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Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 253-263, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966091


OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children in Spain and analyze the predictors of the etiology. HYPOTHESIS: The different etiological groups of pediatric CAP are associated with different clinical, radiographic, and analytical data. DESIGN: Observational, multicenter, and prospective study. PATIENT SELECTION: This study included children aged 1 month to 17 years with CAP, who were hospitalized between April 2012 and May 2019. METHODS: An extensive microbiological workup was performed. The clinical, radiographic, and analytical parameters were analyzed for three etiological groups. RESULTS: Among the 495 children included, at least one causative pathogen was identified in 262 (52.9%): pathogenic viruses in 155/262 (59.2%); atypical bacteria (AB), mainly Mycoplasma pneumonia, in 84/262 (32.1%); and typical bacteria (TyB) in 40/262 (15.3%). Consolidation was observed in 89/138 (64.5%) patients with viral CAP, 74/84 (88.1%) with CAP caused by AB, and 40/40 (100%) with CAP caused by TyB. Para-pneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) was observed in 112/495 (22.6%) patients, of which 61/112 (54.5%) presented a likely causative pathogen: viruses in 12/61 (19.7%); AB in 23/61 (37.7%); and TyB in 26/61 (42.6%). Viral etiology was significantly frequent in young patients and in those with low oxygen saturation, wheezing, no consolidation, and high lymphocyte counts. CAP patients with AB as the etiological agent had a significantly longer and less serious course as compared to those with other causative pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Viruses and M. pneumoniae are the main causes of pediatric CAP in Spain. Wheezing, young age, and no consolidation on radiographs are indicative of viral etiology. Viruses and AB can also cause PPE. Since only a few cases can be directly attributed to TyB, the indications for antibiotics must be carefully considered in each patient.

Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Viruses , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Oxygen Saturation , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): e397-e401, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387751


Some clusters of children with a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. We describe the epidemiological and clinical features of children with MIS-C in Spain. MIS-C is a potentially severe condition that presents in children with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): e287-e293, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305449


BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify risk factors causing critical disease in hospitalized children with COVID-19 and to build a predictive model to anticipate the probability of need for critical care. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 52 Spanish hospitals. The primary outcome was the need for critical care. We used a multivariable Bayesian model to estimate the probability of needing critical care. RESULTS: The study enrolled 350 children from March 12, 2020, to July 1, 2020: 292 (83.4%) and 214 (73.7%) were considered to have relevant COVID-19, of whom 24.2% required critical care. Four major clinical syndromes of decreasing severity were identified: multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (17.3%), bronchopulmonary (51.4%), gastrointestinal (11.6%), and mild syndrome (19.6%). Main risk factors were high C-reactive protein and creatinine concentration, lymphopenia, low platelets, anemia, tachycardia, age, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and low oxygen saturation. These risk factors increased the risk of critical disease depending on the syndrome: the more severe the syndrome, the more risk the factors conferred. Based on our findings, we developed an online risk prediction tool (, username: user, password: 0000). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include inflammation, cytopenia, age, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction. The more severe the syndrome, the more the risk factor increases the risk of critical illness. Risk of severe disease can be predicted with a Bayesian model.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology