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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19752, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454813

ABSTRACT

Although metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the cardiac-specific risk mechanism is unknown. Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes (all MetS components) are the most common form of CVD and represent risk factors for worse COVID-19 outcomes compared to their non MetS peers. Here, we use obese Yorkshire pigs as a highly relevant animal model of human MetS, where pigs develop the hallmarks of human MetS and reproducibly mimics the myocardial pathophysiology in patients. Myocardium-specific mass spectroscopy-derived metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics enabled the identity and quality of proteins and metabolites to be investigated in the myocardium to greater depth. Myocardium-specific deregulation of pro-inflammatory markers, propensity for arterial thrombosis, and platelet aggregation was revealed by computational analysis of differentially enriched pathways between MetS and control animals. While key components of the complement pathway and the immune response to viruses are under expressed, key N6-methyladenosin RNA methylation enzymes are largely overexpressed in MetS. Blood tests do not capture the entirety of metabolic changes that the myocardium undergoes, making this analysis of greater value than blood component analysis alone. Our findings create data associations to further characterize the MetS myocardium and disease vulnerability, emphasize the need for a multimodal therapeutic approach, and suggests a mechanism for observed worse outcomes in MetS patients with COVID-19 comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Disease Susceptibility , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Factors/genetics , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/veterinary , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Platelet Aggregation , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Swine , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/genetics , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/metabolism
3.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3040-3051, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on health care and cardiac surgery. We report cardiac surgeons' concerns, perceptions, and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A detailed survey was sent to recruit participating adult cardiac surgery centers in North America. Data regarding cardiac surgeons' perceptions and changes in practice were analyzed. RESULTS: Our study comprises 67 institutions with diverse geographic distribution across North America. Nurses were most likely to be redeployed (88%), followed by advanced care practitioners (69%), trainees (28%), and surgeons (25%). Examining surgeon concerns in regard to COVID-19, they were most worried with exposing their family to COVID-19 (81%), followed by contracting COVID-19 (68%), running out of personal protective equipment (PPE) (28%), and hospital resources (28%). In terms of PPE conservation strategies among users of N95 respirators, nearly half were recycling via decontamination with ultraviolet light (49%), followed by sterilization with heat (13%) and at home or with other modalities (13%). Reuse of N95 respirators for 1 day (22%), 1 week (21%) or 1 month (6%) was reported. There were differences in adoption of methods to conserve N95 respirators based on institutional pandemic phase and COVID-19 burden, with higher COVID-19 burden institutions more likely to resort to PPE conservation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates the impact of COVID-19 on North American cardiac surgeons. Our study should stimulate further discussions to identify optimal solutions to improve workforce preparedness for subsequent surges, as well as facilitate the navigation of future healthcare crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Adult , Decontamination , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 923-936, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222755

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a significant concern worldwide. The pandemic has demonstrated that public health issues are not merely a health concern but also affect society as a whole. In this chapter, we address the importance of bringing together the world's scientists to find appropriate solutions for controlling and managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Interdisciplinary cooperation, through modern scientific methods, could help to handle the consequences of the pandemic and to avoid the recurrence of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 205, 2020 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306010

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has become the leading societal concern. The pandemic has shown that the public health concern is not only a medical problem, but also affects society as a whole; so, it has also become the leading scientific concern. We discuss in this treatise the importance of bringing the world's scientists together to find effective solutions for controlling the pandemic. By applying novel research frameworks, interdisciplinary collaboration promises to manage the pandemic's consequences and prevent recurrences of similar pandemics.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Emergencies , Health Services Needs and Demand , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/methods , History, 21st Century , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Interdisciplinary Studies , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health/history , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Card Surg ; 35(6): 1302-1305, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications have been well remarked in the novel coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19), yet an emerging body of research indicates that cardiac involvement may be implicated in poor outcomes for these patients. AIMS: This review seeks to gather and distill the existing body of literature that describes the cardiac implications of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The English literature was reviewed for papers dealing with the cardiac effects of COVID-19. RESULTS: Notably, COVID-19 patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease are counted in greater frequency in intensive care unit settings, and ultimately suffer greater rates of mortality. Other studies have noted cardiac presentations for COVID-19, rather than respiratory, such as acute pericarditis and left ventricular dysfunction. In some patients there has been evidence of acute myocardial injury, with correspondingly increased serum troponin I levels. With regard to surgical interventions, there is a dearth of data describing myocardial protection during cardiac surgery for COVID-19 patients. Although some insights have been garnered in the study of cardiovascular diseases for these patients, these insights remain fragmented and have yet to cement clear guidelines for actionable clinical practice. CONCLUSION: While some information is available, further studies are imperative for a more cohesive understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology in COVID-19 patients to promote more informed treatment and, ultimately, better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Global Health , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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