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1.
The New Microbiologica ; 45(1):35, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and flu may lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of the present study is to compare the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and outcome in patients with flu and SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in ICU and undergoing ECMO. This study is a retrospective analysis of the San Matteo COVID-19 Registry (SMACORE) cohort. The study was conducted from January 2018 to April 2020. Demographic data and microbiological data were recorded during hospitalization. BSIs occurring during ECMO were analyzed. Eighteen patients treated with ECMO, 22 subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 7 with flu, median age 61years for SARS-CoV-2 and 50 for flu (p=NS). Median ECMO duration was similar in the two pathologies. Median time to bloodstream infection from ECMO initiation was similar. Bloodstream infection incidence rate was 2.65 per 100 patients/days for flu and 2.2 per 100 patients/days for SARS-CoV-2. Global infection rate was 5 per 100 patients/days for SARS-CoV-2 patients and 5.3 per 100 patients/days for flu. Mortality during ECMO was 40.9% (5 out of 22 patients) for SARS-CoV-2 infection while none died among flu patients. ECMO-associated mortality was higher in SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with flu infection.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325523

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. Methods: All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21 st to March 30 th , 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. Results: 426 adult patients (median age 68 (IQR, 56 to 77 years) were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period;292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4 th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Olderage, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19

3.
Microorganisms ; 9(12)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580570

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in immunocompromised patients remains to be further explored. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity elicited by complete vaccination with BNT162b2 vaccine in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). A cohort of 110 SOTRs from Northern Italy were vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and prospectively monitored at baseline and after 42 days. Both SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered subjects were included. Humoral response elicited by vaccination, including SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs), was evaluated; additionally, ex-vivo ELISpot assay was performed for the quantification of Spike-specific T-cell response. Results were compared with those obtained in a cohort of healthy subjects. In a subset of patients, humoral and T-cell responses against delta variant were also evaluated. Less than 20% of transplanted subjects developed a positive humoral and cell-mediated response after complete vaccination schedule. Overall, median levels of immune response elicited by vaccination were significantly lower with respect to controls in SARS-CoV-2 naïve transplant, but not in SARS-CoV-2 recovered transplanted patients. Additionally, a significant impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated response was observed in mycophenolate-treated patients. Positive delta-SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs levels were detected in almost all the SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects but not in previously uninfected patients. Our study supports previous observations of a low level of seroconversion after vaccination in transplanted patients.

4.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512700

ABSTRACT

The development and persistence of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response in immunocompetent (IC) and immunocompromised patients is crucial for long-term protection. Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection was analysed in 57 IC and 15 solid organ transplanted (TX) patients. Antibody responses were determined by ELISA and neutralization assay. T-cell response was determined by stimulation with peptide pools of the Spike, Envelope, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid proteins with a 20-h Activation Induced Marker (AIM) and 7-day lymphoproliferative assays. Antibody response was detected at similar levels in IC and TX patients. Anti-Spike IgG, IgA and neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least one year, while anti-Nucleocapsid IgG declined earlier. Patients with pneumonia developed higher antibody levels than patients with mild symptoms. Similarly, both rapid and proliferative T-cell responses were detected within the first two months after infection at comparable levels in IC and TX patients, and were higher in patients with pneumonia. T-cell response persisted for at least one year in both IC and TX patients. Spike, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid proteins elicited the major CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, whereas the T-cell response to Envelope protein was negligible. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, antibody and T-cell responses develop rapidly and persist over time in both immunocompetent and transplanted patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Organ Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): e112, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510459

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Fomites , Humans , Risk
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1137, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065934

ABSTRACT

An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21st to March 30th, 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. 426 adult patients [median age 68 (IQR 56 to 77 years)] were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period; 292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Among these 46 patients, updated as of 30 May, 2020, 5 (10.9%) had died, 8 (17.4%) were still in ICU, 12 (26.1%) were transferred to lower intensity care units and 21 (45.7%) were discharged. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Older age, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(11): 1920-1925, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity has been suggested as a possible risk factor for a more severe course of COVID-19; however, conclusive evidence is lacking and few studies have investigated the role of BMI as a risk factor for admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. We retrospectively analyzed a COVID-19 cohort recruited during the first 40 days of the epidemic in Italy. We examined the association between obesity and 30-day mortality, admission to ICU, mortality and length of hospital stay in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Demographic, clinical and outcome data were retrospectively analyzed in 331 patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital between 21 February and 31 March 2020. The predictive effect of obesity on mortality was assessed using a Cox proportional-hazard regression model, its effect on ICU admission and mortality in the ICU using logistic regressions, and its effect on length of hospital stay using a linear regression. Seventy-four of 331 patients had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Among obese patients, 21 (28.4%) required admission in ICU and 25 died (33.8%). After controlling for sex, age, comorbidities and clinical data, obesity was not significantly associated with mortality, mortality in ICU and length of hospital stay. The effect of obesity on ICU admission remained significant after controlling for sex, age, interstitial lung disease, heart disease and serum C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be admitted to ICU than non-obese patients. However, there were no significant differences in mortality between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Obesity/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Haematologica ; 105(12): 2834-2840, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676584

