%) of the 1224 HCP in high-risk zone, 6 (0.62%) of 960 HCP in medium-risk zone and 23 (0.18%) of the 12 600 HCP in the low-risk zone tested positive at the end of shift. All the 30 COVID-19-positive HCP have since recovered. This HCP-centric policy resulted in low transmission rates (<1%), ensured satisfaction with training (92%), PPE (90.8%), medical and psychosocial support (79%) and improved acceptance of COVID-19 duty with 54.7% volunteering for re-deployment. CONCLUSION: A multidimensional HCP-centric policy was effective in ensuring safety, satisfaction and welfare of HCP in a resource-poor setting and resulted in a willing workforce to fight the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Medical Staff, Hospital , Occupational Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Developing Countries , Female , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Models, Organizational , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration
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