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1.
Nature ; 599(7883): 114-119, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114880

ABSTRACT

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1. In vitro, B.1.617.2 is sixfold less sensitive to serum neutralizing antibodies from recovered individuals, and eightfold less sensitive to vaccine-elicited antibodies, compared with wild-type Wuhan-1 bearing D614G. Serum neutralizing titres against B.1.617.2 were lower in ChAdOx1 vaccinees than in BNT162b2 vaccinees. B.1.617.2 spike pseudotyped viruses exhibited compromised sensitivity to monoclonal antibodies to the receptor-binding domain and the amino-terminal domain. B.1.617.2 demonstrated higher replication efficiency than B.1.1.7 in both airway organoid and human airway epithelial systems, associated with B.1.617.2 spike being in a predominantly cleaved state compared with B.1.1.7 spike. The B.1.617.2 spike protein was able to mediate highly efficient syncytium formation that was less sensitive to inhibition by neutralizing antibody, compared with that of wild-type spike. We also observed that B.1.617.2 had higher replication and spike-mediated entry than B.1.617.1, potentially explaining the B.1.617.2 dominance. In an analysis of more than 130 SARS-CoV-2-infected health care workers across three centres in India during a period of mixed lineage circulation, we observed reduced ChAdOx1 vaccine effectiveness against B.1.617.2 relative to non-B.1.617.2, with the caveat of possible residual confounding. Compromised vaccine efficacy against the highly fit and immune-evasive B.1.617.2 Delta variant warrants continued infection control measures in the post-vaccination era.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Kinetics , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination
2.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(6): 511-524, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031555

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy (CPT). Materials and Methods: A series of subclass analyses were performed on the previously published outcome data and accompanying clinical metadata from a completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Clinical Trial Registry of India, number CTRI/2020/05/025209). The subclass analyses were performed on the outcome data and accompanying clinical metadata from a completed RCT (patient recruitment between May 15, 2020 and October 31, 2020). Data on the plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines from the same cohort of patients were also used to characterize the heterogeneity of the putative anti-inflammatory function of convalescent plasma (CP) in addition to passively providing neutralizing antibodies. Results: Although the primary clinical outcomes were not significantly different in the RCT across all age groups, significant immediate mitigation of hypoxia, reduction in hospital stay, and significant survival benefit were registered in younger (<67 years in our cohort) patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and acute respiratory distress syndrome on receiving CPT. In addition to neutralizing the antibody content of CP, its anti-inflammatory proteome, by attenuation of the systemic cytokine deluge, significantly contributed to the clinical benefits of CPT. Conclusion: Subgroup analyses revealed that clinical benefits of CPT in severe coronavirus disease 2019 are linked to the anti-inflammatory protein content of CP apart from the anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing antibody content.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1726, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773977

ABSTRACT

Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccines while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies of an observational cohort of healthcare workers, we show that during a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -Coronavirus 2 Delta-variant outbreak in Delhi, 25.3% (95% Confidence Interval 16.9-35.2) of previously uninfected, ChAdOx1-nCoV19 double vaccinated, healthcare workers were infected within less than two months, based on serology. Induction of anti-spike response was similar between groups with breakthrough infection (541 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 374) and without (342 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 497), as was the induction of neutralization activity to wildtype. This was not vaccine failure since vaccine effectiveness estimate based on infection rates in an unvaccinated cohort were about 70% and most infections were asymptomatic. We find that while ChAdOx1-nCoV19 vaccination remains effective in preventing severe infections, it is unlikely to be completely able to block transmission and provide herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 383, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636827

