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2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250735

ABSTRACT

An important issue that is often neglected is the difference between male and female genders in response to medical treatments. In the context of COVID-19 vaccine administration, despite identical protocol strategies, it has been observed that females often suffer more adverse consequences than males. Here, we analyzed the adverse events (AEs) of the Comirnaty vaccine in a population of 2385 healthcare workers as a function of age, sex, COVID-19 history and BMI. Using logistic regression analysis, we showed that these variables may contribute to the development of AEs, particularly in young subjects, females and individuals with a BMI below 25 kg/m2. Moreover, partial dependence plots indicate a 50% probability of developing a mild AE for a long period of time (≥7 days) or a severe AE of any duration in women below 40 years old and with a BMI < 20 kg/m2. As this effect is more evident after the second dose of the vaccine, we propose to reduce the amount of vaccine for any additional booster dose in relation to age, sex and BMI. This strategy might reduce adverse events without affecting vaccine efficacy.

3.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252392

ABSTRACT

The immune system is the central regulator of tissue homeostasis, ensuring tissue regeneration and protection against both pathogens and the neoformation of cancer cells. Its proper functioning requires homeostatic properties, which are maintained by an adequate balance of myeloid and lymphoid responses. Aging progressively undermines this ability and compromises the correct activation of immune responses, as well as the resolution of the inflammatory response. A subclinical syndrome of "homeostatic frailty" appears as a distinctive trait of the elderly, which predisposes to immune debilitation and chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammaging), causing the uncontrolled development of chronic and degenerative diseases. The innate immune compartment, in particular, undergoes to a sequela of age-dependent functional alterations, encompassing steps of myeloid progenitor differentiation and altered responses to endogenous and exogenous threats. Here, we will review the age-dependent evolution of myeloid populations, as well as their impact on frailty and diseases of the elderly.

4.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232239

ABSTRACT

The cardiovascular system is frequently affected by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), particularly in hospitalized cases, and these manifestations are associated with a worse prognosis. Most commonly, heart involvement is represented by myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism, while arrhythmias, heart valve damage, and pericarditis are less frequent. While the clinical suspicion is necessary for a prompt disease recognition, imaging allows the early detection of cardiovascular complications in patients with COVID-19. The combination of cardiothoracic approaches has been proposed for advanced imaging techniques, i.e., CT scan and MRI, for a simultaneous evaluation of cardiovascular structures, pulmonary arteries, and lung parenchyma. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cardiovascular injury, and among these, it is established that the host immune system is responsible for the aberrant response characterizing severe COVID-19 and inducing organ-specific injury. We illustrate novel evidence to support the hypothesis that molecular mimicry may be the immunological mechanism for myocarditis in COVID-19. The present article provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence of the immune mechanisms of the COVID-19 cardiovascular injury and the imaging tools to be used in the diagnostic workup. As some of these techniques cannot be implemented for general screening of all cases, we critically discuss the need to maximize the sustainability and the specificity of the proposed tests while illustrating the findings of some paradigmatic cases.

5.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 7(2): 440-443, 2023 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212844

ABSTRACT

We here report the first case of anti-proteinase 3-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine presenting with prominent liver involvement and alveolar haemorrhage. Two weeks after vaccination, a 49-year-old man developed inflammatory arthralgias and hypertransaminasaemia. Two months later, fever and haemoptysis appeared; the patient tested positive for anti-proteinase 3 autoantibodies. High-dose steroids and rituximab were started, and complete remission was achieved. Systemic autoimmune diseases, including ANCA-associated vasculitis, should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertransaminasaemia, especially when the clinical context is suspicious.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myeloblastin , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/etiology , Vaccination , Liver
6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 56: 101785, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165232

ABSTRACT

Background: The SAVE-MORE trial demonstrated that anakinra treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia with plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) levels of 6 ng/mL or more was associated with 0.36 odds for a worse outcome compared to placebo when expressed by the WHO-Clinical Progression Scale (CPS) at day 28. Herein, we report the results of subgroup analyses and long-term outcomes. Methods: This prospective, double-blind, randomised clinical trial, recruited patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, in need of hospitalisation, lower respiratory tract infection and plasma suPAR ≥6 ng/mL from 37 academic and community hospitals in Greece and Italy. Patients were 1:2 randomised to subcutaneous treatment with placebo or anakinra (100 mg) once daily for 10 days. Pre-defined subgroups of Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI), sex, age, level of suPAR, and time from symptom onset were analysed for the primary endpoint (overall comparison of distribution of frequencies of the scores from the WHO-CPS between treatments on day 28), by multivariable ordinal regression analysis in the intention to treat (ITT) population. This trial is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (2020-005828-11) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04680949). Findings: Patients were enrolled between 23 December 2020 and 31 March 2021; 189 patients in the placebo arm and 405 patients in the anakinra arm were the ITT population. Multivariable analysis showed that anakinra treatment was accompanied by significantly lower odds for worse outcome compared to placebo at day 28 for all studied subgroups (CCI ≥ 2, OR: 0.34, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.22-0.50; CCI < 2, OR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.68; suPAR > 9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.66; suPAR 6-9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.24-0.52; patients ≥65 years, OR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.66; and patients <65 years, OR: 0.29, 95% CI 0.19-0.45). The benefit was uniform, irrespective of the time from start of symptoms until the start of the study drug. At days 60 and 90, anakinra treatment had odds of 0.40 (95% CI 0.28-0.57) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.32-0.67) respectively, for a worse outcome compared to placebo. The costs of general ward stay, ICU stay, and drugs were lower with anakinra treatment. Interpretation: Anakinra represents an important therapeutic tool in the management of COVID-19 that may be administered in all subgroups of patients; benefits are maintained until day 90. Funding: Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis; Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB.

7.
Cytokine ; 162: 156111, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Elevated concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predict progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and guide early anakinra treatment. As suPAR testing may not be routinely available in every health-care setting, alternative biomarkers are needed. We investigated the performance of C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) for predicting SRF or death in COVID-19. METHODS: Two cohorts were studied; one discovery cohort with 534 patients from the SAVE-MORE clinical trial; and one validation cohort with 364 patients from the SAVE trial including also 145 comparators. CRP, IP-10 and TRAIL were measured by the MeMed Key® platform in order to select the biomarker with the best prognostic performance for the early prediction of progression into SRF or death. RESULTS: IP-10 had the best prognostic performance: baseline concentrations 2000 pg/ml or higher predicted equally well to suPAR (sensitivity 85.0 %; negative predictive value 96.6 %). Odds ratio for poor outcome among anakinra-treated participants of the SAVE-MORE trial was 0.35 compared to placebo when IP-10 was 2,000 pg/ml or more. IP-10 could divide different strata of severity for SRF/death by day 14 in the validation cohort. Anakinra treatment decreased this risk irrespective the IP-10 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: IP-10 concentrations of 2,000 pg/ml or higher are a valid alternative to suPAR for the early prediction of progression into SRF or death the first 14 days from hospital admission for COVID-19 and they may guide anakinra treatment. CLINICALTRIALS: gov, NCT04680949 and NCT04357366.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Interferon-gamma , Chemokine CXCL10 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Prognosis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein
8.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107374

ABSTRACT

Autoinflammatory diseases represent a family of immune-mediated conditions characterized by the unchecked activation of innate immunity. These conditions share common clinical features such as recurrent fever, inflammatory arthritis and elevation of acute phase reactants, in the absence of an identified infectious etiology, generally without detectable serum autoantibodies, with variable response to glucocorticoids and in some cases colchicine, which represented the mainstay of treatment until cytokine blockade therapies became available. The first autoinflammatory diseases to be described were monogenic disorders caused by missense mutations in inflammasome components and were recognized predominantly during childhood or early adulthood. However, the progress of genetic analyses and a more detailed immunological phenotyping capacity led to the discovery a wide spectrum of diseases, often becoming manifest or being diagnosed in the adult population. The beneficial role of targeting hyperinflammation via interleukin 1 in complex non-immune mediated diseases is a field of growing clinical interest. We provide an overview of the autoinflammatory diseases of interest to physicians treating adult patients and to analyze the contribution of hyperinflammation in non-immune-mediated diseases; the result is intended to provide a roadmap to orient scientists and clinicians in this broad area.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 937667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933702

