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Front Microbiol ; 13: 895695, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009881


The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants has created a catastrophic impact worldwide. Several variants have emerged, including B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.1.28/triple mutant (P.1), B.1.1.7 (Alpha), and B.1.429 (Epsilon). We performed comparative and comprehensive antigenicity mapping of the total S-glycoprotein using the Wuhan strain and the other variants and identified 9-mer, 15-mer, and 20-mer CTL epitopes through in silico analysis. The study found that 9-mer CTL epitope regions in the B.1.1.7 variant had the highest antigenicity and an average of the three epitope types. Cluster analysis of the 9-mer CTL epitopes depicted one significant cluster at the 70% level with two nodes (KGFNCYFPL and EGFNCYFPL). The phage-displayed peptides showed mimic 9-mer CTL epitopes with three clusters. CD spectra analysis showed the same band pattern of S-glycoprotein of Wuhan strain and all variants other than B.1.429. The developed 3D model of the superantigen (SAg)-like regions found an interaction pattern with the human TCR, indicating that the SAg-like component might interact with the TCR beta chain. The present study identified another partial SAg-like region (ANQFNSAIGKI) from the S-glycoprotein. Future research should examine the molecular mechanism of antigen processing for CD8+ T cells, especially all the variants' antigens of S-glycoprotein.