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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 241-245, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to compare the rate of progression of myopia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the risk factors of hastened progression. METHODS: All children with myopia of spherical equivalence ≤ -0.5 D with at least two prior documented refractions 6 months and 1 year before were included. The annual progression rate before COVID-19 and during COVID-19 was calculated. Annual myopia progression was categorized as no progression (0), slow progression (<1 D), and fast progression (≥1 D). RESULTS: A total of 133 children (266 eyes) aged 6-18 years were included in the study. Mean annual myopia progression was found to be statistically significant during COVID-19 as compared with pre-COVID-19 (0.90 vs 0.25 D, P < 0.00001). A total of 45.9% of children showed an annual progression of ≥1 D during the pandemic as compared with 10.5% before the COVID-19 (p < 0.00001). In multivariate analysis, history of rapid progression in pre-COVID-19 era (P = 0.002) and sun exposure <1 h/day (P < 0.00001) were found to be independent risk factors for rapid myopia progression. CONCLUSION: Parents should consider risk of rapid myopia progression in children during current pandemic and children should be provided with socially distant outdoor activities to increase their sun exposure and diminish the rate of myopia progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Child , Disease Progression , Humans , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Refraction, Ocular , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2824-2827, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441261

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare the post-cataract endophthalmitis (PCE) rates among eyes undergoing syringing or regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac (ROPLAS) test prior to cataract surgery. Methods: We performed a single-center, retrospective, comparative analysis of eyes developing PCE who underwent syringing prior to cataract surgery (group A) in the pre-COVID-19 era between November 1 2019 and January 31, 2020 and the eyes that underwent ROPLAS test prior to cataract surgery (group B) in the COVID-19 era between November 1, 2020 and January 31, 2021. Results: A total of 87,144 eyes underwent cataract surgery during the two time periods of the study. Syringing was performed in 48,071 eyes, whereas ROPLAS was performed in 39,073 eyes. In group A, 19 eyes (0.039%) developed PCE, whereas 20 eyes (0.051%) developed PCE in group B (P = 0.517). Between the two groups, the grade of anterior chamber cellular reaction (P = 0.675), hypopyon (P = 0.738), and vitreous haze (P = 0.664) were comparable. Gram-positive organisms were detected in 4 eyes in group A and 6 eyes in group B; 2 eyes in group A had gram-negative bacilli. The presenting visual acuity (Group A: LogMAR 1.42 and Group B: LogMAR 1.30) and final visual acuity (Group A: LogMAR 0.52 and Group B: LogMAR 0.5) were comparable between the two groups. (P = 0.544 and 0.384, respectively). Conclusion: The rates of PCE were comparable among the eyes undergoing either syringing test or ROPLAS prior to cataract surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Endophthalmitis , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction , Nasolacrimal Duct , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/epidemiology , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/etiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 58(4): 224-231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319770

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To subjectively evaluate the degree of visual fatigue in children attending online classes during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and objectively evaluate accommodation and vergence dysfunction in these children. METHODS: Children aged between 10 and 17 years with recent onset of asthenopia symptoms were included. Symptoms were evaluated using the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) questionnaire. A CISS score of 16 or greater was considered symptomatic. Binocular vergence and accommodation parameters were objectively evaluated. For ease of comparison, children were divided into two groups: children using digital devices for less than 4 hours/day and children using digital devices for 4 hours/day or more. RESULTS: A total of 46 children with a mean age of 14.47 ± 1.95 years were evaluated. The mean duration of online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic was 3.08 ± 1.68 hours/day, which is higher than before the COVID-19 pandemic (0.58 ± 0.71 hours/day, P < .00001). The mean CISS scores were 21.73 ± 12.81 for children using digital devices less than 4 hours/day and 30.34 ± 13.0 for children using digital devices for 4 hours/day or more (P = .019). Mean near exophoria (P = .03), negative fusional vergence (P = .02), negative relative accommodation (P = .057), and accommodation amplitude (P = .002) were different between the two groups. The Spearman correlation between the symptomatic CISS score and the duration of online classes showed a linear association (coefficient rs = 0.39; P = .007). In the multivariate analysis, only the duration of online classes longer than 4 hours was a significant risk factor (P = .07) for the symptomatic CISS score. CONCLUSIONS: Online classes longer than 4 hours were more detrimental to abnormal binocular vergence and accommodation parameters than online classes shorter than 4 hours. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2021;58(4):224-231.].


Subject(s)
Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Convergence, Ocular/physiology , Ocular Motility Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Adolescent , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Strabismus ; 29(3): 163-167, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294592

ABSTRACT

Extra time of sitting in front of a digital device is required for e-learning by children during Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic which can lead to many ocular problems including digital eye strain (DES). In view of increased incidence of DES in children, multiple studies had been conducted in central India to assess the eye strain in children due to excessive online classes as a research project named "Digital eye strain among kids (DESK) study." This study DESK-3 aimed to report series of cases of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) in children attending online classes during COVID-19 pandemic. Children aged 6-18 years with recent onset of esotropia of < 1-month duration without any similar history in past presented in month of July-August 2020 at a tertiary children eye care hospital were evaluated. Data collection included age and gender of child, presence or absence of diplopia, visual acuity, duration of smartphone use, duration of online classes, angle of deviation for near and distance and cycloplegic refraction. Total eight children of AACE were included in the study. The mean age of children was 12.5 ± 4.2 years. All eight were males. The mean duration of smartphone use was 4.6 + 0.7 hours per day. All children were attending online classes > 4 hours per day on smartphone of average size 5.5 inches. Five children were emmetropic, one myopic, one pseudomyopic and one hyperopic. The angle of deviation for near and distance were 48.1 ± 16.4 PD and 49.3 ± 15.9 PD respectively with normal ocular motility. Seven children complained of horizontal diplopia in all gazes. Neurological examination and CT scan of brain and orbit was normal in all patients.  Two months before the lockdown only one case was identified as compared to eight during the lockdown. Prolonged near work during smart phone use for e-learning might lead to the development of AACE in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esotropia , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Esotropia/epidemiology , Esotropia/etiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(1): 140-144, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979175

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine prevalence, symptoms frequency and associated risk factors of digital eye strain (DES) among children attending online classes during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The online electronic survey form was prepared on the Google app. Children/parents were asked to indicate the total duration of digital device use before and during COVID era. The symptoms of DES, its severity and frequency were recorded & measured with the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire. Results: Two hundred and sixty one parents responded to the questionnaire, of these 217 were complete. Mean age of children was 13 ± 2.45 years. Mean duration of digital device used during COVID era was 3.9 ± 1.9 h which is more than pre COVID era (1.9 ± 1.1 h, P = <0.0001). 36.9% (n = 80) were using digital devices >5 h in COVID era as compared to 1.8% (n = 4) before COVID era. The most common digital device used were smartphones (n = 134, 61.7%). One hundred and eight children (49.8%) were attending online classes for >2 h per day. Prevalence of DES in our cohort is 50.23% (109/217). Of these 26.3% were mild, 12.9% moderate and 11.1% of severe grade. Most common symptoms were itching and headache (n = 117, 53.9%). Multivariate analysis revealed age >14 years (P = 0.04), male gender (P = 0.0004), smartphone use (P = 0.003), use of device >5 h (P = 0.0007) and mobile games >1 h/day (P = 0.0001) as independent risk factors for DES in children. Conclusion: There is an increased prevalence of DES among children in COVID era. Parents should be considerate about duration, type and distance of digital device use to avoid DES symptoms in children.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Video Games/adverse effects , Adolescent , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
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