ABSTRACT

Hyperimmune plasma from Covid-19 convalescent is a potential treatment for severe Covid-19. We conducted a multicenter one arm proof of concept interventional study. Patients with Covid-19 disease with moderate-to-severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, elevated C-reactive Protein and need for mechanical ventilation and/or CPAP were enrolled. One to three 250-300 ml unit of hyperimmune plasma (neutralizing antibodies titer ≥1:160) were administered. Primary outcome was 7-days hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were PaO2/FiO2, laboratory and radiologic changes, as well as weaning from mechanical ventilation and safety. The study observed 46 patients from March, 25 to April, 21 2020. Patients were aged 63, 61% male, of them, 30 were on CPAP and 7 intubated. PaO2/FiO2 was 128 (SD 47). Bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray was present in 36 patients (84%). Symptoms and ARDS duration were 14 (SD 7) and 6 days (SD 3). Three patients (6.5%) died within 7 days as compared to an expected 15% from the National Statistics and 30% from a small concurrent cohort of 23 patients. The upper one-sided 90%CI was 13.9%, allowing to reject the null hypothesis of a 15% mortality. PaO2/FiO2 increased by 112 units (95%CI 82 to142) in survivors, the chest radiogram severity decreased in 23% (95%CI 5% to 42%); CRP, Ferritin and LDH decreased by 60, 36 and 20% respectively. Weaning from CPAP was obtained in 26/30 patients and 3/7 were extubated. Five serious adverse events occurred in 4 patients (2 likely, 2 possible treatment related). In conclusion, Hyperimmune plasma in Covid-19 shows promising benefits, to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. This proof of concept study could open to future developments including hyperimmune plasma banking, development of standardized pharmaceutical products and monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Immunization, Passive/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
13.
Liver Int ; 40(11): 2655-2659, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654155

ABSTRACT

Liver impairment is frequent in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and direct viral tropism for the liver has been proven. Since several of the currently administered drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are possibly hepatotoxic, the management of patients with COVID-19 and liver failure is still an almost unexplored field. Taking this challenging case of acute HBV with persistent hyperbilirubinemia and SARS-COV-2 infection with respiratory distress as a starting point, we here loop through this condition. Where the available therapeutic options are scarce, we here propose hemoperfusion (HP) as an attractive alternative to both delay any late-stage progression of hyper inflammation process in COVID-19 and remove the toxins involved in acute liver failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , Registries , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Microorganisms ; 8(7)2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635090

ABSTRACT

The role of immunosuppression in SARS-CoV-2-related disease (COVID-19) is a matter of debate. We here describe the course and the outcome of COVID-19 in a cohort of patients undergoing treatment with calcineurin inhibitors. In this monocentric cohort study, data were collected from the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy up to April 28th 2020. Patients were followed at our hospital for solid organ transplantation or systemic rheumatic disorders (RMDs) and were on calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy. Selected patients were referred from the North of Italy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical course of COVID-19 in this setting. We evaluated 385 consecutive patients (220 males, 57%; median age 61 years, IQR 48-69); 331 (86%) received solid organ transplantation and 54 (14%) had a RMD. CNIs were the only immunosuppressant administered in 47 patients (12%). We identified 14 (4%) COVID-19 patients, all transplanted, mainly presenting with fever (86%) and diarrhea (71%). Twelve patients were hospitalized and two of them died, both with severe comorbidities. No patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome or infectious complications. The surviving 10 patients are now fully recovered. The clinical course of COVID-19 patients on CNIs is generally mild, and the risk of superinfection seems low.

15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(5): 819-824, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401378

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, a new coronavirus strain has been reported in the Chinese province of Wuhan, indicated as 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2. In February 2020, the first case of transmission on Italian soil was reported. On March 09, 2020, at the time of protocol design, the Italian Ministry of Health reported 10,149 people who had contracted the virus; of these, 8514 were positive, of which 5038 were hospitalized with symptoms (59.2%) and 877 in intensive care (10.3%), while the remaining 2599 were in home isolation; 631 were deceased (6.2%) and 1004 healed (9.9%). To date there are no studies in the literature that demonstrate its feasibility and efficacy in the context of the worldwide SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Based upon the little existing evidence, we planned to assess the efficacy of the infusion of hyperimmune plasma in COVID-19 patients in a one-arm proof-of-concept clinical trial. The primary objective of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of the administration of plasma taken from convalescent donors of COVID-19 to critically ill patients with COVID-19 in terms of their survival. Death from any cause will be considered. The main limit of this study is its one-arm proof-of-concept design with only 43 patients enrolled. However, in the absence of previous evidence, larger and/or randomized trials did not appear to be ethically acceptable. Moreover, the results from this study, if encouraging, will allow us to plan further informed large clinical trials. Trial registration: NCT04321421 March 23, 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1882-1884, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-291819

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can vary from an asymptomatic course to ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A kidney transplanted patient infected with SARS CoV-2 infection showed a mild disease despite immune suppression. It is possible that Immunosuppression can "be protective" as the cytokine storm is an important factor in the disease story. Despite the good outcome reported in the present case report, is remains of vital importance the solid organ transplant patients use precautions in order to avoid the infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Cytokines/metabolism , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/surgery , Humans , /methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(16)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108685

ABSTRACT

We describe clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of 44 Caucasian patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at a single hospital in Pavia, Italy, from 21-28 February 2020, at the beginning of the outbreak in Europe. Seventeen patients developed severe disease, two died. After a median of 6 days, 14 patients were discharged from hospital. Predictors of lower odds of discharge were age > 65 years, antiviral treatment and for severe disease, lactate dehydrogenase > 300 mg/dL.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Europe , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
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