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1.
Microbiology Australia ; : 4, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799520

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, cases of atypical pneumonia were diagnosed in hospital patients in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. The disease, now known as COVID- I 9 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As case numbers increased and spread across the planet many companies scrambled to develop vaccines to control the infection and disease. Prior research on SARS-CoV-1, new vaccine technologies and unprecedented funding have allowed vaccines to be developed and approved in record time, without the usual pauses and bypassing any of the requirements of the vaccine approval process. This paper is a review of the current literature on some of the vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 and of the new technologies used to produce them.

2.
Microbiology Australia ; 42(1):27-29, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1313663

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, cases of atypical pneumonia were diagnosed in hospital patients in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. The disease was characterised by a respiratory disorder of variable severity ranging from mild upper respiratory tract illness to acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe interstitial pneumonia and death. The source of the virus is yet to be confirmed but wild animals sold at wholesale seafood and exotic animal markets of Wuhan were implicated. The virus was called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease designated as Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). As of the 13 January 2021, the WHO had reported 90 335 008 cases and 1 954 336 deaths in 216 countries. The isolation of related coronaviruses from bats suggests that they may be a potential host species. This paper is a review of the current literature on SARS-CoV-2 infections of animals and the animal challenge models for the in-vivo evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

3.
Microbiology Australia ; 41(4):177-182, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1214009

ABSTRACT

Paul Selleck has been at the Australian Animal Health Laboratory, now the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, since 1983. In this time, he was head of the Avian Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, incorporating the National, OIE and FAO Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease and an OIE Reference Expert for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease. He was also involved in the Australian equine and swine influenza outbreaks in 2007 and 2009 respectively and has worked with Hendra, Nipah and SARS at physical containment level 4. Paul now works extensively in Asia, running training courses on biosafety and biosecurity and laboratory diagnosis. He also audits laboratories and runs training courses on quality systems and ISO laboratory accreditation. Towards the end of world war one, the world faced a pandemic, caused not by smallpox or bubonic plague, but by an influenza A virus. The 1918-19 influenza pandemic was possibly the worst single natural disaster of all time, infecting an estimated 500 million people, or one third of the world population and killing between 20 and 100 million people in just over one year. The impact of the virus may have influenced the outcome of the first world war and killed more people than the war itself. The pandemic resulted in global economic disruption. It was a stimulus to establishment of local vaccine production in Australia. Those cities that removed public health restrictions too early experienced a second wave of infections. Unfortunately, it seems that the lessons of infection control and epidemic preparedness must be relearnt in every generation and for each new epidemic.

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