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1.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150095

ABSTRACT

Objectives The emergence of the Alpha variant of novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) is a concerning issue but their clinical implications have not been investigated fully. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study to compare severity and mortality caused by the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) with the one caused by the wild type as a control from December 2020 to March 2021, using whole-genome sequencing. 28-day mortality and other clinically important outcomes were evaluated. Results Infections caused by the Alpha variant were associated with an increase in the use of oxygen (43.4% vs 26.3%. p = 0.017), high flow nasal cannula (21.2% vs 4.0%, p = 0.0007), mechanical ventilation (16.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.049), ICU care (30.3% vs 14.1%, p = 0.01) and the length of hospital stay (17 vs 10 days, p = 0.031). More patients with the Alpha variant received medications such as dexamethasone. However, the duration of each modality did not differ between the 2 groups. Likewise, there was no difference in 28-day mortality between the 2 groups (12% vs 8%, p = 0.48), even after multiple sensitivity analyses, including propensity score analysis. Conclusion The Alpha variant was associated with a severe form of COVID-19, compared with the non-Alpha wild type, but might not be associated with higher mortality.

2.
Respir Investig ; 60(5): 694-703, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from saving the lives of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients on mechanical ventilation (MV), recovery from the sequelae of prolonged MV (PMV) is an emerging issue.c METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among consecutive adult COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Kobe, Japan, between March 3, 2020, and January 31, 2021, and received invasive MV. Clinical outcomes included in-hospital mortality and recovery from COVID-19 in survivors regarding organ dysfunction, respiratory symptoms, and functional status at discharge. We compared survivors' outcomes with MV durations of >14 days and ≤14 days. RESULTS: We included 85 patients with a median age of 69 years (interquartile range, 64-75 years); 76 (89%) patients had at least 1 comorbidity, 72 (85%) were non-frail, and 79 (93%) were functionally independent before COVID-19 infection. Eighteen patients (21%) died during hospitalization. At discharge, 59/67 survivors (88%) no longer required respiratory support, 50 (75%) complained of dyspnea, and 40 (60%) were functionally independent. Of the survivors, 23 patients receiving MV for >14 days had a worse recovery from COVID-19 at discharge compared with those on MV for ≤14 days, as observed using the Barthel index (median: 35 [5-65] vs. 100 [85-100]), ICU mobility scale (8 [5-9] vs. 10 [10-10]), and functional oral intake scale (3 [1-7] vs. 7 [7-7]) (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Although four-fifths of the patients survived and >50% of survivors demonstrated clinically important recovery in organ function and functional status during hospitalization, PMV was related to poor recovery from COVID-19 at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Patient-Centered Care , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 501-508, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities have poor prognoses. Our aim was to identify the impact of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is associated with mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome, on the prognoses of patients with COVID-19 and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities. METHODS: Among 1518 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 enrolled in the CLAVIS-COVID (Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Infection in Hospitalized Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and/or Risk Factors study), 515 patients with cardiovascular comorbidities were analyzed. Patients were divided into tertiles based on LDH levels at admission [tertile 1 (T1), <235 U/L; tertile 2 (T2), 235-355 U/L; and tertile 3 (T3); ≥356 U/L]. We investigated the impact of LDH levels on the in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.4 ± 30.0 years, and 65.3% were male. There were significantly more in-hospital deaths in T3 than in T1 and T2 [n = 50 (29.2%) vs. n = 15 (8.7%), and n = 24 (14.0%), respectively; p < 0.001]. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, comorbidities, vital signs, and laboratory data including D-dimer and high-sensitivity troponin showed T3 was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-6.13; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: High serum LDH levels at the time of admission are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19 and known cardiovascular disease and may aid in triage of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Anesth ; 35(2): 213-221, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042487

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a great burden on critical care services worldwide. Data regarding critically ill COVID-19 patients and their demand of critical care services outside of initial COVID-19 epicenters are lacking. This study described clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients and the capacity of a COVID-19-dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) in Kobe, Japan. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to a 14-bed COVID-19-dedicated ICU in Kobe between March 3, 2020 and June 21, 2020. Clinical and daily ICU occupancy data were obtained from electrical medical records. The last follow-up day was June 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of 32 patients included, the median hospital follow-up period was 27 (interquartile range 19-50) days. The median age was 68 (57-76) years; 23 (72%) were men and 25 (78%) had at least one comorbidity. Nineteen (59%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation for a median duration of 14 (8-27) days. Until all patients were discharged from the ICU on June 5, 2020, the median daily ICU occupancy was 50% (36-71%). As of June 28, 2020, six (19%) died during hospitalization. Of 26 (81%) survivors, 23 (72%) were discharged from the hospital and three (9%) remained in the hospital. CONCLUSION: During the first months of the outbreak in Kobe, most critically ill patients were men aged ≥ 60 years with at least one comorbidity and on mechanical ventilation; the ICU capacity was not strained, and the case-fatality rate was 19%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aged , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Japan , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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