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has been advocated as an environmental trigger for autoimmune diseases, and a paradigmatic example comes from similarities between COVID-19 and the myositis-spectrum disease associated with antibodies against the melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5) in terms of clinical features, lung involvement, and immune mechanisms, particularly type I interferons (IFN). Case Report: We report a case of anti-MDA5 syndrome with skin manifestations, constitutional symptoms, and cardiomyopathy following a proven SARS-CoV-2 infection. Systematic Literature Review: We systematically searched for publications on inflammatory myositis associated with COVID-19. We describe the main clinical, immunological, and demographic features, focusing our attention on the anti-MDA5 syndrome. Discussion: MDA5 is a pattern recognition receptor essential in the immune response against viruses and this may contribute to explain the production of anti-MDA5 antibodies in some SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The activation of MDA5 induces the synthesis of type I IFN with an antiviral role, inversely correlated with COVID-19 severity. Conversely, elevated type I IFN levels correlate with disease activity in anti-MDA5 syndrome. While recognizing this ia broad area of uncertainty, we speculate that the strong type I IFN response observed in patients with anti-MDA5 syndrome, might harbor protective effects against viral infections, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Melanoma , Myositis , Antigens, Differentiation , Autoimmunity , Biomarkers , Humans , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917836

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 in patients with immune-mediated diseases under different treatments. Anti-trimeric spike protein antibodies were tested in 287 patients with rheumatic or autoimmune diseases (10% receiving mycophenolate mofetil, 15% low-dose glucocorticoids, 21% methotrexate, and 58% biologic/targeted synthetic drugs) at baseline and in 219 (76%) 4 weeks after the second Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine dose. Family members or caretakers were enrolled as the controls. The neutralizing serum activity against SARS-CoV-2-G614, alpha, and beta variants in vitro and the cytotoxic T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides were determined in a subgroup of patients and controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody development, i.e., seroconversion, was observed in 69% of the mycophenolate-treated patients compared to 100% of both the patients taking other treatments and the controls (p < 0.0001). A dose-dependent impairment of the humoral response was observed in the mycophenolate-treated patients. A daily dose of >1 g at vaccination was a significant risk factor for non-seroconversion (ROC AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-98, p < 0.0001). Moreover, in the seroconverted patients, a daily dose of >1 g of mycophenolate was associated with significantly lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers, showing slightly reduced neutralizing serum activity but a comparable cytotoxic response compared to other immunosuppressants. In non-seroconverted patients treated with mycophenolate at a daily dose of >1 g, the cytotoxic activity elicited by viral peptides was also impaired. Mycophenolate treatment affects the Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine immunogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, independent of rheumatological disease.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820449

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe and effective, also in individuals with allergic and immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). There are reports suggesting that vaccines may be able to trigger de-novo or exacerbate pre-existing IMDs in predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a small-vessel vasculitis characterized by asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophil-rich granulomatous inflammation in various tissues. We describe the case of a 63-year-old man who experienced cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological involvement one day after the administration of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (mRNA-1273). A diagnosis of EGPA was made and the patient was treated with high-dose steroids and cyclophosphamide, with a good clinical response. Interestingly, our patient had experienced a significant worsening of his pre-existing asthma six months earlier, just after the first two vaccine shots with the ChAdOx1 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It is impossible to know whether our patient would have had developed EGPA following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or at some point in his life regardless of infectious stimuli. Nevertheless, our report may suggest that caution should be paid during the administration of additional vaccine doses in individuals who experienced an increase in IMD severity that persisted over time following previous vaccine shots.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742759

ABSTRACT

Short-term adverse events are common following the BNT162b2 vaccine for SARS-Cov-2 and have been possibly associated with IgG response. We aimed to determine the incidence of adverse reactions to the vaccine and the impact on IgG response. Our study included 4156 health-care professionals who received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine 21 days apart and obtained 6113 online questionnaires inquiring about adverse events. The serum response was tested in 2765 subjects 10 days after the second dose. Adverse events, most frequently a local reaction at the site of injection, were reported by 39% of subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (odds ratio-OR-1.95; 95% confidence interval-CI-1.74-2.19; p < 0.001), younger age (OR 0.98 per year, p < 0.001), second dose of vaccine (OR 1.36, p < 0.001), and previous COVID-19 infection (OR 1.41, p < 0.001) were independently associated with adverse events. IgG response was significantly higher in subjects with adverse events (1110 AU/mL-IQR 345-1630 vs. 386 AU/mL, IQR 261-1350, p < 0.0001), and the association was more pronounced in subjects experiencing myalgia, fever, and lymphadenopathy. We demonstrate that a more pronounced IgG response is associated with specific adverse events, and these are commonly reported by health care professionals after the BNT162b2 vaccine for SARS-Cov-2.