ABSTRACT

A single center open label phase 2 randomised control trial (Clinical Trial Registry of India No. CTRI/2020/05/025209) was done to assess clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy. At the Infectious Diseases and Beleghata General Hospital in Kolkata, India, 80 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 disease and fulfilling the inclusion criteria (aged more than 18 years, with either mild ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 200-300 or moderate ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 100-200, not on mechanical ventilation) were recruited and randomized into either standard of care (SOC) arm (N = 40) or the convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) arm (N = 40). Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality by day 30 of enrolment and immunological correlates of response to therapy if any, for which plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines was quantitated before and after intervention to assess the effect of CPT on the systemic hyper-inflammation encountered in these patients. The secondary outcomes were recovery from ARDS and time taken to negative viral RNA PCR as well as to report any adverse reaction to plasma therapy. Transfused convalescent plasma was characterized in terms of its neutralizing antibody content as well as proteome. The trial was completed and it was found that primary outcome of all-cause mortality was not significantly different among severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS randomized to two treatment arms (Mantel-Haenszel Hazard Ratio 0.6731, 95% confidence interval 0.3010-1.505, with a P value of 0.3424 on Mantel-Cox Log-rank test). No adverse effect was reported with CPT. In severe COVID-19 patients with mild or moderate ARDS no significant clinical benefit was registered in this clinical trial with convalescent plasma therapy in terms of prespecified outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Passive , India , Inflammation , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
5.
Science ; 374(6570): 995-999, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526449

ABSTRACT

Delhi, the national capital of India, experienced multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks in 2020 and reached population seropositivity of >50% by 2021. During April 2021, the city became overwhelmed by COVID-19 cases and fatalities, as a new variant, B.1.617.2 (Delta), replaced B.1.1.7 (Alpha). A Bayesian model explains the growth advantage of Delta through a combination of increased transmissibility and reduced sensitivity to immune responses generated against earlier variants (median estimates: 1.5-fold greater transmissibility and 20% reduction in sensitivity). Seropositivity of an employee and family cohort increased from 42% to 87.5% between March and July 2021, with 27% reinfections, as judged by increased antibody concentration after a previous decline. The likely high transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity by the Delta variant contributed to an overwhelming surge in Delhi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Humans , Immune Evasion , India/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Reinfection , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518484

ABSTRACT

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) led to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A systemic hyper-inflammation characterizes severe COVID-19 disease, often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Blood biomarkers capable of risk stratification are of great importance in effective triage and critical care of severe COVID-19 patients. Flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing were done on peripheral blood cells and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and cytokines were measured from and mass spectrometry-based proteomics was done on plasma samples from an Indian cohort of COVID-19 patients. Publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed for validation of primary data. Statistical analyses were performed to validate risk stratification. We report here higher plasma abundance of suPAR, expressed by an abnormally expanded myeloid cell population, in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The plasma suPAR level was found to be linked to a characteristic plasma proteome, associated with coagulation disorders and complement activation. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis to predict mortality identified a cutoff value of suPAR at 1,996.809 pg/ml (odds ratio: 2.9286, 95% confidence interval 1.0427-8.2257). Lower-than-cutoff suPAR levels were associated with a differential expression of the immune transcriptome as well as favorable clinical outcomes, in terms of both survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0.3615, 95% confidence interval 0.1433-0.912) and faster disease remission in our patient cohort. Thus, we identified suPAR as a key pathogenic circulating molecule linking systemic hyperinflammation to the hypercoagulable state and stratifying clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Proteome/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
7.
J Proteins Proteom ; 11(3): 159-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747107

ABSTRACT

In the last few months, there has been a global catastrophic outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 affecting millions of people worldwide. Early diagnosis and isolation are key to contain the rapid spread of the virus. Towards this goal, we report a simple, sensitive and rapid method to detect the virus using a targeted mass spectrometric approach, which can directly detect the presence of virus from naso-oropharyngeal swabs. Using a multiple reaction monitoring we can detect the presence of two peptides specific to SARS-CoV-2 in a 2.3 min gradient run with 100% specificity and 90.5% sensitivity when compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, we further show that these peptides could be detected even in the patients who have recovered from the symptoms and have tested negative for the virus by RT-PCR highlighting the sensitivity of the technique. This method has the translational potential of in terms of the rapid diagnostics of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 and can augment current methods available for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

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