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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389177

ABSTRACT

We describe the unique disease course and cure of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with SCID and graft failure. In absence of a humoral immune response, viral clearance was only achieved after transfusion of convalescent plasma. This observation underscores the necessity of the humoral immune response for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Graft Rejection/complications , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/immunology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/virology , Sustained Virologic Response , Viral Load , Virus Replication
2.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(5): e04068, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242709

ABSTRACT

This case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC-CIP) emphasizes the need to provide follow-up care for patients that have recovered from COVID-19 in order to understand the complexity of SARS-CoV-2 associated sequela.

3.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206004

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected over 120 million people and killed over 2.7 million individuals by March 2021. While acute and intermediate interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system have been studied extensively, long-term impacts on the cellular immune system remain to be analyzed. Here, we comprehensively characterized immunological changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 49 COVID-19-convalescent individuals (CI) in comparison to 27 matched SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals (UI). Despite recovery from the disease for more than 2 months, CI showed significant decreases in frequencies of invariant NKT and NKT-like cells compared to UI. Concomitant with the decrease in NKT-like cells, an increase in the percentage of annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) double-positive NKT-like cells was detected, suggesting that the reduction in NKT-like cells results from cell death months after recovery. Significant increases in regulatory T cell frequencies and TIM-3 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells were also observed in CI, while the cytotoxic potential of T cells and NKT-like cells, defined by granzyme B (GzmB) expression, was significantly diminished. However, both CD4 and CD8 T cells of CI showed increased Ki67 expression and were fully able to proliferate and produce effector cytokines upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Collectively, we provide a comprehensive characterization of immune signatures in patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the cellular immune system of COVID-19 patients is still under a sustained influence even months after the recovery from disease.IMPORTANCE Wuhan was the very first city hit by SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, the patients who experienced the longest phase of convalescence following COVID-19 reside here. This enabled us to investigate the "immunological scar" left by SARS-CoV-2 on cellular immunity after recovery from the disease. In this study, we characterized the long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the immune system and provide a comprehensive picture of cellular immunity of a convalescent COVID-19 patient cohort with the longest recovery time. We revealed that the cellular immune system of COVID-19 patients is still under a sustained influence even months after the recovery from disease; in particular, a profound NKT cell impairment was found in the convalescent phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Immunity, Cellular , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Adult , Apoptosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(5): 1063-1071, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061091

ABSTRACT

Evaluation and power of seroprevalence studies depend on the performed serological assays. The aim of this study was to assess four commercial serological tests from EUROIMMUN, DiaSorin, Abbott, and Roche as well as an in-house immunofluorescence and neutralization test for their capability to identify SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals in a high-prevalence setting. Therefore, 42 social and working contacts of a German super-spreader were tested. Consistent with a high-prevalence setting, 26 of 42 were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive by neutralization test (NT), and immunofluorescence test (IFT) confirmed 23 of these 26 positive test results (NT 61.9% and IFT 54.8% seroprevalence). Four commercial assays detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 33.3-40.5% individuals. Besides an overall discrepancy between the NT and the commercial assays regarding their sensitivity, this study revealed that commercial SARS-CoV-2 spike-based assays are better to predict the neutralization titer than nucleoprotein-based assays are.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
5.
J Clin Virol ; 130: 104579, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fast and reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for efficient control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the high demand for SARS-CoV-2 testing there is a worldwide shortage of RNA extraction reagents. Therefore, extraction-free RT-qPCR protocols are urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: To establish a rapid RT-qPCR protocol for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 without the need of RNA extraction suitable for all respiratory materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Different SARS-CoV-2 positive respiratory materials from our routine laboratory were used as crude material after heat inactivation in direct RT-qPCR with the PrimeDirect™ Probe RT-qPCR Mix (TaKaRa). SARS-CoV-2 was detected using novel primers targeted to the E-gene. RESULTS: The protocol for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in crude material used a prepared frozen-PCR mix with optimized primers and 5 µl of fresh, undiluted and pre-analytically heat inactivated respiratory material. For validation, 91 respiratory samples were analyzed in direct comparison to classical RNA-based RT-qPCR. Overall 81.3 % of the samples were detected in both assays with a strong correlation between both Ct values (r = 0.8492, p < 0.0001). The SARS-CoV-2 detection rate by direct RT-qPCR was 95.8 % for Ct values <35. All negative samples were characterized by low viral loads (Ct >35) and/or long storage times before sample processing. CONCLUSION: Direct RT-qPCR is a suitable alternative to classical RNA RT-qPCR, provided that only fresh samples (storage <1 week) are used. RNA extraction should be considered if samples have longer storage times or if PCR inhibition is observed. In summary, this protocol is fast, inexpensive and suitable for all respiratory materials.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory System/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA Primers/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
6.
Euro Surveill ; 25(22)2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525969

ABSTRACT

We whole-genome sequenced 55 SARS-CoV-2 isolates from Germany to investigate SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in 2020 in the Heinsberg district and Düsseldorf. While the genetic structure of the Heinsberg outbreak indicates a clonal origin, reflecting superspreading dynamics from mid-February during the carnival season, distinct viral strains were circulating in Düsseldorf in March, reflecting the city's international links. Limited detection of Heinsberg strains in the Düsseldorf area despite geographical proximity may reflect efficient containment and contact-tracing efforts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
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