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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 937667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933702

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has been advocated as an environmental trigger for autoimmune diseases, and a paradigmatic example comes from similarities between COVID-19 and the myositis-spectrum disease associated with antibodies against the melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5) in terms of clinical features, lung involvement, and immune mechanisms, particularly type I interferons (IFN). Case Report: We report a case of anti-MDA5 syndrome with skin manifestations, constitutional symptoms, and cardiomyopathy following a proven SARS-CoV-2 infection. Systematic Literature Review: We systematically searched for publications on inflammatory myositis associated with COVID-19. We describe the main clinical, immunological, and demographic features, focusing our attention on the anti-MDA5 syndrome. Discussion: MDA5 is a pattern recognition receptor essential in the immune response against viruses and this may contribute to explain the production of anti-MDA5 antibodies in some SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The activation of MDA5 induces the synthesis of type I IFN with an antiviral role, inversely correlated with COVID-19 severity. Conversely, elevated type I IFN levels correlate with disease activity in anti-MDA5 syndrome. While recognizing this ia broad area of uncertainty, we speculate that the strong type I IFN response observed in patients with anti-MDA5 syndrome, might harbor protective effects against viral infections, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Melanoma , Myositis , Antigens, Differentiation , Autoimmunity , Biomarkers , Humans , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917836

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 in patients with immune-mediated diseases under different treatments. Anti-trimeric spike protein antibodies were tested in 287 patients with rheumatic or autoimmune diseases (10% receiving mycophenolate mofetil, 15% low-dose glucocorticoids, 21% methotrexate, and 58% biologic/targeted synthetic drugs) at baseline and in 219 (76%) 4 weeks after the second Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine dose. Family members or caretakers were enrolled as the controls. The neutralizing serum activity against SARS-CoV-2-G614, alpha, and beta variants in vitro and the cytotoxic T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides were determined in a subgroup of patients and controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody development, i.e., seroconversion, was observed in 69% of the mycophenolate-treated patients compared to 100% of both the patients taking other treatments and the controls (p < 0.0001). A dose-dependent impairment of the humoral response was observed in the mycophenolate-treated patients. A daily dose of >1 g at vaccination was a significant risk factor for non-seroconversion (ROC AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-98, p < 0.0001). Moreover, in the seroconverted patients, a daily dose of >1 g of mycophenolate was associated with significantly lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers, showing slightly reduced neutralizing serum activity but a comparable cytotoxic response compared to other immunosuppressants. In non-seroconverted patients treated with mycophenolate at a daily dose of >1 g, the cytotoxic activity elicited by viral peptides was also impaired. Mycophenolate treatment affects the Moderna-1273 mRNA vaccine immunogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, independent of rheumatological disease.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820449

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe and effective, also in individuals with allergic and immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). There are reports suggesting that vaccines may be able to trigger de-novo or exacerbate pre-existing IMDs in predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a small-vessel vasculitis characterized by asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophil-rich granulomatous inflammation in various tissues. We describe the case of a 63-year-old man who experienced cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological involvement one day after the administration of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (mRNA-1273). A diagnosis of EGPA was made and the patient was treated with high-dose steroids and cyclophosphamide, with a good clinical response. Interestingly, our patient had experienced a significant worsening of his pre-existing asthma six months earlier, just after the first two vaccine shots with the ChAdOx1 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It is impossible to know whether our patient would have had developed EGPA following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or at some point in his life regardless of infectious stimuli. Nevertheless, our report may suggest that caution should be paid during the administration of additional vaccine doses in individuals who experienced an increase in IMD severity that persisted over time following previous vaccine shots.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742759

ABSTRACT

Short-term adverse events are common following the BNT162b2 vaccine for SARS-Cov-2 and have been possibly associated with IgG response. We aimed to determine the incidence of adverse reactions to the vaccine and the impact on IgG response. Our study included 4156 health-care professionals who received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine 21 days apart and obtained 6113 online questionnaires inquiring about adverse events. The serum response was tested in 2765 subjects 10 days after the second dose. Adverse events, most frequently a local reaction at the site of injection, were reported by 39% of subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (odds ratio-OR-1.95; 95% confidence interval-CI-1.74-2.19; p < 0.001), younger age (OR 0.98 per year, p < 0.001), second dose of vaccine (OR 1.36, p < 0.001), and previous COVID-19 infection (OR 1.41, p < 0.001) were independently associated with adverse events. IgG response was significantly higher in subjects with adverse events (1110 AU/mL-IQR 345-1630 vs. 386 AU/mL, IQR 261-1350, p < 0.0001), and the association was more pronounced in subjects experiencing myalgia, fever, and lymphadenopathy. We demonstrate that a more pronounced IgG response is associated with specific adverse events, and these are commonly reported by health care professionals after the BNT162b2 vaccine for SARS-Cov-2.

5.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100560, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706398

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but many develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, D- dimers, interleukin-6, and ferritin among patients not receiving non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation during the SAVE-MORE study, offers predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days comparable to that of a suPAR concentration of ≥6 ng/mL (area under receiver operator characteristic curve 0.81 for both). The SCOPE score is validated in two similar independent cohorts. A SCOPE score of 6 or more is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has proven effective in inducing an immune response in healthy individuals and is progressively us allowing to overcome the pandemic. Recent evidence has shown that response to vaccination in some vulnerable patients may be diminished, and it has been proposed a booster dose. We tested the kinetic of development of serum antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, their neutralizing capacity, the CD4 and CD8 IFN-γ T-cell response in 328 subjects, including 131 immunocompromised individuals (cancer, rheumatologic, and hemodialysis patients), 160 health-care workers (HCW) and 37 subjects older than 75 yr, after vaccination with two or three doses of mRNA vaccines. We stratified the patients according to the type of treatment. We found that immunocompromised patients, depending on the type of treatment, poorly respond to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. However, an additional booster dose of vaccine induced a good immune response in almost all of the patients except those receiving anti-CD20 antibody. Similarly to HCW, previously infected and vaccinated immunocompromised individuals demonstrate a stronger SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response than those who are vaccinated without prior infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , /immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Renal Dialysis
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311148

ABSTRACT

Early recognition of risk and start of treatment may improve unfavorable outcome of COVID-19. In the SAVE-MORE double-blind randomized trial, 594 patients with pneumonia without respiratory dysfunction at risk as defined by plasma suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) ≥ 6 ng/ml were 1:2 randomized to subcutaneous placebo or 100 mg anakinra once daily for 10 days;85.9% were co-administered dexamethasone. After 28 days, anakinra-treated patients were distributed to lower strata of the 11-point World Health Organization ordinal Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) (adjusted odds ratio-OR 0.36;95%CI 0.26–0.50;P < 0.001);anakinra protected from severe disease or death (≥ 6 points of WHO-CPS) (OR: 0.46;P: 0.010). The median WHO-CPS decrease in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points (OR 0.40;P < 0.0001);the median decrease of SOFA score was 0 and 1 points (OR 0.63;P: 0.004). 28-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio: 0.45;P: 0.045) and hospital stay was shorter. (Sponsored by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04680949)

8.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653765

ABSTRACT

The cardiovascular system is frequently affected by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), particularly in hospitalized cases, and these manifestations are associated with a worse prognosis. Most commonly, heart involvement is represented by myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism, while arrhythmias, heart valve damage, and pericarditis are less frequent. While the clinical suspicion is necessary for a prompt disease recognition, imaging allows the early detection of cardiovascular complications in patients with COVID-19. The combination of cardiothoracic approaches has been proposed for advanced imaging techniques, i.e., CT scan and MRI, for a simultaneous evaluation of cardiovascular structures, pulmonary arteries, and lung parenchyma. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cardiovascular injury, and among these, it is established that the host immune system is responsible for the aberrant response characterizing severe COVID-19 and inducing organ-specific injury. We illustrate novel evidence to support the hypothesis that molecular mimicry may be the immunological mechanism for myocarditis in COVID-19. The present article provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence of the immune mechanisms of the COVID-19 cardiovascular injury and the imaging tools to be used in the diagnostic workup. As some of these techniques cannot be implemented for general screening of all cases, we critically discuss the need to maximize the sustainability and the specificity of the proposed tests while illustrating the findings of some paradigmatic cases.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294791

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but several develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from C-reactive protein, D-dimer, interleukin-6, and ferritin circulating concentrations at hospitalization during the SAVE-MORE study, offers comparable predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days as suPAR ≥6 ng/ml (area under receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.81 for both). SCOPE score was validated against an independent dataset from the SAVE study. The SCOPE score is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.<br><br>Funding: The study was funded in part by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis and by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum. The Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis is the Sponsor of the SAVE and SAVE-MORE studies.<br><br>Declaration of Interests:E. J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis has received honoraria from Abbott CH, bioMérieux, Brahms GmbH, GSK, InflaRx GmbH, Sobi and XBiotech Inc;independent educational grants from Abbott CH, AxisShield, bioMérieux Inc, InflaRx GmbH, Johnson & Johnson, MSD, Sobi and XBiotech Inc.;and funding from the Horizon2020 Marie-Curie Project European Sepsis Academy (granted to the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens), and the Horizon 2020 European Grants ImmunoSep and RISKinCOVID (granted to the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis). G. Poulakou has received independent educational grants from Pfizer, MSD, Angelini, and Biorad. H. Milionis reports receiving honoraria, consulting fees and non-financial support from healthcare companies, including Amgen, Angelini, Bayer, Mylan, MSD, Pfizer, and Servier. L. Dagna had received consultation honoraria from SOBI. M. Bassetti has received funds for research grants and/or advisor/consultant and/or speaker/chairman from Angelini, Astellas, Bayer, Biomerieux, Cidara, Cipla, Gilead, Menarini, MSD, Pfizer, Roche, Shionogi and Nabriva. P. Panagopoulos has received honoraria from GILEAD Sciences, Janssen, and MSD. G. N. Dalekos is an advisor or lecturer for Ipsen, Pfizer, Genkyotex, Novartis, Sobi, received research grants from Abbvie, Gilead and has served as PI in studies for Abbvie, Novartis, Gilead, Novo Nordisk, Genkyotex, Regulus Therapeutics Inc, Tiziana Life Sciences, Bayer, Astellas, Pfizer, Amyndas Pharmaceuticals, CymaBay Therapeutics Inc., Sobi and Intercept Pharmaceuticals. M. G. Netea is supported by an ERC Advanced Grant (#833247) and a Spinoza grant of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Hes is a scientific founder of TTxD and he has received independent educational grants from TTxD, GSK, Ono Pharma and ViiV HealthCare. The other authors do not have any competing interest to declare.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The SAVE protocol was approved by the National Ethics Committee of Greece (approval 38/20) and National Organization for Medicines approval (ISO 28/20). The SAVE-MORE protocol was approved by the National Ethics Committee of Greece (approval 161/20) and by the Ethics Committee of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, IRCCS, in Rome (1 February 2021).<br><br>Trial Registration: The SAVE study was prospectively registered prior to enrolling the first patient (EudraCT number 2020-001466-11;ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04357366). The SAVE-MORE study was prospectively registered (EudraCT no. 2020-005828-11;ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04680949). Written informed consent was provided by all patients prior to enrollment.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495792

ABSTRACT

Acute COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10% to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This Review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/chemistry , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Signal Transduction , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophage Activation , Male , Mice , Phospholipids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(6): 514-521, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to analyze the link between autoimmune diseases and environmental factors, in particular severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) as it shares numerous features with the interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases positive for rare autoantibodies directed at highly specific autoantigens (i.e., MDA5 and RIG1) among the intracellular sensors of SARS-CoV-2 in the innate response against viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: As shown in recent publications and in our original data, specific autoantibodies may be functionally relevant to COVID-19 infection. We evaluated sera from 35 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 to identify antinuclear antibodies and autoantibodies directed against specific antigenic targets, and we identified anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 20/35 of patients with COVID-19 (57%), in patients with need for supplemental oxygen (90% vs. 20% in ANA-negative cases; P < 0.0001). In 7/35 COVID-19 sera, we detected anti-MJ/NXP2 (n = 3), anti-RIG1 (n = 2), anti-Scl-70/TOPO1 (n = 1), and anti-MDA5 (n = 1), overall associated with a significantly worse pulmonary involvement at lung computerized tomography scans. Eleven (31%) patients were positive for antibodies against the E2/E3 subunits of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. SUMMARY: Viral infections such as COVID-19 are associated with ANA and autoantibodies directed toward antiviral signaling antigens in particular in patients with worse pulmonary involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Dermatomyositis , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Autoantibodies , Dermatomyositis/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1752-1760, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392877

ABSTRACT

Early increase of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum levels is indicative of increased risk of progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to respiratory failure. The SAVE-MORE double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of anakinra, an IL-1α/ß inhibitor, in 594 patients with COVID-19 at risk of progressing to respiratory failure as identified by plasma suPAR ≥6 ng ml-1, 85.9% (n = 510) of whom were receiving dexamethasone. At day 28, the adjusted proportional odds of having a worse clinical status (assessed by the 11-point World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS)) with anakinra, as compared to placebo, was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.26-0.50). The median WHO-CPS decrease on day 28 from baseline in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points, respectively (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, P < 0.0001); the respective median decrease of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 7 from baseline was 0 and 1 points (OR = 0.63, P = 0.004). Twenty-eight-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio = 0.45, P = 0.045), and hospital stay was shorter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(7): 1857-1864, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152108