13.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100560, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706398

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but many develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, D- dimers, interleukin-6, and ferritin among patients not receiving non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation during the SAVE-MORE study, offers predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days comparable to that of a suPAR concentration of ≥6 ng/mL (area under receiver operator characteristic curve 0.81 for both). The SCOPE score is validated in two similar independent cohorts. A SCOPE score of 6 or more is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has proven effective in inducing an immune response in healthy individuals and is progressively us allowing to overcome the pandemic. Recent evidence has shown that response to vaccination in some vulnerable patients may be diminished, and it has been proposed a booster dose. We tested the kinetic of development of serum antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, their neutralizing capacity, the CD4 and CD8 IFN-γ T-cell response in 328 subjects, including 131 immunocompromised individuals (cancer, rheumatologic, and hemodialysis patients), 160 health-care workers (HCW) and 37 subjects older than 75 yr, after vaccination with two or three doses of mRNA vaccines. We stratified the patients according to the type of treatment. We found that immunocompromised patients, depending on the type of treatment, poorly respond to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. However, an additional booster dose of vaccine induced a good immune response in almost all of the patients except those receiving anti-CD20 antibody. Similarly to HCW, previously infected and vaccinated immunocompromised individuals demonstrate a stronger SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response than those who are vaccinated without prior infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Renal Dialysis
16.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495792

ABSTRACT

Acute COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10% to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This Review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/chemistry , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Signal Transduction , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophage Activation , Male , Mice , Phospholipids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(6): 514-521, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to analyze the link between autoimmune diseases and environmental factors, in particular severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) as it shares numerous features with the interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases positive for rare autoantibodies directed at highly specific autoantigens (i.e., MDA5 and RIG1) among the intracellular sensors of SARS-CoV-2 in the innate response against viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: As shown in recent publications and in our original data, specific autoantibodies may be functionally relevant to COVID-19 infection. We evaluated sera from 35 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 to identify antinuclear antibodies and autoantibodies directed against specific antigenic targets, and we identified anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 20/35 of patients with COVID-19 (57%), in patients with need for supplemental oxygen (90% vs. 20% in ANA-negative cases; P < 0.0001). In 7/35 COVID-19 sera, we detected anti-MJ/NXP2 (n = 3), anti-RIG1 (n = 2), anti-Scl-70/TOPO1 (n = 1), and anti-MDA5 (n = 1), overall associated with a significantly worse pulmonary involvement at lung computerized tomography scans. Eleven (31%) patients were positive for antibodies against the E2/E3 subunits of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. SUMMARY: Viral infections such as COVID-19 are associated with ANA and autoantibodies directed toward antiviral signaling antigens in particular in patients with worse pulmonary involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Dermatomyositis , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Autoantibodies , Dermatomyositis/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1752-1760, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392877

ABSTRACT

Early increase of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum levels is indicative of increased risk of progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to respiratory failure. The SAVE-MORE double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of anakinra, an IL-1α/ß inhibitor, in 594 patients with COVID-19 at risk of progressing to respiratory failure as identified by plasma suPAR ≥6 ng ml-1, 85.9% (n = 510) of whom were receiving dexamethasone. At day 28, the adjusted proportional odds of having a worse clinical status (assessed by the 11-point World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS)) with anakinra, as compared to placebo, was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.26-0.50). The median WHO-CPS decrease on day 28 from baseline in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points, respectively (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, P < 0.0001); the respective median decrease of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 7 from baseline was 0 and 1 points (OR = 0.63, P = 0.004). Twenty-eight-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio = 0.45, P = 0.045), and hospital stay was shorter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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