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J Infect ; 84(6): 795-813, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778315


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the persistence of immunogenicity three months after third dose boosters. METHODS: COV-BOOST is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial of seven COVID-19 vaccines used as a third booster dose. The analysis was conducted using all randomised participants who were SARS-CoV-2 naïve during the study. RESULTS: Amongst the 2883 participants randomised, there were 2422 SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants until D84 visit included in the analysis with median age of 70 (IQR: 30-94) years. In the participants who had two initial doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca; hereafter referred to as ChAd), schedules using mRNA vaccines as third dose have the highest anti-spike IgG at D84 (e.g. geometric mean concentration of 8674 ELU/ml (95% CI: 7461-10,085) following ChAd/ChAd/BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, hearafter referred to as BNT)). However, in people who had two initial doses of BNT there was no significant difference at D84 in people given ChAd versus BNT (geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 0.95 (95%CI: 0.78, 1.15). Also, people given Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen; hereafter referred to as Ad26) as a third dose had significantly higher anti-spike IgG at D84 than BNT (GMR of 1.20, 95%CI: 1.01,1.43). Responses at D84 between people who received BNT (15 µg) or BNT (30 µg) after ChAd/ChAd or BNT/BNT were similar, with anti-spike IgG GMRs of half-BNT (15 µg) versus BNT (30 µg) ranging between 0.74-0.86. The decay rate of cellular responses were similar between all the vaccine schedules and doses. CONCLUSIONS: 84 days after a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine the decay rates of humoral response were different between vaccines. Adenoviral vector vaccine anti-spike IgG concentrations at D84 following BNT/BNT initial doses were similar to or even higher than for a three dose (BNT/BNT/BNT) schedule. Half dose BNT immune responses were similar to full dose responses. While high antibody tires are desirable in situations of high transmission of new variants of concern, the maintenance of immune responses that confer long-lasting protection against severe disease or death is also of critical importance. Policymakers may also consider adenoviral vector, fractional dose of mRNA, or other non-mRNA vaccines as third doses.

COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
BMJ Paediatrics Open ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1685635


BackgroundModerate to severe pain affects up to two-thirds of children with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and is associated with worse fatigue and physical functioning. This research aims to gain a greater insight into pain experienced by these children.MethodsThematic analysis of qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 13 children with CFS/ME (mean age=15.3 years, 67% female) was completed.ResultsThematic analysis enabled construction of three themes: children’s wide-ranging experiences of pain, negative impact of pain and lack of effective treatment for pain and nine subthemes. The first theme demonstrated highly varied pain experiences, ranging from ‘like [being]… on fire’, like ‘being stabbed’ to ‘like…lead’. Children experienced pain in multiple sites and with wide-ranging frequency and severity. The second theme highlighted the profound negative impact of pain on multiple aspects of children’s lives. Physical activity was severely impaired;some children ‘couldn’t leave bed’ or ‘couldn’t…brush [their] own hair’. Abdominal pain meant some would ‘go…days without eating’. Pain substantially impacted on mental health, leaving children feeling ‘agitated’, experiencing ‘really bad panic attacks’ or making them ‘[want to] breakdown’. Children felt they ‘can’t do the things that everyone else can do’, had ‘missed out’ and are ‘behind everyone’. Some avoided socialising as they ‘don’t want to stop everyone else’. The final theme demonstrates the absence of adequate treatment for pain, with participants reporting ‘nothing has ever really got rid of it’ and only ‘slightly [takes] the edge off’ and other experiencing side effects.ConclusionsPain in paediatric CFS/ME is highly variable, common and often results in severe physical limitation and poor mental health. Effective treatments for pain represent an unmet need.

Br J Clin Psychol ; 61(2): 313-334, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416287


OBJECTIVES: Periods of social isolation are associated with loneliness in children and young people, and loneliness is associated with poor mental and physical health. Children and young people with pre-existing mental health difficulties may be prone to loneliness. Containment of COVID-19 has necessitated widespread social isolation, with unprecedented school closures and restrictions imposed on social interactions. This rapid review aimed to establish what is known about the relationship between loneliness and mental health problems in children and young people with pre-existing mental health problems. METHODS: We sought to identify all primary research that examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between loneliness/perceived social isolation and mental health in children and young people with pre-existing mental health problems. We also aimed to identify effective interventions that reduce the adverse impact of loneliness. A rapid systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Of 4,531 papers screened, 15 included children and young people with pre-existing mental health conditions. These 15 studies included 1,536 children and young people aged between 6 and 23 years with social phobia, anxiety and/or depression, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Loneliness was associated with anxiety and depression both cross-sectionally and prospectively in children and young people with mental health problems and neurodevelopmental conditions. We found preliminary evidence that psychological treatments can help to reduce feelings of loneliness in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with depression and anxiety in children and young people with pre-existing mental health conditions, and this relationship may be bidirectional. Existing interventions to address loneliness and/or mental health difficulties in other contexts may be applied to this population, although they may need adaptation and testing in younger children and adolescents. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Loneliness is common in children and young people, and during periods of enforced social isolation such as during COVID-19, children and young people report high levels of loneliness (or increased rates of loneliness). The review showed that loneliness is associated, both cross-sectionally and prospectively, in children and young people with mental health problems and also in children and young people with neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder. Thus, loneliness is a possible risk factor of which mental health providers should be aware. Maintaining social contact both by direct and by indirect means, especially through the Internet, could be important in mitigating loneliness. Interventions to address loneliness should be further developed and tested to help children and young people with pre-existing mental health problems who are lonely by preventing exacerbation of their mental health difficulties, in particular anxiety and depression.

Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Young Adult