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 diagnosis relies on molecular testing for SARS-CoV-2 via nasopharyngeal swab in the presence of suggestive clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. Since bronchoalveolar lavage liquid (BAL) collected during fibrobronchoscopy may increase test sensitivity compared to nasopharyngeal swabs, it was performed during the 2020 pandemic in clinically or radiologically suspected cases. Our aim was to determine whether clinical features, chest computed tomography (CT) findings or laboratory tests may predict patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 at BAL after a negative nasopharyngeal swab. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study with multivariable analysis of suspected patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at BAL after at least one negative nasopharyngeal swab. Univariable logistic regression for odds ratio and multivariate models was calculated to determine clinical, radiological and laboratory predictors. 32/198 (16%) patients had BAL positive for SARS-CoV-2, while 65/198 tested positive for other pathogens at BAL. Of the 32 patients positive for COVID, 4 had a coinfection at BAL, being thus positive both for COVID as well as for another pathogen while the remaining 105 patients were negative for COVID and other pathogens at BAL. COVID-19 patients had more often highly suggestive CT findings, higher number of involved lobes, more often ground glass opacity of more than 50% of lung parenchyma, and less frequently other radiologically suspected infections. At multivariate model, temperature also predicted BAL positivity. The procedure was well tolerated-with only one desaturation episode-while no healthcare worker was infected. In conclusion, when nasopharyngeal swabs are negative but there is clinical or imaging suspicion of COVID-19, BAL represents a complementary diagnostic tool, particularly in conjunction with suggestive/more extensive lung involvement at CT scan. The procedure did not carry increased risks for patients nor for operators, while allowing to free hospital resources, avoiding unnecessary isolations.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Autoimmun ; 117: 102592, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974183

ABSTRACT

The diverse clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is emerging as a hallmark of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. While the initial target of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a complex interaction between the virus and the immune system ranging from mild to controlling responses to exuberant and dysfunctional multi-tissue directed autoimmune responses. The immune system plays a dual role in COVID-19, being implicated in both the anti-viral response and in the acute progression of the disease, with a dysregulated response represented by the marked cytokine release syndrome, macrophage activation, and systemic hyperinflammation. It has been speculated that these immunological changes may induce the loss of tolerance and/or trigger chronic inflammation. In particular, molecular mimicry, bystander activation and epitope spreading are well-established proposed mechanisms to explain this correlation with the likely contribution of HLA alleles. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the COVID-19-related autoimmune/rheumatic disorders reported between January and September 2020. In particular, we investigated the cases of incident hematological autoimmune manifestations, connective tissue diseases, antiphospholipid syndrome/antibodies, vasculitis, Kawasaki-like syndromes, acute arthritis, autoimmune-like skin lesions, and neurologic autoimmune conditions such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We screened 6263 articles and report herein the findings of 382 select reports which allow us to conclude that there are 2 faces of the immune response against SARS-CoV-2, that include a benign virus controlling immune response and a many faceted range of dysregulated multi-tissue and organ directed autoimmune responses that provides a major challenge in the management of this viral disease. The number of cases for each disease varied significantly while there were no reported cases of adult onset Still disease, systemic sclerosis, or inflammatory myositis.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Janus Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Immunity , Incidence , Inflammation
20.
J Autoimmun ; 114: 102511, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635467

ABSTRACT

In cases of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, an excessive host inflammatory response has been reported, with elevated serum interleukin-6 levels. In this multicenter retrospective cohort study we included adult patients with COVID-19, need of respiratory support, and elevated C-reactive protein who received intravenous tocilizumab in addition to standard of care. Control patients not receiving tocilizumab were matched for sex, age and respiratory support. We selected survival as the primary endpoint, along with need for invasive ventilation, thrombosis, hemorrhage, and infections as secondary endpoints at 30 days. We included 64 patients with COVID-19 in the tocilizumab group and 64 matched controls. At baseline the tocilizumab group had longer symptom duration (13 ± 5 vs. 9 ± 5 days) and received hydroxychloroquine more often than controls (100% vs. 81%). The mortality rate was similar between groups (27% with tocilizumab vs. 38%) and at multivariable analysis risk of death was not significantly influenced by tocilizumab (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.33-1.15), while being associated with the use at baseline of non invasive mechanical or invasive ventilation, and the presence of comorbidities. Among secondary outcomes, tocilizumab was associated with a lower probability of requiring invasive ventilation (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.83; P = 0.017) but not with the risk of thrombosis, bleeding, or infections. The use of intravenous tocilizumab was not associated with changes in 30-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 severe respiratory impairment. Among the secondary outcomes there was less use of invasive ventilation in the tocilizumab group.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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